Conclusion

 

When using the data from the calculated means, four out of the five marinades (lemon juice, brown sugar, olive oil, and salt water) do inhibit the formation of phenylmethylimidazo pyridine while soy sauce actually increased PhIP concentration.  The primary problem with the mean data is that it does not take into account the weight loss during cooking.  Therefore, an examination of the data should be done individually as well.  This allows samples with a similar weight loss to the control samples to be compared.  Because the weight lost during cooking appears to be important, it would be important to compare samples to the controls that have similar weight loss amounts.  Making a conclusion depends upon the range of the samples, which indicated validity and consistency of results, and how close the weight loss of the marinade sample was to the control samples.  When examining the samples individually, the brown sugar solution is a probable inhibitor; the salt water solution is a certain inhibitor; the soy sauce results are inconclusive; the olive oil creates a probable increase in PhIP; and lemon juice is a certain inhibitor. 

Cooking conditions could not always be tightly controlled so that internal temperature, time cooked, and weight loss remained consistent.  Although this would have been easier to control in a research institution, there is a need to document usual home-cooking environments.  Because of the importance of the degree of doneness, additional samples cooked to varying degrees would further clarify these results.

Although this study is the first to investigate specific marinade ingredients and their impact on PhIP formation, further studies are needed to better evaluate the specific chemicals important and determining the exact pathways of HCA formation.   Another important project expansion would be to test combinations of proven PhIP inhibitor ingredients to produce a carcinogen decreasing marinade.  By developing this marinade, it would have enormous application to the population.  Although we cannot eliminate all carcinogens from our diet, by decreasing amounts we can improve the quality of life.