Marc's Translations on War and Peace

Translated Articles on Human Rights, Liberation Theology, Economic Ethics, Political Theory, Anti-Militarism, International Law, Trinitarian Theology and the Jewish-Christian Dialogue

Enjoy the feast!


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Marc Batko                                                                                            

Portland, OR


Special thanks to:

                               brother Bill,

                               Yu Xia, webmaster,

                               the Minnesota radical,

                               voices of resistance,

                               the stone hewn from the mountain

                               without human hands (Daniel),

                               the child as our teacher,

                               thoughts that wound from behind,

                               Soren Kierkegaard and Saint Francis,

                               MLK, Oscar Romero,

                               Dorothee Soelle, Jurgen Moltmann,

                               Eberhard Juengel, Franz Hinkelammert,

                               Kaspar Hauser and The Tin Drum,

                               the invisible son

                               giving his peace to everyone,

                               fighters against narcissism,















                               all signs of the bright future

                               defying trickle-down hocus pocus
Massive Oil Spill Solution Already Exists - Mark Warren
"In Flight From Reality" by Cary Fraser



“VIDEO: Hijacking Catastrophe”

“VIDEO: Remaking the Economy or Geithner’s Image”

VIDEO: Tobin Tax on Bankers

“VIDEO: Joseph Stiglitz’ Freefall”

“VIDEO: How to Get Our Democracy  BacK”

“VIDEO: JDSalinger Dies at 91”

“VIDEO: MLK Beyond Vietnam”

“Four Videos for the New Year”


“VIDEO: Krugman Depression Economics”

“VIDEO: Let the Pitch Forks Do Their Work”

“VIDEO: American Ruling Class”

“VIDEO: Antonio Juhasz: Opposition to WB”

“VIDEO: It Takes a Pillage”

“VIDEO: Chomsky-When Elites Fail”

“VIDEO: The Meaning of Matthew”

“VIDEO: Chomsky on Health Care”

“VIDEO: Chomsky at the UN”

“VIDEO: Eduardo Galeano on GritTV”

“VIDEO: Same Ole Sheriff on Wall Street”

“Noam Chomsky at Riverside Church”

“VIDEO: Resist 2010”

“VIDEO: The Narcissism Epidemic”

“VIDEO: A House of Cards”

“VIDEO: World Without Poverty”

“VIDEO: We Can’t Make It Here Anymore”

“VIDEO: Riki Ott on the Oil Spill”

“VIDEO: David Korten-Agenda for New Economy”

“VIDEO: Dean Baker on Plunder and Blunder”

“VIDEO: John Pilger-Vietnam”

“VIDEO: Community Response to Crisis: MHL”

“VIDEO: David Korten-Let Wall Street Fall”

“VIDEO: Halliburton Heist”

“VIDEO: 1961 Inauguration of JFK”

“VIDEO: 1933 Inauguration of FDR”


“JKGalbraith: Journey Through Economic Time”

“VIDEO: Capitalism Hits the Fan”

“VIDEO: Neoliberalism and the State”

“VIDEO: Joseph Stiglitz on NOW”

“VIDEO: End of the World and I am Fine”

“VIDEO: Folly of Attacking Iran”

“VIDEO: Money as Debt”


“VIDEO: NWolf: The End of America”

“VIDEO: Global Resistance”

“VIDEO: Punish the Poor with Social Insecurity”

“VIDEO: Dead Society”

“Chalmers Johnson’ Nemesis on Democracy Now”

“Moyers: The Secret Government”

“VIDEO: US War Crimes”


“VIDEO: Oil, Smoke and Mirrors”

“VIDEO: The End of Suburbia”

“Chavez Speech at UN”

“Escape to Canada Movie”

“KOlbermann: On Rumsfeld”

“Bush Videos”

“DKorten: The Great Turning”

“VIDEO: 9/11 Revisited-Explosions”

“VIDEO: Pharaoh’s Army”

“9/11 Loose Change”

                               Countries were forced to grow strawberries

                               and orchids for Miami not rice and beans.

                               Speculation was partly responsible

                               for the "Tortilla" crisis

                               and the soaring prices of rice and corn.

                               The violation of food security

                               and self-determination

                               must be corrected

                               by reversing flows to the Global South.

                               Marcos' "Seven Loose Pieces

                               of the Global Jigsaw Puzzle"

                               is a vital guide for the correction.

                               Thirteen years later

                               we have new hearts and new spirits.


                               The swan that floats

                               and does not sink

                               represents the intransitory

                               in the transitory (M. Heidegger).

                               The old gives way to the new

                               as the snow gives way to the spring (R. Rilke).

                               The truth will set some of us free

                               but the truth is a process,

                               not a cudgel.

                               A lie can travel around the world

                               before truth gets her boots on (M. Twain)

                               Instead of transitioning from empire to republic,

                               global elites refuse to rethink and

                               stylize economic problems as temporary,

                               normalize war,

                               rewrite history,

                               decry systemic/structural criticism,

                               and repress future necessities.

                               May our language and our future

                               be humane, inclusive and open!

                               Double standards and intimidation

                               are false securities

                               leading to endless war

                               and destroying language and community.

                               Creating a social net

                               is a precondition for sharing work

                               and reducing working hours.

                               Learning from O Canada

                               is a future necessity,

                               not a frivolity or luxury

                               like an orange Ferrari.

                               Independent non-corporate media,

                               independent education.

                               universal health care,

                               affordable housing,

                               food security,

                               clean water and air

                               are future necessities.

                               Our welcoming tradition

                               can win over the tradition of fear.

                               Forever number one

                               doesn't seem to need

                               teachers or friends,

                               only markets.

                               As Auschwitz is instrumentalized,

                               the military-industrial complex

                               refuses to learn from the horrors

                               of Vietnam, El Salvador and Iraq.

                               All people yearn for freedom

                               and self-determination.

                               As we must be wounded to be healed (D.Soelle),        

                               the US must radically change from

                               military hegemon to power-sharing partner.


                               Faith is unknown to the infant,

                               faith that is personal and never private,

                               faith that is more interruption than custom.

                               faith that kills to make alive (M. Luther),

                               faith that is transcendent and this-sided,

                               faith that turns the hateful and prejudiced

                               into the generous and forgiving.

                               Jesus is the fulfillment of the land promise

                               to Israel, the sacrifice
                               to end human sacrifice,
                               the messiah uniting past,

                               present and future

                               in the least of these.

                               The future is anticipated

                               and protected in the present,

                               not extrapolated from the present.

                               The earth brings forth of itself.

                               The seed grows

                               without the farmer understanding.

                               Hope like the immigrant

                               is often inconvenient

                               calling to new priorities and definitions.

                               Thinking is the best way to travel.

                               Language can break the frozen soul (Kafka).

                               The other is God's incognito;

                               losing and forgetting self

                               joins Christians, Jews,

                               Buddhists and lovers of life

                               The social state

                               (solidarity, social justice

                               and sharing) opens doors

                               while the self-healing market

                               creates exploding inequality,

                               generalized insecurity,

                               global mistrust and

                               financial products

                               no one can understand.

                               Forever number one

                               is no longer the world locomotive.

                               Export-orientation and

                               the Washington Consensus

                               (deregulation, privatization and

                               opening markets) must yield to

                               self-determination and

                               food sovereignty.

                               The Anglo-Saxon labor policy

                               of winner takes all,

                               hire and fire

                               and the right of the stronger

                               are like the snow of yesterday.

                               The state has a social nature

                               and cannot only be a

                               power and security state.

                               Since the private sector

                               will not create jobs,

                               the state must intervene,

                               raise the top tax rate and

                               include the wealthy and corporations

                               in financing social security and

                               recovery from the elites' crisis.


                               The free moral state is the alternative

                               to the national security or police state.


                               The business model

                               and the privatization model

                               must give way to

                               expansion of the non-profit public sector,

                               reducing and sharing work and

                               redistribution from top to bottom.


                               We face a revolutionary chance

                               or plunging in war and barbarism.


                                in down-is-up america,

                                the land of reversible cups,

                                the empire needing to become a republic,

                                producing fear and mockery

                                as long as arrogance and greed

                                marginalize criticism and correction

1100 articles from Oct 2001 “Identities, Hear the Signals!” by Frederika Habermann to Oct 2005 "The People are Boiling with Rage" by Andrea Boehm:

Over 1000 articles on anti-militarism, economic and political crisis and liberation theology

uploaded on are arranged by year.



“Rethinking the Peace Movement”


“Mark Rudd: Building a New Movement”

“Illegalities of the Bush Jr War on Afghanistan”

“Iran-Peking Gives Washington Cold Shoulder”

“America is England’s Fault”

“In Afghanistan, NATO Has No Political Goal”

Capitalism Works Best When Left Alone”

“Public Enemy No. 1”

“War, Occupation and Collision Course with Russia”

“Chris Hedges on GritTV”

“A Cycle of New Struggles”

 “Decommissioning a Superpower”

“Mark Engler: American Empire Foreclosed?”

“Up is Down: Military Budget”

“The Future of NATO: Break Taboo”

“Putin and China: US is Responsible”

“Between Russophobia and Russophilia”

“Obama’s War on Terror”

“The Blood of the Black Sheep”


 “War is over, if you want it”

“How War is Passed on Perpetually”

“Fidel Castro”

“Worse Than in the Iraq War”

“Ideological War Continues”

“America Loses Its Dominant Role”

“Russians and Chinese Laugh”

“FBerrigan: Military Industrial Complex 2.0”

“Cold Peace: Defense Shield”

“Russia Demonization”

“Russia Never Wanted a War”

“US Security Bottom Line”

“Declaration of Independence from the US Government”

“Leo Strauss and Neocon Lust for Power”

“Lessons from Vietnam”

“Warning of the American Friend”

“White Rabbits from the White House”

“Bush has understood and learned nothing”

“CJohnson: Why US Has Gone Broke”

“The Three Trillion Dollar War”

“NKlein: The Shock Doctrine”

“Dear Americans by Helmut Schmidt”

“US-NATO Preemptive Nuclear Doctrine”

“Harold Pinter on Imperialism and War”

“Bush is Too Horrendous to be Ignored”

“NChomsky: Democracy’s Invisible Line”

“How Hitler Won Over the German People”

“CJohnson: Going Bankrupt”

“Bush in the Middle East”

“The Empire Must Be Obeyed”

“MLK on Vietnam”

“Vietnam Comparisons”

“Polk and McGovern: How to End the War”

“Halliburton Dollars”

“Pakistan and Global War on Terrorism”


“PCRoberts: The Great American Lock-Down”

“The Wars, Prisons and the Economy”

“US isolated on Human Rights in Cuba issue”

“War in Iraq and Assassination of JFK: Castro”

“Nixon, Kissinger and Megalomania”

“JRose: License to Kill-Book Review”

“Rainer Rupp: Bush Caught in Lies”

“Strategies to End the Iraq War”

“Voices of Iraqi War Dissenters Ring Out”

“Gene Ray: History, Sublime and Terror: Notes on the Politics of Terror”

“A People Under Fire: Venezuela-Castro”

“Iraq – Lest We Forget”

“Third World Warriors Fight US Wars for Dollars a Day”

“Not in Our Name!”

“MWeisbrot: One Million Dead in Iraq”

“Alan Graf: School of the Americas Watch”

“JRoss: Full Spectrum Dominance in Mexico”

“The War to End All Wars”

“IWallerstein: Two State Solution”

“PGolub: Sun Sets on the American Empire”

“GKolko: Bush and Cheney Out of Control”

“Closing Ranks against the United States”

“Cuba Responds to Bush”

“Why World War 3 is very possible”


“Israel’s Policy Promotes Anti-Semitism”

“US Troops Are Dying”

“JMadison: War is the Greatest Enemy”

“Unmasking State Terrorism”

“The American Nightmare: Vietnam”

“Noam Chomsky Interview”

“Media and War”

“NWolf: Fascist America in 10 Steps”

“NKlein: Shock Doctrine”

“NKlein on Democracy Now-Shock Doc”

“FBoyle: US Media on Iran”

“The Anti-War Movement”

“Fear and Fascism”

“US is Ready to Attack Iran”

“PCRoberts: War Criminal in Living Room”

“Onion: America to Re-Hang Saddam”

“TRothschild: Fascism of the Heart”

“John Pilger on Democracy Now: Propaganda and the Press

“War and our Economy are Inseparable ”

“LTrotsky: Fascism and How to Fight It”

“Project for an Old American Century”

“The Rebel Historian Eric Hobsbawm”

“Iraq War: Socialist Perspective”

“Interview about Venezuela”

“Imperial Multilateralism in Crisis”

“Forty Years of Occupation”

“Unmasking of the Authoritarians”

“War Against the Phantom”

“Operation Iraq Forever”

“Nemesis: Last Days of American Empire”

“Why Bush is Always Right”

“Veto of Peace”

“CHedges: American Fascists”

“George W Bush: Flight from Reality”

“World Public Rejects US as World Ruler”

“Weaken All the Fronts”

“Iran May be the Greatest Crisis”

“From Iraq War to Middle East War”

“Terrorized by War on Terror”

“Reagan and GE”

“JRoss: Zapatistas”

“CJohnson: Republic or Empire”

“The Lies That Led to War Video”

“Only the Debris of War is Left”

“Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler”

“Socialism and US Militarism”

“Time for Revolution”

“Review of Chalmers Johnson’ Nemesis”

“The Criminalization of US Foreign Policy”

“Is the Media Fomenting War?”

“Military-Industrial Complex”

“Civil War in Iraq”

“Uncontrolled Executive”

“Surging into Catastrophe”

“Under the Spell of the Hegemon”

“Bush’s Megalomania”

“The Blindness of the Powerful Toward Others”

“War Howls”

“Bush Seeking Pretext for War with Iran”

“Bush’s Fatal Mistake”

“Why Capitalists Support the War”

“LLapham: Uncle Sam”

“Wiped Off the Map: Rumor of Century”

“The Freedom of Refusal”

“The Surge is a Red Herring”

“Peace Initiatives for the Middle East”

“Bush’s Speech Translation”

“Kofi Annan: Worse Than Civil War”

“Imperial Interventions”

“Demonization of Muslims and Battle for Oil”

“The Spirit of Tom Paine”

“The Unfeeling President”


“Recharging the Anti-War Movement”

“The Dangerous Double Standard”

“Stop Lying, Mr. Bush”

“EGaleano: They say torture is effective”

“Wyatt Earp is Losing War in Iraq”

“The End of Bush Dynasty”

“MHertsgaard: We are aware we are an empire”

“HZinn: Myths of American Exceptionalism”

“Regime Change in the Future”

“When History Becomes Chopped Liver”

“The Price of Imperial Arrogance”

“Open Letter to Robert Gates”

“Peace Perspectives for the Middle East”

“Iraqis were Better Off Under Saddam”

“Limiting the Catastrophe”

“Inside the Ministry of Truth”

“American Fascism is on the Rise”

“PGolub: The Will to Undemocratic Power”

“HZinn: A People’s History of the US”

“Iran: The Unthinkable War”

“Unmask State Sponsored Terrorism”

“Against the Decadent Empire”

“Iraqi War Hawks”

“The Coming World War”

“Indictment of the Bush War Regime”

“Bush Ongoing Criminal Activity”

“America the Tyranny”

“War, Debts and Taxes”

“Code Name Northwoods”

“King Bush and Tortured Truth”

“In the Spirit of Jaures and Luxemburg”

“Exploiting 9/11”

“Harper and Imperialist Agenda”

“Two Kinds of International Law”

“EAltvater: Assymetry”

 “From War on Terror to Anti-Fascist War”

“Try Diplomacy in Middle East”

“Imperialism: US Addiction to War”

“Terror Spectacle”

“The Big Lie About Islamic Fascism”

“Historians Will Morally Impeach GWBush”

“This War on Terrorism is Bogus”

RRupp: Propaganda Offensive”

“How Hitler Became a Dictator”

“Translating Bush’s Speech”

“Empire in the Mirror”

“Life Under Empire’s Claws”

“Iran: Radiant Future”

“Is the US Planning a Coup in Iraq?”

“Devastating Window on the War”

“9/11 and American Empire”

“Walden Bello on Lebanon”

“Incompetent UN Resolution Draft”

“Leaflet: Occupation, Not Democracy!”

“Asbestos Attacks from the White House”

“Collateral Damage is Murder”

“Neocon Middle East Scheme Backfiring”

“Power and Powerlessness: Israel & Lebanon”

“Neoconservatives and Constructive Chaos”

“Religious Folly”

“In Tribute to Fidel Castro”

“Blair and Rice: Lebensraum”

Smokescreens of War”

“The Bankruptcy of the Hawks”

“Israel’s True Goal”

“Israeli Propaganda and Lebanon”

“Oil Robbery by Law”

“Nobel Prize Winners on Middle East Crisis”

“SLendman: UN Resolution Hypocrisy”

“Israeli Withdrawal Demanded”

 “Bush Administration as Juntocracy”

“Israel and International Law”

“Violent Legacy of Colonialism”

“Lebanon: Reagan-Bush-Outrage-Silence”

Shifting Values and the New Barbarism”

“Israel’s Moral Decay”

“Al-Qaeda as a US Asset”

“DLindorff on US Foreign Policy”

“Realist as Swearword in Bush’s Iraqi Policy”

“PCRoberts: Americans Mislead to War”

“How US Wars are Sold”

“CIA: Osama Helped Bush in 2004”

 “Afghanistan: Troops Dig Their Own Graves”

“Is West Experiencing its Afghanistan?”

“JWagner: Iran War for Dollar Hegemony”

“Richard Perle: A Serial Warmonger”

“Ten Lessons from Criminalization of Dissent”

“JWagner: Neoliberal Geopolitics”

“True Nature of Obscenity”

“War Mongerers Become Prisoners”

“Iraq War webcomics”

“Installation of Puppet Government”

“The War is Lost”

“The Art of Propaganda”

“Iran: Fatal Signal”

“LEverest: There is no war on terror”

“Unilateralism is Over; Resistance Grows”

“DLindorff: Bush-Rumsfeld Teaching Ethics?”

“Worldwide Wars and Anti-Military Options”

“Political Solution, Not War on Iran!”

“Normalizing War”

“Indigenous Response to American Fascism”

“You Don’t Need a Weatherman”

 “The Fall of House of Bush”

“Germany: They thought they were free”

“The State of War”

“Thomas Paine: The State of War”

“Wars Based on Lies”

“GKolko: US Empire versus Reality”

“State Lawlessness”

“SLendman: Chomsky’s Failed States”

“RFisk: United States of Israel”

“The End of Security”

“GOtto: No Nuclear Attack on Iran!”

“Bush’s Act of Treason”

“Throw the Globalists Out!”

“Wolfowitz’ Heart of Darkness”

“GParrish: Peace Discussion”

“Iraqi War and American Imperialism”

“A Nation of Colonists”

“Against Liberal Instrumentalization of Auschwitz”

“Another Surreal Day in Age of Bush”

“Betrayal of the American Idea”

“Nader-Bush’s Divorce from Reality”

“ACockburn: No Strategy to End War”

“CJohnson: Whatever Happened to Congress?”

“Iraq: After the Fiasco”

“Worldwide Wars and 21st Century”

“An Immoral War Coalition”

“World Tribunal on Iraq”

“Iraqi Movies: Dreams of Sparrows”

“Captain Ahab and his Watery Grave”

“NYTimes on FBI’s Terror Watch List”

“When Propaganda Controls American Thinking”

“Iran and US: A Fictional Dialogue”

“Dark Side of Liberal Imperialism”

“The Fear of the Islamic Bomb”

“US VP Threatens Iran”

“From Freedom to Fascism”

“Who Benefits from New Division of World?”

“Imperial Irrationalism”

“Happy Iraq and Yuppie Carriers in Iraq”

“MEngler: Cost of Iraq War”

“Dubious Evidence Against Iran”

“Land of Puppet People”

“On Expanded Security Concept”

“Planned Assault on Iran”

“Two-Camp Theory”

“Litany of Lies on Iraq War”

“Terrorism as Orwelliana”

“The Killing Fields”

“The End of Inalienable Rights”

“The Iranian Security Dilemma”

“The Dangers of Nuclear War”

“Frankenstein is in the House”

“DLindorff: US Military Spending”

“US Plans Disarming Strikes”

“The Double Standards of the West”

“The New Fascism”

“Unitary Executive”

“When is a War Justified?”

“Dirty Money and US Growth & Empire”

“Slave-driving for the US War”

“Media Control”

“DLindorff: What We Don’t Know Can Hurt Us”

“CSheehan: Opposite of Good is Apathy”

“The Army of Good Americans”

“Skirmishes in Information Wars”

“A Criminal Administration”

“George W. Falls”

“Bush-Cheney-Vatican Lie Machine”



 “Freedom and Basic Income”

“Social State as Home”

“Education as Tranquilizer”

“Alternatives  to Capitalism”

“Abandoning Capitalism”

“Pressing the Emergency Brake”

“Finance Capitalism Devalues Labor”

“The Olympics’ Shady Side”

“The Human Right to Food”

“Caught in the Infinite Loop of a Nightmare”

“Neoliberal Agenda is Over and The Despised Social State”

 “20 Theses Against a Green Capitalism”

 “Climate Justice, Not Growth Mania”

“Pouring Gasoline on a Fire”

“Trillions Down the Drain”

 “We are in the Greatest Financial Bubble”

“Ten Years After Seattle”

“Debt to the Rescue”

 “The World Conference and Beyond”

“End of Illusion and Beginning of the Future”

“Ways Out of the Crisis”

“Lessons from America’s Lost Decade”

 “Reclaim the World”

“Prerequisites for Overcoming the Financial Crisis”

“The Next Crisis is Brewing”

“How Do We Pay for All This?”

“All Cards on the Table: For an Ecological New Deal”

“Lessons from the Crisis”

“System Change Instead of Climate Change”


 “Another Capitalism”

“The Earth Has a Fever”

“False Alternatives”

 “Consequences of the Digital Disruption for the Economy”

“US Health Care Sham and Scandinavian Model”

“Liberals are Useless”

 “The Scam of America: We Love Money”

“Protecting Capitalists or the Welfare State”

“Every Dishwasher Will Not Become a Millionaire”

“Seven Loose Pieces of the Global Jigsaw Puzzle”

 “Occupied Berkeley”

“Health Bill Ignores Industrial Harm”

 “Obama’s Fraudulent Jobs Summit”

 “A Year of Obama”

“Plan B: Lester Brown-Mobilizing to Save Civ”

“Rules of the Game, Not Players”

“Will the Great Depression Be Repeated?”

“High Risk of Banks”


“New Paradigm: New Deal of the 1930s”

“Who Rules Money?”

“Is Growth Only Possible Through Inequality?”

“Systemic Failure of Academic Economics”

“Planned Economy Instead of Chaos Economy”

“Return of State as Crisis Administrator”

“What is Neoliberal?”

“BIEN-Basic Income Earth Network”

“UN 2009 Human Development Report”

“How Neoliberal Ideology Destabilized”

 “Capitalism Criticism 2.0”

“Police are Rioting in Pittsburg”

“Globalization and the New Political Movements”

“Electric Cars Could Save Jobs”

“Long Live Tobin: Financial Regulation”

“What Lessons Do We Learn from the Financial Crisis?”

“The Calm Before the Storm”

“Internet Manifesto”

“Boom and Bust Capitalism Wont Be Fixed”

“Beyond Market and State”

“Last Dance for Capitalism”

 “Capitalism Recycling”

“Obama’s Empty Labor Day Speech”

“Development Theory: Ivan Illich”

““Why is Universal Health Care Un-American?”

“Saturation: John Maynard Keynes”

“Credit Doping”

“Capitalism is the Problem: System Error”

“One Nation-Two National Economies”

“Crisis of Speculative Capitalism”

 “The Underrated Danger”

“Polanyi-How the State Created Capitalism”

“Economic Crisis: Keynes”

“We Fight Capitalism, Not the Crisis”

“Ways Out of the Crisis”

“Self-Abandonment of the System”

“Democracy Alarm: Financial Management”

“Joseph Stiglitz: Stimulate or Die”

“The Crisis in the Crisis”

“Open Internet is in Danger”

“Attac France on the Stiglitz Report”

“Dethrone the Dollar”

“The Face of Privatization”

“John Kenneth Galbraith”

“The Return of the State”

“A 25 Hour Week Would Be Enough”

“The Coming Insurrection”

“Big Brother’s Cultural Roundup”

“UN Conference on the Financial Economic Crisis”

“From Working Poor to Poor”

“The Bubble Machine”

“The Zombies Play On”

“Democratize Instead of Privatize”

“Speculative Hope”

“Socialism Takes a Big Step”

“Risk Development and Dollar Inflation”

“2015-Year of the Final Crisis”

 “Argentinization of the US”

“Crisis of Neoliberal Ideology”

“Post-Neoliberalism or Post-Capitalism”

“Susan George: The End of Neoliberalism and Alternatives”

“Michael Moore: Goodbye GM”

 “What’s Wrong with a 30 Hour Week?

“Crash Instead of Cash”

“Bailout Jobs, Not Banks”

“The Market Must Serve Society”

“Global Challenges”

“Better Growth”

“Welch’s Marvelous Transformation”

“From Bubbles to Living Economies”

“The End of Neoliberalism and Crisis”

“William Greider: Future of American Dream”

“Who Killed Downtown?”

“Attac Catalogue on Democratizing Financial Market”

“Water is a Human Right, Not a Commodity”

“Web of Debt”

“Brian Tokar: Social Ecology”

“Chaos as Usual”

“Simon Johnson: Quiet Coup”

“Shareholder Value”

“The End of Finance Capitalism and Socialism”

“Vacuum of World Trade Breaks Down”

“The Nail in our Economic Coffin”

“Primitive Accumulation”

“Walden Bello: Capitalism’s Crisis and our Response”

“The New Feasibility and the G20”

“Smash the Mirror”

“Susan George: Foxes Guard the Henhouse”

“Unconditional Basic Income for All”

“Lessons from 1929: Christina Romer”

“The IMF and Romania”

“Protests Sweep Europe”

“Obama Promises Bailouts and Cuts”

“Disarm the Markets!”

“Our Common Enemy: The Press”

“The Misery of the WTO”

 “A Short History of Banking”

“The Culture of Mistrust”

“The Crisis of Finance Market Capitalism as Chance”

“Obama’s War on Labor”

 “Memories of Madison”

“Calories on the Table, Not in the Tank”

“Neoliberal Revolution Devours Its Children”

“Earth Without Stocks”

 “Notes on Neoliberalism”

“Infinite Debt”

“We Will Not Pay for Your Crisis”

“Capitalism and Nature”

“NWO: Obama Nation”

“Five Reasons Why Americans Wont Resist”

“Arsonists as the Fire Brigade”

 “Conrad Schmidt: Lessons from the Great Depression”

“Capitalism Hits the Fan”

“The Casino is Closed”

“America’s Fiscal Collapse”

“Like the Shipwreck of the Titanic”

“Susan George on the Crisis”

“Obama’s Mistake in Reasoning”

“Overstrained Capitalism”

“David Harvey on Neoliberalism”

“Faith in Invisible Hand of Market is Over”

“Barely Contained Outrage”

“Walden Bello: The Global Collapse”

“Kiss the Banks Goodbye”

“On the Psychology of Neoliberalism”

“Oscar Lafontaine on Financial Markets”

“Farmers Call for NAFTA Reforms”

“23 Theses on the Capitalist Crisis”

“Michael Hudson: Language of Looters”

“The Master of Bubbles”

 “Fear of the Great Depression”

“Let’s Shut Down the Financial Casino”

“Aronowitz: Facing the Economic Crisis”

“Limits of the US as Teacher”

“Global Social Policy”

“Rebuilding House George Smashed”

“Time for a Bad Ideas Bank”

 “Economic Crisis Town Hall”

“Neoliberal Definitional Power”

“The Bush Farewell”

“Syndicalism, Ecology and Feminism”

“David Korten: After the Meltdown”

“Pragmatic Speech Breaks with Tradition”

 “Basic Guaranteed Income”

“Sanders Votes No on Geithner”

“No One Can Escape the Crisis”

“Recession Raises Question of Meaning”

“An Umbrella for Workers”

 “Joseph Stiglitz: Back from Wildernerss”

 “Paul Krugman: Wall Street Voodoo”

“Mark Green: 10 Big Goals for Obama”

“Dean Baker on Finance Capitalism”

“Future Role of State: Guaranteeing Rights”

“Structural Crisis of Capitalist System”

“Genesis of the Financial Crisis”

“For an International Worker’s Movement”

“A Trillion Dollar Recovery”

“Visions of Class, Visions Beyond Class”

“On Financial Crisis in 20:80 Society”

“Beyond Rubinomics”

“A President Forgotten but Not Gone”


“New Freedom”

“Me Generation”

“Marx and the Credit Crunch”

“From Speculation to Collapse”


“Gross Social Happiness”

“Better Not Pout”

“The center wont hold any more”

“Positive Disintegration”

“Economic Meltdown Funnies”

“The State Invests and Memorandum 2008”

“Economy Between Competition and Cooperation”

“As Babylon Falls: Empathy and Self-Sufficiency”

 “30 Years of Rollback”

“Making Profits and Not Dismissing Workers”

“Memorandum 2008-Crisis Underrated”

“Mark Engler: Spreading the Wealth”

“The Crisis”

“Mary Robinson: Future of Women”

“Heiner Flessbeck: Only Lip Servic e”

“Jurgen Habermas: After the Bankruptcy”

“Joseph Stiglitz: Like the Fall of the Wall”

“Robert Kurz: The Financial Crisis”

“The New Deal in the US and Germany”

“Buy Nothing Day Songs”

“Crash Course”

“Offe’s Paradox”

“In the Madhouse”

 “Bankruptcy of the Last Utopia”

“US Banks: Broke and Then Generous”

“Financial Injections Ensure the Rich”

“Free: World Crisis and Anarchist Response”

“Welcome to Age of Finance Capitalism”

“Greed is the Nature of the System”

“Jean Ziegler: Tribunal for Speculators”

“Michael Moore: Racists are no longer in the majority”

“Age of Austerity Dawns”

“SLendman: End of Prosperity”

“Walden Bello: Primer on the Meltdown”

“Grand Illusion: Bubble World Economy”

“Neoliberals Become State Socialists”

“Income Distribution is Perverse”

“Tinkering with Symptoms”

“Financial Crisis Has Made Heroes out of Rogues”

“Elmar Altvater: American Patient”

“Joseph Stiglitz: Neoliberalism is Dead”

“Anatomy of a Crisis”

“Paul Krugman: Moment of Truth”

“MYumus: Capitalism Has Degenerated to Casino”

“HSchmidt: Market is not a Safe Bank”

“PBofinger: We are in an Epoch Shift”

“IWallerstein: Demise of Neoliberal Globalization”

“NKlein: Wall Street and Fall of Wall”

“Economic Repair”

“Mark Engler on the Financial Crisis”

“Michael Moore: Fixing the Financial Mess”

“Economic Crisis Demystified”

“Why Bailout Sells America Short”

“EAltvater: Future as Possibility”

“Political Economy of Financial Crisis”

“Meltdown and Bailout”

“Forget Wall Street!”

“No to Bailout of Speculators!”

“No Innocent Bystanders”

“Richard Sennett: America in Decline”

“NKlein: Now is the Time to Resist”

“Amy Goodman: Wall Street Socialists”

“Four Videos: Time Ecology”

“Excesses of Supply Theory”

“Criticism of Consumerism and Capitalism”

“Interview with Michael Hudson”

“Psychopathology of Rightwing”

“EAltvater: Energy and Hunger”

 “Joseph Stiglitz: Growth and Social Justice”

“Against the Homo Oeconomicus”

“Alarm Clocks Kill Dreams”

“Corporate State and Welfare State”

“De-Acceleration or Globalization 2.0”

“Stillbirth of the WTO”

“Wag the Dog: Concealing Collapse”

“Uncoupling Happiness and Consumption”

“Paul Krugman: Know Nothing Politics”

“Peter Dale Scott: 9/11”

“Rude Awakening in Mexico”

“Nuclear Energy Invented Shortfall”

“JFoster: Financialization of Capital”

“RKurz: Monetary Policy and Stagflation”

“Joseph Stiglitz: The Great Ruin”

“Stiglitz on McCain”

“The Forgotten Priority of Labor over Capital”

“The Story of Stuff”

“Full Speed Against the Brick Wall”

“Rise and Fall of the Working Man”

“Hunger, the Silent Tsunami”

“No to EU Plans”

“Stop the Biofuel Madness!”

“Workers of the World, Relax!”

“Theses on the Basic Income Discussion”

“The Middle Class Falls”

“Hunger and Speculation”

“Role of Philosophy in Globalized World”

“For an Unconditional Basic Income”

“EAltvater: The End Game”

“Democratic Controls on Financial Markets”

“How Much Democracy is Left?”

“RKurz: Crisis Populism and Rose-Colored Glasses”

“ASen: The Rich Get Hungrier”

“How Corrupt is the US?”

“Oil Bubbles”

“Global Food Crisis”

“Disarming the Markets!”

“The Marx Economist: Justin Lin”

“Kafka in the Net”

“Can the Market End Food Scarcity?”

“Bernanke’s Speech: It’s China’s Fault”

“The Seven Related World Crises”

“The Great Oil Swindle”

“Debunking the Food Crisis”

“Manufactured Reality”

“Oil Prices Speculation”

“From Superpower to Soft Power”

“Don’t Be Net Neanderthals!”

“For a New New Deal Party”

“The Choice Between Food and Fuel”

“JZiegler: A Crime Against Humanity”

“Game of Deceived Deceivers”

“Welfare State and Inner Security”

“Dream of Cohesive Cascadia”

“World Bank and IMF Caused Food Crisis”

“Is Education Only for the Privileged?”

“Limits of Private Property”

“Will Neoliberalism Survive Banking Crisis?”

“Hunger in Abundance”

“Robert Reich’s Supercapitalism”

“Farewell to Neoliberalism”

“Paul Krugman: Success Breeds Failure”

“Why Are Banks Failing?”

“EGaleano: Mexico Exports Corn and Impoverishes Farmers”

“Sandbox Liberals and Damage Control: IMF”

“Global Food Crisis and Fury of Poor”

“EAltvater: Stock Market and Bankocrats”

“Role of Speculators in Food Crisis”

“Why is Oil More Expensive?”

“BBarber: We are What We Buy”

“The Madness of Ben Bernanke”

“The Real Story of Curveball”

“Lester Brown: Plan B: Rescuing Planet”

“Six Trillion Dollars”

“Workers Pay for Their Own impoverishment”

“Exponential Growth: Dogma to be Overcome”

“Global Unsocial”

“The Domino Recession”

“Why the Paulson Plan is DOA”

“Science in the White House”

“The Downhill Plunge Speeds Up”

“Photo Gallery for Subprime Mess”

“Legal Criminality of Finance Capitalism”

“The Credit Crunch and Banks’ Reputation”

“Psychology of Crisis”

“PKrugman: The B Word”

“Capitalism and Speculation”

“PKrugman: Betting the Bank”

“Free Fall on the Stock Exchanges”

“Asian Crisis: Deregulation”

“The Next Bubble”

“Global Casino Capitalism”

“Attac Germany on Subprime Crisis”

“SGeorge: The Debt Boomerang”

“What’s Really Driving the Price of Oil?”

“Joseph Stiglitz on Democracy Now”

“Peak Oil: The Global War for Oil”

“PKrugman: Don’t Rerun the 70s Economic Show”

“Managers: The Lost Generation”

“The Crisis of Speculative Capitalism”

“Democracy and the WTO”

“CEO Salaries and the Minimum Wage”

“Devastating Crisis Unfolds”

“The Financial Tsunami”

“Is Mother of All Crises Imminent?”

“EAltvater: Dollar-Oil-Euro”

“US Crisis and Europe’s Housing Market”

“When the Center Collapsed”

“Vivisection of Neoliberalism”

“23 Theses on Unconditional Basic Income”

“EAltvater: Subprime Tsunami”

“EAltvater: US Will Experience Big Surprise”

“How Bush Destroyed the Dollar”

“Protests against World Economic Forum”

“Dislocations and Crises”

“The End of Capitalism as We Know It”

“Debunking the Reagan Myth”

“Banking- and Mortgage Fraud”

“The Price of Oil Breaks $100”

“Beyond Post-Apocalyptic Eco-Anarchism”

“Joseph Stiglitz: Financial Hypocrisy”

“On Anti-Democratic Character of Neoliberlaism”

 “PKrugman: Dealing with the Dragon”

“Bush’s Watergate”

“Welfare State in the Market Trap”

“JStiglitz: Economic Consequences of Bush”


“Why Can’t the Media Get It Right?”

“EAltvater: The Power of Fossil”

“Interview with Dresden bank economist Kurt Reichebacher”

“ISchmidt: The Dollar and US Hegemony”

“Hamburg riots 2007”

“Dissecting the Two Party System: Workers International League”

“JZiegler: Soaring Profits and the Mountain of Corpses”

“HJKrysmanski: The Power of Money and the Money of Power”

“Dealing with Police”

“International Hoax Targets US Oil Industry”

Michael Nenonen Vancouver: America is Going Fascist”

“PKennedy: Is America in Decline?”

“RNader: Betraying Their Oath of Office”

“The Referendum in Venezuela-Marxist perspective”

“Holland: students protest against dumbing down”

 “Cuba’s Solidarity Miracle”

“JGoldberg: Global Capital Flows to the Rich”

“America: No Country for Old Men”

“FWEngdahl: The Subprime Tsunami”

“Walden Bello: The Post-Washington Consensus”

“Social Movements Challenging Neoliberal Globalization”

“Criticism of Neoliberalism: Book Review”

“Why is CIA Suppressing JFK Files?”

“Founding Fathers Labeled as Terrorist by Corporate Media”

“NBoeing: Breakdown in Technosphere”

“The Immiseration of the Working Class: Marx was Right”

“Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”

“MWeisbrot: Who’s Afraid of the Falling Dollar?”

“Impeachment is coming?”

“LMeyer: Reform and the System Question”

“CButterwegge: Neoliberalism in Crisis”

“GBonmiot: Biofuels-Agricultural Crime”

“RMunch: Academic Capitalism”

“9/11 Asking Questions”

“Voting as Narcotic”

“CHedges: American Police State”

“We Want Disarmament, not Social Cuts!”

“Educate Yourself about our Neoconservative Rulers”

“Political Alternative to YouTube”

 “Government Repression of Progressive Movements”

“70% of Europeans Reject Lisbon Treaty”

“Rating Agencies and Prophets”

“Profits for the Few, War, Racism and Unemployment  for the Rest of Us”

 “JHuffschmid: Social Economies and Political Conflicts”

“That Damned Marx”

“GHorn: Submissiveness toward Finance Markets”

“The Killing Silence of Alan Greenspan”

“The Dollar Will Fall Enormously”

“Central Banks Reduce Their Holdings”

“Procreation Uber Alles”

“On the Wealth Creation of Financial Sector”

“The Bubble as the Work of Criminals”

“America as Anxiety Based Society”

“Science in the Bush: Politics Displaces Physics”

“Real Estate Crisis in the US”

“From Crisis to Crash”

“Useful Articles on the Mortgage Crisis”

“MKratke: Billions Dissolve in Thin Air”

“The Abolition of the Unemployed”

“MKratke: Is the Great Crash Imminent?”

“It’s Not Illegal to be Hispanic”

“GMonbiot: How Neoliberals Stiched Up Wealth”

“CButterwegge: Privatization Endangers Democracy”

“Wavy Gravy”

“Will Canada Become 51st State?”

“Who Profits from the Crash?”

“FUnger: America Before a New New Deal”

 “The Seventh Tower”

“DSchechter: Sub-Crime Crisis”

“Canada Wins Its First Anti-NAFTA Decision”

“Root Problems and Solutions”

“The Culture of the New Capitalism”

“Privatization as a Threat”

“The Underrated Power of Economists”

“Trickle-Down Economics”

“The Neoliberal Catechism”

“MKratke: World Bank’s Customers are Disappearing”

“Basic Income Creates Trust”

“When Market Journalism Invades the World”

“The Battle Over Public Property”

“Homo Oeconomicus and Economic Theories”

“Tens of Thousands Protest the G8”

“Flight to the Tax Haven”

“Capitalism is not the Solution”

“RKurz: The New World Currency Crisis”

“Do We Need a New Social System?”

“Neoliberal Rule as Trauma”

“We Have an Upper Class Problem”

“Working Without Coercion”

“Deliberate Dumbing Down”

“Introduction to Marx’ Economics”

“Democracy and Capitalist Globalization”

“US Economy-Racing to the Bottom”

“JZiegler: Taxes and Feudalism”

“BBarber: How to Fix Capitalism”

“Nature and Narcissist Lifestyles”

“JRifkin: Continentalism”

“Enron: Losses as Profits”

“Sustainability or Consumerism”

“Web 2.0 Promotes Barcissism”

“Self-Organization and Precariousness”

“Peak Oil Solutions”

“US Locomotive Losing Steam”


“The Great Dollar Crash of 07”

“Review: Justice for the Weaker”

“Global Social Rights Versus Neoliberalism”

 “Health Reform Turning from Solidarity Principle”

“The Majority Want Socialism”

“Americans, Think Downscale!”

“UBeck: Unemployment is a Victory”

“The Triple Bottom Line”

“Full Speed Against the Wind”

“Alan Graf”

“MKratke: Capitalism and Corruption”

“Full Employment as a Grand Illusion”

“Neocons Manufacture Crisis in Iran”

“Basic Income Strengthens Workers”

“RKurz: Optimism in Kingdom of Phantasies”

 “State of the Union Translation”

“Will Somebody Please Explain?”

“Global Warming: Hard Facts”

“More Employment Through Different Distribution Policy”

“No American Dream for America’s Youth”

“HBinswanger: Growth Spiral”

“Make Capitalism History”

“Moyers and the Media”

“Dialectic of Enlightenment”

“Time Management for Anarchists”

“New Radio Essays by Mumia”

“Playing with Fire: America and the Dollar Illusion”

“NKlein: Scrap NAFTA and Rejoin Americas”

“Germany and Environment Destruction”


“Monthly Pay for Everyone”

“Chavez Landslide”

“Adbusters: Reclaiming the Season”

“CButterwegge: Welfare State & Democracy”

“Social Cuts Cause Suffering”

“Exploitation and Precarity”

“Right-wing Anti-Capitalism”

“Revolution in the Post-Fordist Revolution”

“Socialist Commission on Sustainability”

“Capital Fears”

“Congress for Solidarity Economy”

“CButterwegge: Reforming or Dismantling Welfare State”

“Freedom for Mumia!”

“JFK and George Bush Still Not Indicted”

“Unconditional Basic Income and Socialism”

“Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road?”

“LBoff: Eternal Rebel and Liberation Theologian”

“Models of Devaluation”

“Voters Return Sandinistas to Power”

“For the Globalization of Sustainability”

“America’s Slide to Totalitarianism”

“Viva La Chance!”

“Right of All People to Self-Determination”

“Preventing Wars in the Nuclear Age”

“WTO on the Ropes”

“GDebord: On Abolition of Money”

“Every School as a Small Business”

“Demography, Reality & Media Distortion”

“The Joy of Not Working”

“MKratke: The IMF’s Financial Crisis”

“WBello: WTO Negotiations Collapse”

“Youth: Efficient, Harmonious & Creative”

“In Praise of Refined Laziness”

“The Stressed New Generation”

“Deception Dollar”

“9/11 Pre-Warnings”

“Thom Hartmann’s Book `Screwed’”

“The Dumbing Down of America”

“Prospects for Fascism in America”

“Open Letter to Rulers in Germany”

“Attac: Global Social Rights”

“Documentary on Granny D on OPB”

“Doublethink and Doublespeak”

“Creditor Instead of Citizen”

“Two Axioms of 9/11”

“Future Prospects for Young Generation”

“The Law is an Ass”

“Privitized Prisons A Booming Business”

“Walden by Thoreau”

“GDebord: On Immigrant Question”

“Two Crises: Lebanon and New Orleans”

“CButterwegge: How Much Poverty Can a Society Endure?”

 “Twenty-Two Things We Know After 9/11”

“SLendman: Cuba  Under Castro”

“The Happy Unemployed”

“JZiegler: Angry With Establishment”

“Sensible Mandate”

“PCRoberts on 9/11”

 “Was September 11 a Great Conspiracy?”

“Universal Declaration of Human Rights”

“9/11 and the Big Lies”

“Exhibitionism Made Easy”

“MBatko: Impeachment as System Remedy”

“MBookchin: Anarchism-Past and Present”

“What’s Wrong With US Society?”

“No Arabs on Flight 77”

“Oil Wealth as a Curse”

“Survival in the Bush Democracy”

“Happy Impeachment Day!”

“Baby Boomers”

“Global Social Rights Worldwide!”

“Dean and Olbermann on Authoritarianism”

“Cultural Appropriation”

“Who killed the electric car?”

“Is the Dollar Hegemony Ending?”

“In the Stagnation Trap?”

“Government as Hostage”

“SLendman: Dirty Secrets of Fed”

“Bourgeois Congress and Economic Violence”

“The Status Quo”

“The Mystery of Kaspar Hauser”

“Not Welcome, Mr. President!”

“DLindorff: Cut and Run-Winning Slogan”

“WTC Demolition”

“Attac Austria: Re-Regulation of Economy”

“Marx and Anarchism”

“German Left Party: Break the Neoliberal Hegemony!”

“RKurz: Weary Optimism”

“DLindorff: Fiddling While We All Burn”

“Will Congress Outlaw Flag-Burning?”

“Booting the System”

“Your First Step into Reality: Rethink”

“Decentering Whiteness and Understanding Nationalism”

“The Dilemma of Capitalism”

“Corporations may now hide their books”

“Mad Profits”

“The war on the educated: Debts”

“New 9/11 Investigation”

“One Step Closer to Police State”

“Free Books: Great American Jobs Scam” and “Conservative Nanny State”

“DLindorff: Virtual America”

“Bush’s Immigration Speech”

“Paul Krugman on Medicare D”

“The Price of Growth”

“Precarious of the World!”

“JKGalbraith Dead at 97”

“A Week in the Life of Globalization”

“DLindorff: Hypocrite-in-Chief Can’t Lecture China”

“EFromm: Psychological Aspects of Guaranteed Income”

“The Power of Latinos”

“EAltvater: Unions and Growth Mania”

“Guaranteed Income as Constitutional Right”

“Capital Needs Countervailing Power”

“Land and Liberation: Flashflood”

“Year of Catastrophes”

“Immigration Reform”

“Water as a Commodity”

“France: Where Capital is Not God”

“DBacon: US Corporations & Immigration”

“CButterwegge: More Sensitivity, Less Prejudice”

“We are in a Chaos”

“Liberal Hypocrisy on Immigration”

“JRoss: Indian Peoples Have Fewer Rights”

“The Impeachment Debate”

“DLindorff: Where is Sense of Panic or Urgency?”

“Biofuel and Genocide”

“Fast Food Media”

“757 did not hit Pentagon”

“The Economics of Outsourcing”

“JStiglitz: Drain America First”

“The Tax State in Globalization Trap”

“JHolloway: No to Capitalism”

“No Nuclear Power Plants!”

“Capitalism Threatens Us All”

“The Two Americas”

“Groundswell for Impeachment”

“GDebord: The sick planet”

“Truth and Deception in Information Age”

 “Losing in America”

“America’s Glorious Empire of Debt”

“Summary Analysis of 9/11”

“Very Dangerous Trap: Clash of Cultures”

“Birds, Bees and 9/11”

“Hidden Holocaust Made in US”

“America for Sale: Republican Corruption”

“Social Inequality in the US”

“DLindorff: Democrats in Congress Useless”

“Memorandum 2005: Alternative Economic Policy”

“No Work, Instead of Precarious Work”

“Global Class System”

“Iranian Oil Bourse”

“Call for Dialogue in Iran Crisis”

“Appeal to Kofi Annan”

“Beyond Survival in American Dystopia”

“Kitzhaber on Health Care”

“Speculation and Soros”

“MKlare: Permanent Energy Crisis”

“DLindorff: Attacking Iran Will Endanger US”

“Brainwashed Americans and Iran”

“The Bolivarian Revolution”

“Bush’s Social Security Sleight of Hand”

“Best Government Money Can Buy”

“The South is Bled White”

“Can State Save Us From Work?”

“DJensen: The Parable of the Box”

“Under Concrete 9/11”

“PCRoberts: The True State of the Union”

“Blumenauer on State of the Union”

“Threatening with the Checkbook”

“Are Unemployed Persons Idlers?”

“Criticism is Unlikely”

“Competition Leads to Unemployment Without Taxation”

“American Indian Movement & Abramoff”

“MDavis: Catastrophe as Blueprint-New Orleans”

“On the Scandinavian Model”

“Auto-cannibalism: Internationalization of Capital”

“The Altered State of the Union”

“Betting on Biscuit”

“Free Market as Greatest Terror”

“Against Neoliberal Modernization of Labor Market”

“Labor Market Voodoo”

“End of a Legend”

“Germany 2006: Bread and Circuses”

“Bush Touts the Economy”

“Zapatista USA”


“Bye Bye from the Hippie Lawyer”

“Silverstein Answers WTC 7 Charges”

“The one-party state”

“Americans in the Bubble”

“Toward More Current Anarchism”

“Peak Oil & Extinction of Global Economy”



"EJuengel: New Heart, New Spirit and New Person"

"Only the Suffering God Can Help"

Pedro Casaldaliga on Consumerism

“Greed, Corrupt System and Shadow Banking”

“MLK Economics”


“Word Falls on Good Ground”

“MBatko: Journalism, Redistribution and Social Generosity”

“D’Escoto on the Age of Obama”

“D’Escoto’s Last Address as President of UN General Assembly”

“Time to Stop and Stare”

“D’Escoto on the Global Financial Economic Crisis”

“Capitalism as Religion”

“Jurgen Moltmann: Christian Universalism”

“God’s Power and Powerlessness”

“MBatko: From Obscuristan to Absurdistan”

 “UDuchrow: Ecological Justice Instead of Growth Economy for the Rich”

“The Mendacity of Hope”

“Fallen Stars: Greed of Bankers”

“The Banking Crisis is Scandalous”

“Chuck Collins: Common Security in Crisis”


“Reinhard Marx: Wild Speculation is Sin”

“Holy Scripture is the Standard, not Capitalism”

“Ulrich Duchrow: The Financial Crisis and Theology”

“D’Escoto: Logic of Solidarity”

“Rich of the World, Enrich Yourselves!”

“Leonardo Boff: Working for Community of Life”

“Neediest Need Help Like the Banks”

“UBeck: God is Dangerous”

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“The Subject and the Law”

“The State Religion of Competition”

“JMoltmann: Creative Hope and Political Theology”

“Without Ethics the Economy Runs into the Wall”

“Ruin Your Neighbor”

“Frei Betto: Spiritual Counsels”

“Nature of Christian Faith and New Atheism”

“MBatko: Life as Gift, not Possession”

“EJungel: Against Despair”

“Work and Work Moralists”

“JMoltmann: Sighs, Signs and Significance”

“EJuengel: Mission and Evangelization”

“WHuber: Reality of God and Worldliness of World”

“MBatko: Shouting from the Caboose”

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“MBatko: Community Centers in O Canada!”

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“Midas Excess and Pleonexia”

“The Price of Greed”

“For a Future of Solidarity and Justice”

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“On Fundamentalism”

“WSpieler: Idol Market or 10 Dogmas”

“MWolflingseder: From the Market of Religions to the Religion of the Market)

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“The Economy of Bread Alone and Economy of Enough”

“The Power of Dignity: Rethinking Globalization”

“HWeder: Consequences of Electrical Light: Intelligent Design”

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“God is Infinitely Greater Than Any Church”

“Things Own You”

“Christianity Without Christ”

“LBoff: A Missionary of Ignorance”

“MKassmann: Normalized Violence”

“EDrewermann: Lying into Humanitarian Wars”

“DSoelle: A Theological Balance”

“Even the Mormons”

“MKassmann: Globalization & Christian Life”

“Work as Fetish”

“MWolflingseder: Market as Religion”

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“So Creation Has a Future”

“JMoltmann: The New Life Before Death”

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 “MBatko: Cinderella’s Jealous Sisters and King Midas”

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“Deadly Progress and the Shadows”

“A Good Story”

“Christmas Sermon”

“Freedom: A Christological Contribution”

“WHuber: Christian Morality & Economic Reason”

“MBatko: Lessons from History”

“MKassmann: Christmas Sermon”

“Exporting Values: Religion and the US War”

“Spirituality and Liberation”

“Theologians of the Market Economy”

“JMoltmann: Against Despisers of the Body”

“The Enlightenment of Resistance”

“GSteingart: America & Dollar Illusion”

“Hans Kung: US on Wrong Path”

“Self-Redemption Through Work”

“Work Above Everything”

“DSoelle: Justice and Peace-Globalization from Below”

“Pathological Fixation on Work”

“Israel: Beyond Good and Evil”

“DSoelle: We are United with the Other America”

“Armageddon and Apocalyptic Holocaust”

“KBerger: Battle of the Elect”

“ECardenal: New Hitler is Bush”

 “Secularism and Perversity”

“Missiles and Bombs Threaten the Future”

“DSoelle: Another World is Possible!”

“DSoelle: Theo-Poetry against Religious Illiteracy”

“Bishop Gumbleton on Iraq Crisis”

“Path of Hope for the Future”

“Religious Zealots and Coarse Discourse”

“The Utopias of Capitalism”

“LBoff: Rebellion of Spirit Against Disorder”

“LBoff: US is a Terrorist State”

“JSobrino” On Death of Archbishop Romero”

“JSobrino: Anti-imperial Spirituality”

“The Contradictions are Our Hope”

“JMoltmann: New Creation of all Things”

“JMoltmann: Sun Rises Behind the Cross”

“LBoff: Liberation Theology and Globalization”

“Whateverr Happened to Empathy?”

“Nelson Mandala and the Resurrection”

“Life is More Than Capital”

“The Land Needs a Vision”

“Thou Shalt Not Criticize the Zionists!”

“Defending Human Dignity”

“Work Society & the Work Religion”

“Matthew Fox and Justice Spirituality”

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“The Separation of Church & Morality”

“On Theological Foundations of Religious Socialism”


Dietrich Bonhoeffer's Relational Theology

By Hans Vium Mikkelsen

[This essay published in 1995 is translated from the German on the Internet,]

[With the starting point in "Ethics," this article describes a crucial theme in
Bonhoeffer's theological work: the relation of God and the world as a basic
theological concept. Beginning with an analysis of Bonhoeffer's doctrine of
justification and reconciliation, the article concludes that an understanding of
God is theologically impossible independent of God's relation to humankind (and
thus to the world). In the last part, the article shows that Bonhoeffer joined
this emphasis on the relation of God and the world as a theological axiom with a
theology of the cross reading of God's nature. He thereby turned against the
doctrine of God's aseity and against the axiom of his incapacity for suffering.
This leads to Bonhoeffer's conclusion: Only the suffering God can help.]

1. Introduction
2. "Ultimate" and "Penultimate" Things
2.1 The Doctrine of Justification in "Ethics" and "Cost of Discipleship"
2.2 The Qualitative Aspect of the Doctrine of Justification
2.3 The Temporal Aspect of Justification
3. Interpretation of the World as the World Accepted by God
3.1 Reconciliation as a Concrete Starting Point for the Theological Valuation
of the World
3.2 The One Reality in Christ
3.3 "Genuine Worldliness" as a Dialectical Term
3.4 The Autonomous, Non-Religious Person
4. Final Remarks

1. Introduction
"No person exists in himself and no God exists in himself; both are empty
abstractions" [1]

Dietrich Bonhoeffer is one of the most widely read German theologians of this
century, even if the interest was often greatest outside the "strict" expert
theological framework on account of his sharp, theologically-substantiated
rejection of National Socialism, comparable with that of the Dane Kaj Monk.
Bonhoeffer was imprisoned by the Gestapo in 1943 and executed on April 9, 1945,
three weeks before the war's end in the Flossenburg concentration camp.

Interest in Bonhoeffer concentrated especially on his life story with the
unfortunate side effect that his theology was not given its proper attention.
As one of the first dialectical theologians, Bonhoeffer emphasized the relation
of God and the world as a basic theological category – a relation that he mainly
conceived in personal categories while simultaneously stressing the universal
consequences of the relation.

In this study, I will analyze Bonhoeffer's theological approach by dealing with
one of the main themes of his theological work: the question of the possibility
of thinking God and the world together and the significance of this for
understanding God and the world. This theme is like a central thread through
all his works beginning with his dissertation "Sanctorum Communio" to the
theological exchange of letters with his friend Eberhard Bethge during his time
in prison. This collection ("Widerstand und Ergebung") was later termed
"Letters and Papers from Prison" in Bonhoeffer research. [2]

I begin my presentation of the Bonhoefferian understanding of the relation of
God and the world with "Ethics" in which Bonhoeffer handled this relation most
clearly as a basic theological category. [3] In addition, "Ethics" offers a good
starting point for entering Bonhoeffer's theological universe since he collected
and corrected some of his earlier theological reflections here. "Ethics" also
refers to the theology of the cross theme that marks the prison letters.

An analysis of Bonhoeffer's relational theology has to begin with the past
research history on Bonhoeffer. In 1949 Bethge edited "Ethics." The reaction
was sporadic. A serious interest in Bonhoeffer's person and theology first
arose after the publication of "Letters and Papers from Prison." The
theological reflections and personal points of view there give the reader a
somewhat different picture of Bonhoeffer than in earlier books and articles that
Bonhoeffer wrote as leader of the preachers' seminary of the Confessing Church.
[4] Bonhoeffer's letters and reflections in "Letters and Papers from Prison"
were themes of a detailed analysis of many researchers who did not reach any
consensus in interpreting the prison letters. Rather the research offers a
broad spectrum of interpretations on Bonhoeffer's whole work. The fragmentary
character of the writings is certainly responsible for this…

If one follows R. Mayer's dissertation "Christuswirklichkeit" (Christ-reality)
[5], traditional Bonhoeffer research can be subdivided in four different schools
that emphasize respectively a characteristic feature in Bonhoeffer's work. None
of the four schools entered in dialog with the others. In many places, they
underscore their own theological standpoint. All of them give insight into some
of the theological themes of German theological research between 1950 and 1980:
christocentrism, demythologization and political and secular theology.

The "Barthian" school (Karl Barth and John Godsey) concentrates on the early
Bonhoeffer, especially "Sanctorum Communio" and "Cost of Discipleship." This
school is critical regarding later works [6] and interprets them under the
perspective of Bonhoeffer's early academic period. "Letters and Papers from
Prison" criticized Barth.

The "Bultmann" school (including Gerhard Ebeling and Gotz Harbsmeier) is
particularly interested in the prison letters with Bonhoeffer's "non-religious
interpretation" as a central theme. Bonhoeffer's hermeneutic is understood in
connection with Bultmann's program of "de-mythologization."

The "DDR school" that interprets Bonhoeffer as a modern theologian starting from
the well-known keywords [7] in "Letters and Papers from Prison" offers a third
interpretation possibility. As a modern theologian, Bonhoeffer made possible
thinking together Marxist iDeology and Christianity. Hanfried Muller's
dissertation is a concrete example. [8] He interprets Bonhoeffer on the basis of
the dialectical-Marxist theory of history. The writings before "Letters and
Papers from Prison" were only transitional phases. For him, Bonhoeffer's
theologian approach was first genuinely expressed in "Letters and Papers from

So-called secular theologians who read Bonhoeffer's "Letters and Papers from
Prison" as theological praise of the autonomous world form the fourth group.
Mayer criticizes this approach to Bonhoeffer's work since he sees here the
danger of Bonhoeffer's misuse to verify a theological conception based on
completely different presuppositions than Bonhoeffer's own presuppositions.
Mayer also includes "theology after the death of God" in this group. These
theologians often insist they are Bonhoeffer's true theological heirs.
Exponents include John A.T. Robinson, Harvey Cox and Dorothee Soelle. [9]

Modern research cannot be divided in theological schools in the same way since a
positional "undermining" seems to have occurred regarding Bonhoeffer. That
Bonhoeffer is now upgraded to a systematic theologian as in recent treatises by
Klaus Barti, Gottfried Class and Tryque Wyiler is remarkable with view to modern
research. [10] Casting a critical glance at his theology is also possible. In
the past, this was regarded as a kind of theological taboo because Bonhoeffer
the person and Bonhoeffer the theologian were not distinguished. In other
words, objective theological criticism becomes impossible when Bonhoeffer is
raised to the standing of a Protestant martyr. That is why the most different
theological schools adopted him. Thus pietism and political theology appeal to
Bonhoeffer as a kind of "church father." [11]

My approach here will concentrate on Bonhoeffer's later work. However no
iDeological decision to follow a certain "school" undergirds my choice of
primary texts. Beginnings to the relational theology in "Ethics" and "Letters
and Papers from Prison" can already be found in Bonhoeffer's early works
"Sanctorem Communio" and "Act and Being." Considered as a whole, these early
works represent more an elaboration of a fundamental ecclesiological theology
than the development of a relational theology incorporating the changed
conditions of the modern age regarding the relation between God and the world
and God and the person. The "classical schools" gradually became a deeply
rooted part of Bonhoeffer interpretation. Every new interpretation stands in a
hidden dialog or confrontation with them.

In the following, I would like to examine Bonhoeffer's development of the
relation of God and the world on the basis of his explanation of the doctrine of
justification and reconciliation in "Ethics." Bonhoeffer's reformulation of the
justification doctrine with the help of "ultimate" and "penultimate" things is
an attempt to dynamically interpret the doctrine of justification to go beyond
its purely forensic interpretation. The substance of the reconciliation idea is
reformulated with the help of the term "genuine worldliness" in which Bonhoeffer
stressed the practical theological consequences of reconciliation instead of
starting from a speculative theory about the motive underlying reconciliation.
In the following, Bonhoeffer's use of the relation of God and the world is
analyzed as a basic theological term. Starting from his emphasis on "ultimate"
and "penultimate" things, his understanding of the world as a world accepted by
God will be probed.

2. "Ultimate" and "Penultimate" Things
2.1 The Doctrine of Justification in "Ethics" and "Cost of Discipleship"

The doctrine of justification was often attacked on account of its "static
effect" on the believing person. It transposes him into a "joyful passivity" in
that he can be nothing but a sinner – even in the best life. In his book "Cost
of Discipleship" (1937), Bonhoeffer already contradicted such a static
interpretation by stressing that Luther himself saw a very close connection
between justification and saintliness. [12] The danger in "Cost of Discipleship"
is that the presentation of the relation of God and the world has strongly
dualistic features where God and the world can be understood as absolute
opposites. For the early Bonhoeffer, there was no possibility for theologically
interpreting the world as positive. His understanding of the world led to a
kind of "Christian" Gnosticism in which the access of believers to the world was
reduced to the desire of redemption from this world. In other words, Bonhoeffer
did not positively conceive the relation of God and the world in "Cost of
Discipleship" despite emphasizing the close connection of justification and

Bonhoeffer rediscovered the doctrine of justification as one of the decisive
themes in "Ethics." Through its reformulation in the language of "ultimate" and
"penultimate" things, his interpretation of the doctrine of justification
differed essentially from his earlier conception in "Cost of Discipleship."
Bonhoeffer now distinguished between the temporal and the qualitative aspects of
justification to overcome its purely forensic interpretation. Furthermore he
underscored the universal character of the justification doctrine – its pro
allis over against its pro nobis – with his dialectical understanding of the
relation between "ultimate" and "penultimate." This universality only makes
sense out of practical knowledge and is not meant speculatively. Speaking of
the universal character of the justification doctrine is only sensible on the
basis of understanding the changed meaning of the justification doctrine for the
individual. Therefore the universality of the justification doctrine can be
characterized as a faith postulate. This knowledge is more a "practical" than a
"theoretical" knowledge.

2.2 The Qualitative Aspect of the Justification Doctrine

The qualitative aspect accentuated the decisively new that happens to the
individual person in justification. Through it, people are "torn out" of their
isolation and their sola peccatror esse by God. The person in justification
appears as the true person justified by God and facing God, the person
characterized by his or her relation to God. Justification is God's
qualitatively ultimate word, God's irrevocable act of grace toward the person.
Therefore justification cannot and is not surpassed by God or humankind. The
qualitative aspect of justification denies every religious method enabling the
person to recognize God starting from themselves. "The way of Jesus Christ and
therefore the way of all Christian thinking is from God to the world, not from
the world to God." [13] The justification doctrine – as the "ultimate" – is the
ultimate judgment over the "penultimate" that precedes justification. A person
cannot share in the justification any more than he or she can merit
justification. "The qualitatively ultimate word excludes every method once and
for all." [14] The justification doctrine can only be understood from God as the
acting subject. The qualitative aspect of justification expressed in the
relation between the "ultimate" and the "penultimate" is safeguarded in a
justification doctrine based on the relation between God and the person set up
by God.

2.3 The Temporal Aspect of Justification

Bonhoeffer's temporal aspect of justification contains two dimensions, a
christological and an eschatological dimension. In this section, I will
concentrate on the eschatological dimension because a decisive renewal of the
justification doctrine takes place in it. [15]

The chronological aspect stresses that theology neither can nor should despise
the penultimate. The preeminence of the ultimate over the penultimate may not
lead to an underrating of what precedes the ultimate because that would annul
their tense dialectic. By accentuating the connection between ultimate and
penultimate, Bonhoeffer argues theologically with the goal of upgrading the
penultimate. The penultimate has its meaning and task in referring to the
ultimate. In other words, the penultimate has a kind of pioneering function for
the ultimate.

Bonhoeffer expanded the justification doctrine far beyond the traditional
forensic interpretation of the relation between individual persons and God by
giving an eschatological dimension to the terms "ultimate" and "penultimate" of
justification. The "ultimate" and "penultimate" things point to the complete
change occurring in Christ's resurrection and for the re-valuation occurring in
the justification doctrine. "Jesus Christ, the Resurrected, means God ends
death out of love and omnipotence, calls forth a new creation and gives new
life. "The old is passed away; behold, I make all things new." [16] Thus he
makes clear the connection of justification by grace alone (founded on Christ's
reconciliation death) and the new creation in Christ's resurrection.

I would like to support my thesis that Bonhoeffer's terms "ultimate" and
"penultimate" things contain an eschatological element by focusing on
Bonhoeffer's own criticism, which he described as false interpretation of the
eschatological. This criticism is found in his early writings and not first in
his later works. Bonhoeffer's criticism was directed against the understanding
of Christianity as an individual doctrine of redemption. The first example
comes from a 1932 address of the "early" Bonhoeffer in Potsdam and has a more
proclamatory character. In the second example – from "Letters and Papers from
Prison" – Bonhoeffer argues more cautiously. With view to a theology of the
cross understanding of the resurrection, he emphasized Christ's suffering over
against the triumph of the resurrection.

The Christian understanding of eschatology according to Bonhoeffer cannot be put
in the same category as the desire for a coming redemption from the world. In
this case, Christianity would mistakenly decay to a religion whose center of
gravity would be on the world-to-come so that what comes after death overshadows
everything. Christianity would thereby be only the renewed attempt at a
personal redemption myth through which a person is empowered by virtue of faith
in a better life beyond death to withstand a life in suffering, anxiety and
distress. [18] If such a futurist-personal redemption doctrine could be a
theologically plausible interpretation of the eschatological element in
Christianity, Christianity would imply a disparaging or negative attitude toward
present life in this world. Bonhoeffer vehemently opposed such an individual
redemption doctrine.

In Christianity, the emphasis is redemption to the world in the call to live
God's promise in this world, not redemption from the world. He substantiates
this by referring to the Old Testament. In the Old Testament, redemption for
God's people takes place in history, as for example in the liberation of God's
people in Egypt and Babylon. God appears as the one who remains with his people
in history, not one who redeems his people from history. What is decisively new
in Bonhoeffer's portrayal of God as one who journeys with his people in history
is that he applies this understanding of God in the Old Testament and also in
the New Testament as a general key for interpreting the relation between God and
the world. He interprets Christ's resurrection from the Old Testament and
understands it within his theological conception as an insistent reference to
the Christian assignment of life in the world for the world. [19] Stressing the
worldliness of the resurrection hope enables speaking of the Crucified as the
Resurrected – as Karl Barth did – and of the Resurrected as the Crucified.

Bonhoeffer's criticism of the common interpretation of the resurrection miracle
as an exclusive emphasis on the redemption of people from this world is not
first found in his later work even if it strongly thematicized there. We find
beginnings in the 1932 lecture. Probably inspired by Nietzsche's "Thus Spoke
Zarathustra." Bonhoeffer proclaimed here that the Christian man should be
strong, not weak! [20] Bonhoeffer took seriously the accusations of Nietzschaean
religious criticism against Christianity. With terms like "faithfulness to the
earth" and "other worldists" (as a polemic against the attempt of Christians to
live in another world than the present world, he fought against Christianity's
fake counter-position to the world. [21] According to religious criticism,
Christianity is only for weak persons (Nietzsche) and thus only "opium for the
people" (Marx).

In "Ethics," Bonhoeffer avoided the false polarization between Christians and
the world by thinking together Christianity and eschatology. For him,
eschatology should be understood from the tension between Christ's resurrection
and his return. It is already near in the resurrection even if it is not yet
perfect in the world, which will first happen with the arrival of the Parousia.
Therefore Bonhoeffer understood eschatology as "already-and not-yet." For him,
the eschatological has a present and future character. In Bonhoeffer's words,
"resurrection has already dawned in the middle of the old world as the last sign
of its end and its future and at the same time as living reality." [22] "As long
as the earth stands, the resurrection does not annul the penultimate. Eternal
life or the new life breaks into the earthly life ever more powerfully and
creates its space in it." [23] The eschatological already has its existence in
the world but has not yet completely penetrated it. The world is not yet
identical with God's coming reign.

Eschatology and christology are linked but this can only be found sub contrario.
Therefore the empirical demonstration of God's reign is impossible. If it were
possible, God's reign would be a measurable, recognizable reality and its
character as a christological correction to the world would be lost since God's
reign would be traced immanently in the world. The consequence would be
identification of the coming of God's reign with the fulfillment of a social
utopia and the allied self-enthronement of the person as an "eschatological
subject." This enabled accelerating the coming of God's reign on earth for the
person. Bonhoeffer opposed a completely immanent interpretation of God's reign
by proclaiming God as subject of the coming of God's reign. [24] A person can
neither accelerate nor prevent the coming of God's reign.

Bonhoeffer's insistence on God as the eschatological subject is in no way
synonymous with the person acting passively and negatively toward the world.
Rather it is an attempt to understand and avoid a causal connection between
empirically measurable social improvements and the talk of the coming of God's
reign. [25] The challenge of people cannot be and should not be realizing God's
reign. Starting from the idea of the "already-and-not yet," the task of the
person can and should be hoping in the presentist reality of God's reign and its
still future coming. The connection between christology and eschatology appears
here in the living faith of people in the time between Christ's resurrection and
his return. Therefore the person has to share in the continuous relation
between God and the world that began in Christ. Christian life is sharing in
the Christ-encounter with the world." [26] "Because we await Christ, because we
know he is coming, we prepare his way." [27]

This very close linkage of eschatology and Christology flows into a kind of
"preparatory Christology" that accentuates the connection between faith and
praxis. [28] Is there something decisively new in Bonhoeffer's work? Does
Bonhoeffer in "Ethics" clothe one of his old themes from "Cost of Discipleship"
– the necessity of discipleship – in another language when he speaks of "sharing
in the Christ-encounter with the Bible instead of "discipleship."? Or did he
also change the content with the new terminology?

An important shift of emphasis occurred in Bonhoeffer's assessment of the
relation of God and the world that leads to practical consequences in
understanding the relation between Christians and the world. In "Cost of
Discipleship," discipleship is marked by its initial situation in confrontation
with the world in which God and the world appear as absolute and incompatible
opposites. The emphasis on sharing in Christ's encounter with the world in
"Ethics" assumes the possibility of a positive dialectic between God and the
world. The accentuation of the dialectic between "ultimate" and "penultimate"
makes possible a positive understanding of the world without having to renounce
on the christological corrective to the world. The world retains its value
through its reference to God's coming reign, which necessitates the preservation
and maintenance of the world as the world so it can be a sign.

3. Interpretation of the World as the World Accepted by God

3.1 Reconciliation as a concrete starting point for a theological valuation of
the world

One of the recurring themes in "Ethics" is the idea that theology's
understanding of the world must take its starting-point in the world as the
world reconciled by God in Christ. [29} Theology has the task of starting from
reconciliation as an unequivocal reality for the whole world, not distinguishing
between reconciled and unreconciled parts of the world. Therefore the
reconciliation in Christ is a presupposition for theology, not its goal! This
is the decisive difference in the question of the relation of God and the world.
Bonhoeffer's approach to the reconciliation thematic is
"practical-christological." In his interpretation of reconciliation, he
emphasizes the relation of God and the world as it appears in Christ.

On account of his strict rejection of a doctrine of God's aseity, Bonhoeffer
avoids the attempt to go behind the reconciling act through a speculation about
God's motive for reconciliation preceding the reconciliation. His
"practical-christological" approach appears in the accentuation of the
this-sided aspect of Christianity. Bonhoeffer's approach to the reconciliation
doctrine attempted to formulate the ethical consequences of the reconciliation.
For Bonhoeffer, reconciliation is the theological presupposition that a person
should live in the world for the world, not in the hope for redemption from this
world. Moreover the speech of the reconciliation of Gods and the world in
Christ thwarts every theological attempt of a rigid division between "Christian"
and "worldly" since the whole world was reconciled with Christ. "The world
belongs to Christ and is only the world in Christ… Christ died for the world and
Christ is only Christ in the midst of the world." [30] In Christ, God and the
world enter in a dialectical relation to one another so Christ can only be
understood as Christ and the world as world from this bipolar connection.

3.2 The One Reality in Christ

Bonhoeffer emphasizes explicitly there are no different realities – a
"Christian" and a "worldly" – that could be independent from each other. On
account of deficient understanding of the universal character of the
reconciliation, Christianity can mistakenly regress to a partial demand that
does not take seriously the reconciliation of God and the world in Christ
because the world is falsely interpreted as divided where Christianity and the
world are held to be two completely incompatible realities and a
positive-dialectical relation between the two interpretations of reality is made
impossible. The world is not understood as reconciled by God in Christ (which
Bonhoeffer described with the term "accepted world"). Bonhoeffer's crucial
objection against such a separation between God and the world, the "Christian"
and the "worldly" is based on his understanding of christology in which "the
reality of the world" and "God's reality" are conceived as united in Christ.
[31] The attempted splitting of the world into several planes of reality to
which God and the world are assigned would miss the reality given by God through
Christ tearing asunder of what was united once and for all in Christ. It is
therefore sensible to describe this accentuation of the "one reality in Christ"
as dialectical christocentrism.

Bonhoeffer's understanding of the one reality in Christ cannot be compared with
the Hegelian unity conception in which God with Christ is completely assimilated
in the world, so to speak. Rather Bonhoeffer starts from a dialectic that can
only speak of God and the world under the presupposition of God's relation to
the world in Christ. [32] If one takes the reconciliation seriously, it is
theologically meaningless to speak of God in and for himself or of the world
without accepting the world reconciled by God in Christ. Because God in Christ
irrevocably entered the world, God and the world are not realities independent
of each other. In speaking of the relation between God and the world in Christ,
Bonhoeffer held fast to God as the subject of that relation. The relation to
the world in Christ inaugurated by God points to the fact that God voluntarily
allied to the world in Christ. This bond can be understood as an expression of
God's freedom kat exochen.

3.3 "Genuine Worldliness" as a Dialectical Term

We have seen that the term "the one reality in Christ" emphasizes a dialectic
that thinks together God and the world in a polemical unity. [33] This polemical
unity must underlie all speech of God and the world. An abstract understanding
of God or the world is theologically meaningless. This is not synonymous with
the complete identification of God and the world as though all talk of a
dialectical or polemical unity was unnecessary or superfluous. The
christological character of the Bonhoefferian reconciliation doctrine implies
the universality of reconciliation rests on a faith postulate. For that reason,
the christological corrective to the world is not annulled by the reconciliation
and prevents thinking God and the world together in a fundamental unity (as the
antithesis to a polemical unity). Thus Bonhoeffer in "Ethics" screens himself
both against a secular-theological understanding of the world and against a
radically enraptured approach to the world [34] because both interpretations
presuppose a fundamental unity of God and the world expressed in either a
radical attempt at world improvement through which the coming of God's reign
should be forced (Christian radicalism) or in a theological verification of the
possibility that the world can be conceived without God (theological
secularization, "theology after the death of God"). In both cases, the relation
of God and the person is emphasized in that the idea of God "breaks down" under
this dependence. In that Bonhoeffer works with a polemical instead of a
fundamental unity, he can insist on God as the subject of the relation between
God and the world set by God. Bonhoeffer's emphasis on "genuine worldliness"
implies this christological corrective to the world. Bonhoeffer's stress on the
relation between God and the world appeared in the discussion of his term "the
one reality in Christ" (he used the terms "reality" and "world" as synonyms in
"Ethics"0. In "Ethics," he rejected talk of God and the
world independent of this relation as an empty abstraction since the
understanding of God and the world outside this relation are in danger of
absolutizing themselves and thus canceling each other out in a fundamental
instead of a polemical unity. The term "genuine reality" can be understood as a
new theological term with two essential insights:

1. the necessity of a relation between God and the world grounded in an
anthropological deficit (that the person first appears in his or her true
humanity in the encounter with God) and

2. a theology of the cross approach to the world.

With the term "genuine worldliness," Bonhoeffer refers to the dialectical
position that the world can only exist as the true world can only exist as the
true world in the relation between God and the world. If its relation to God
does not limit the world, it awards divine qualities to itself and robs itself
of its true worldliness – as the world standing before God. [35] Theology claims
the world is freed to be the world in the limitations it experiences through its
relation to God. It is liberated to soar to something better and something
greater than itself. Bonhoeffer's argument for "genuine worldliness" assumes
that a person remoto Deo absolutizes himself to be God and – paradoxically –
dehumanizes himself. Only in his relation to God can a person be a true person.
The anthropological deficit occurs here.

The second decisive insight that appears in the term "genuine worldliness" is
the theology of the cross concentration in Bonhoeffer's later works. In the
last chapter of "Ethics," Bonhoeffer wrote: "The cross of reconciliation is
liberation to life before God is the midst of the godless world; it is
liberation to life in genuine worldliness… Liberation is the proclamation of the
cross of reconciliation because it leaves behind the supposed attempts to
divinize the world since it has overcome disunions, tensions and conflicts
between "Christian" and worldly" and calls to simple action and life in faith in
the reconciliation of the world with God." [36] In connection with Bonhoeffer's
theology of the cross reflections in "Letters and Papers from Prison," an
intensive theological discussion broke out around these sentences that were
understood by many either as bowing or falling to one's knees before secularity
(secularism, negatively understood) or as the origin of secular theology
(secularity, positively understood). or as the origin of secular theology
(secularity – positively understood). I read this quotation as a theology of
the cross expansion of the dialectical understanding of reality. Bonhoeffer
underlined both in "Ethics" and "Letters and Papers from Prison," the necessary
relation of God and the world and simultaneously reinterpreting them
substantively on the basis of his theology of the cross concentration of human
reality, which is also a presupposition of every form of a true dialectic. The
world to which God refers in his relation is a world that in its search for its
self-image no longer obviously starts from God. This world understands itself
without God – God in the sense of an objective necessity for its genesis and
preservation. [37] Under this perspective, Bonhoeffer's term "genuine
worldliness" and "life before and with God without God" are confrontations with
the classical-theistic idea of God that prevents a dialectical understanding of
the relation of God and the world [38} under the conditions of the modern age.
Bonhoeffer understood the relation of God and the world as a faith postulate
that only appeals to "practical" knowledge for its authority, not
scientific-empirical verification.

3.4 The Autonomous, Non-Religious Person

I would like to undergird my plea for a dialectical interpretation of the
Bonhoefferian idea of "genuine worldliness" with evidence that this
interpretation is in harmony with Bonhoeffer's last theological statements in
the prison letters. I will do this by demonstrating the connection between
"genuine worldliness" and the emphasis on the "autonomous, non-religious
person," one of the central statements in "Letters and Papers from Prison. [39]

With Dilthey, Bonhoeffer understood religion as an expression of the
historically conditioned horizon of understanding of the pre-modern person.
Bonhoeffer's theological criticism of the religious in "Letters and Papers from
Prison" takes up the religion-critical objection that sees religion as a means
for keeping people in a state of underage existence and oppression as in the
stylization of Christianity as a doctrine of individual salvation and the
religious stress on the world-to-come in relation to this-side. Bonhoeffer
takes seriously this criticism in that he defines persons as come-of-age
a-religious persons and the religious as an overcome, contingent and historical
worldview. [40] This does not mean the person has lost God and thereby annuls
the relation between God and the world. Rather it means this relation can only
appear in its true sense independent of its overcome religious disguise.

For Bonhoeffer, Christianity and the modern age, theologically understood, do
not contradict each other because the modern age – as he understood it – frees
the person to live in his true relation to God. The autonomous person in
Bonhoeffer's vocabu9lary is not a person emancipated from God – as in the
"theology after the death of God" – but as a person liberated from having to
understand God starting from a religious worldview. This liberation of the
person from religion can be theologically positive because it enables God's real
being to emerge clearly. The frequently quoted sentences from the prison
letters: "The God who is with us is the God who abandons us" (Mark 15,34), "the
God who lets us live in the world without the work hypothesis God is the God
before whom we constantly stand," "Before and with God, we live without God"
[41} and "The come-of-age world is godless and therefore nearer God than the
underage world" [42] help in conceiving the true nature of God and humankind.

All this should be read in connection with the sentence from "Ethics": "The
cross of reconciliation is the liberation to life before God in the midst of the
godless world. It is the liberation to life in genuine worldliness." The
emphasis on the autonomous, non-religious person as a dialectical-theological
term assumes the relation of God and the person set by God. The world has not
become godless but was released from its religious conception of God. Therefore
it is no longer theologically permissible to stress the picture of the personal
God of the world-to-come so much that God appears as the transcendent personal
Redeemer God. That would make impossible the dialectic between God and the
world, which Bonhoeffer summarized under the heading "the one reality in

What is decisively new in a dialectic referring to the non-religious person is
that Christianity's idea of God is seen here in relation to God's reign in the
world instead of God's redemption from the world. On first view, this seemingly
contradicts the emphasis on the autonomous, non-religious person and reasserts
theism. In "Letters and Papers from Prison," Bonhoeffer describes this reign in
the world on a theology of the cross basis: God's rule appears in his
renunciation on rule. The all-powerful God is forced out of the world on the
cross and paradoxically gains more space in the world as the suffering God on
the cross. "The Bible points people toward God's powerlessness and suffering;
only the suffering God can help." [43] God's rule over the world becomes a
theological category that is only meaningful in connection with the
christological corrective to the world expressed in Christ's suffering, death
and resurrection. The theological change of paradigms in shifting the
understanding of the person from homo religious to an autonomous, non-religious
person is connected with the change in the view of God. God is conceived as the
near and compassionate God – with rejection of the apathy-axiom – and no longer
as the exalted and omnipotent personal Redeemer God. The speech for the
autonomous, non-religious person is just as much a statement about God as about
the person.

4. Concluding Remarks

On the basis of Bonhoeffer's "Ethics," I described Bonhoeffer's use of the
relation of God and the world as a basic theological category. Analysis of the
terms "ultimate" and "penultimate" made clear how Bonhoeffer interpreted the
world christologically on the foundation of a dynamic interpretation of the
justification doctrine. The world has its theological importance in and through
Christ. The Christ-event absolutely defines the theological approach to the
world. This appears in Bonhoeffer's explanation of the justification doctrine.
His definition of the world is based on the "already-and-not-yet" idea that
stresses the change of the world in Christ, even if this is not yet completed.
This eschatological reserve in the relation of God and the world prevents a
simplistic mutual identification.

The world as the penultimate is a sign for the ultimate and must be preserved as
such. The world should neither be eliminated – as theologically uninteresting –
nor absolutized and exalted into God's reign because the world would no longer
be penultimate in both cases. The understanding of the world as penultimate and
a sign for the ultimate assumes theologically the speech for the world accepted
by God in Christ. God in Christ irrevocably entered the world. For that
reason, a conception of God or the world abstracted from the reconciliation of
the world by God in Christ is theologically impossible. However the
understanding of Bonhoefferian "genuine worldliness" as the theological
legitimation of the secular God-less world proves to be an error. Such an
interpretation could not think of God without the world but could certainly
conceive the world without God.

On the other hand, Bonhoeffer's "genuine worldliness" understands the relation
of both as a basic theological category that unmasks an independent
understanding of God and the world "in themselves" as an empty false abstraction
because God is first known in relation to the world laid down in revelation
(Bonhoeffer rejects all natural knowledge of God) and on account of what I
described as an anthropological and theological deficit. The anthropological
deficit is the self-idolization and dehumanization of people remoto Deo. The
theological deficit describes the self-annulment of the idea of God in the
disregard of his relation to the world.

God's being in an eminent sense is a being-for-others. Therefore for
Bonhoeffer, every attempt at a doctrine of God "in and for himself" is condemned
to fail. Understanding God independent of his self-determined relation to the
world is God-less. Bonhoeffer's understanding of God and the person is only
protected from the danger of self-negation by the constant insistence on that
relation and interaction between God and the world and between God and the

The emphasis on God's being as a being-for-others must also be seen in
connection with the theology of the cross orientation at the end of "Ethics" and
in "Letters and Papers from Prison." Over against a remote and unfeeling God,
God appears here as near and compassionate, an idea that Bonhoeffer underlined
in one of the prison letters on the historical character of redemption. This
shift in the view of God from individual Redeemer God to the compassionate God
in history is closely bound with the liberation of people from a religious
worldview, which Bonhoeffer described with the term "autonomous person" even if
autonomy here was not meant as emancipation from God. Therefore Bonhoeffer's
theological use and the philosophical use of the autonomy term must be clearly
differentiated. Bonhoeffer did not solve the theological problem of autonomy
with his stress on the autonomous person and the come-of-age world.

A criticism of Bonhoeffer's insistence on the term relation refers to the
inadequate protection of his theological theory before God's "shipwreck" in his
relation to the world. Bonhoeffer's refusal to develop a doctrine of God
describing God "in himself" that passes by the revelation in Christ actually
leads to God's dependence on his relation to the world. In this case, we cou9ld
ask whether Bonhoeffer adequately substantiated his assertion that this relation
between God and the world goes back to God himself. In other words, Bonhoeffer
did without a doctrine of God's aseity on whose foundation the relation between
God and the world could be strongly accentuated. This relation inaugurated by
God is only grounded on a proclamatory statement without being anchored in the
logic of relational theology. This speech remains open and vulnerable to the
banal critical attack on religion of the Feuerbachian projection theory.
Bonhoeffer's insistence on God's independence in his relation to the world is
more assertive than really grounded theologically.

1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Ethik, in: Dietrich Bonhoeffer Werke [im folgenden DBW],
ed. I.Tödt et al., Band 6, München 1992, 253. Bonhoeffers gesammelte Werke
werden zur Zeit in einer neuen kritischen Ausgabe vom Verlag Christian Kaiser
herausgegeben. Geplant sind insgesamt 16 Bände, in die eine größere Zahl Briefe,
Predigten und Vorträge mit aufgenommen werden, die bisher nicht veröffentlich
2. Cf. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Dein Reich komme! Das Gebet der Gemeinde um Gottes
Reich auf Erden, in: Gesammelte Schriften, ed. E. Bethge, dritter Band [GS III],
München 2/1966, 270-285.
3. Cf. WE 368f.
4. Cf. ibid. 369.
5. Cf. GS III, 271: "Aber Christus will nicht diese Schwäche, sondern macht den
Menschen stark. Er führt ihn nicht in Hinterwelten der religiösen Weltflucht,
sondern er gibt ihn der Erde zurück als ihren treuen Sohn. Seid nicht
hinterweltlerisch, sondern seid stark!"
6. Cf. GS III 270f., 274
7. DBW 6, 150 [meine Hervorhebungen, HM]. I think here of the frequently quoted
terms from "Letters and Papers from Prison:" as for example "come-of-age world,"
"religionless Christianity," "non-religious interpretation" and the criticism of
Karl Barth's "revelation positivism."
8. Ibd.
9. Cf. DBW 6, 154: "Christus kommt zwar und bahnt sich seinen Weg, ob der Mensch
dafür bereit ist oder nicht. Sein Kommen kann niemand hindern, aber seinem
Kommen in Gnade können wir uns entgegenstellen".
10. Cf. DBW 6, 156: "Es kann sich also bei der Wegbereitung für Christus nicht
einfach um die Schaffung bestimmter erwünschter und zweckmäßiger Zustände
handeln, also etwa um die Verwirklichung eines sozialen Reformprogramms". Cf.
auch DBW 6, 223.
11. DBW 6, 151.
12. DBW 6, 160
13. Cf. DBW 6, 153: "Diese Wegbereitung aber ist nicht nur ein innerliches
Geschehen, sondern ein gestaltendes Handeln in sichtbar größtem Ausmaß".
14. Cf. z.B. DBW 6, 49-54; 69; 223; 237; 262-266; 404.
15. DBW 6, 53.
16. Cf. DBW 6, 146; 151. Cf. auch ibid. 39-41; 43-45; 47-48.
17. Cf. DBW 6, 39: "Von nun an kann weder von Gott noch von der Welt recht
geredet werden ohne von Jesus Christus zu reden".
18. Cf. DBW 6, 45.
19. Cf. DBW 6, 41f., 236f., 263f.
20. Cf. DBW 6, 405: "... auf sich selbst gestellt will und kann das Weltliche
nicht nur weltlich sein, sondern es sucht verzweifelt und krampfhaft nach der
Vergöttlichung des Weltlichen und die Folge ist, daß gerade dieses betont und
ausschließlich weltliche Leben einer unechten, halben Weltlichkeit verfällt;
21. DBW 6, 404 [Meine Hervorhebung, HM].
22. Cf. WE 356ff., 392ff.
23. Cf. WE 394.
24. Cf. WE 305f., 311f., 356-360, 392-394.
25. Cf. WE 356-360, 392f.
26. WE 394.
27. WE 396.
28. WE 394.