The calculated mean of the PhIP levels in each sample group was the following: control, 193.0 ng/g; brown sugar, 5.588 ng/g; salt water, 48.17 ng/g; soy sauce, 221.3 ng/g; olive oil sample, 168.8 ng/g; and lemon juice 3.662 ng/g.  This data is seen in the following table:





Two additional relevant outcomes were noticed.  In most cases, there was a direct relationship between time of cooked chicken and PhIP formation; the longer the chicken cooked (smaller percentage number), the greater the PhIP concentration.  All of the samples produced that result except for the brown sugar samples.  Additionally, two samples with a similar pH of 7, salt water and brown sugar solutions, decreased PhIP concentrations but did so to varying degrees.  Initially I hypothesized pH would effect the PhIP concentration to the same degree.  The salt water solution had a calculated mean PhIP concentration 48.17 ng/g and the brown sugar solution had a mean PhIP concentration of 5.588 ng/g.  If pH was the main factor in HCA formation, then these two concentrations would be nearly the same.  This finding proves that pH is not the single factor in HCA formation but varying degrees of doneness also contribute to PhIP levels.

An additional observation was made with soy sauce samples.  A single sample seemed to be unusally high when compared to the other two soy sauce samples.  This particular piece was charred more than the others due to placement on the grill.  This data could be an outlier, or it could indicate that much of the PhIP is in the charred portion.