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1. Network Manager applet becomes invisible in the notification area on the panel? Go to panel preferences and edit Notification area, check that icon size =16px as below that the nm-applet icon vanishes! This is only one solution. 
terminal: nm-applet
shows GdkPixbuf problem?
CHECK that the panel size >18px -this is the element I completely forgot to adjust for ages.  I had it the smallest size possible.
Adjusting to 18px the applet reappeared!!!!!!

2. Alsa sound is always muted (speakers) on start-up and needs unmuting in mixer
set the mixer volume in your profile with 
sudo leafpad /etc/rc.local
add these lines before "exit 0"
amixer -q set Speaker 100% 
amixer -q set Headphone 100% 
amixer -q set Master 50%
==========Did not solve the issue!

sudo apt-get install alsa-utils
set the speaker and master volume how you'd like it to be at start-up then
sudo alsactl store
get the stored values used with every boot by adding to the file /etc/rc.local, above exit 0, the line
alsactl restore
==========Problem solved!

3. Forgot the root password!  duh!
the easiest way to rectify this situation is to boot and get the grub menu up (press escape if its not set to show up)
highlight your Linux entry and press e
on the line with your Linux kernel version, add the word single
boot from there -might be F10
you boot into a root command line
type passwd and Enter
enter your new password
finally reboot

4. Forgot the User password 
passwd <user>
enter new password twice to reset it

5. No read/write access to a Linux partition (ext3/ext4)
fstab already has UUID= <mount> <type> defaults [or users,exec] 0 2
sudo chown -R <user> /media/FILES (where it's mounted)

6. No permissions on an NTFS partition for new user
find the user's uid and gid with:
sudo id -u <user>
sudo id -g <user>
changing the uid is quite a task au-satuidgid/
so we can just edit fstab where on the NTFS partiton line we might have uid=1000, so we alter this uid to our user's uid.
or we change it to "users".

7. K3b can't detect the executables cdrecord, cdrdao and growisofs of the new user
  1. cdrecord is done by wodim, so give it permissiond of user with sudo chown <user>:<user> /usr/bin/wodim
  2. same for /usr/bin/cdrdao and /usr/bin/growisofs
8. CUPS returns "Request entity too large" error when entering an admin page (add printer etc)
http://localhost:631/admin pages can't be reached and the error log shows "unable to create directory /var/spool/cups/tmp"
so the spool directory likely needs creating!
sudo mkdir /var/spool/cups
sudo mkdir /var/spool/cups/tmp 
if those are present already then they might need to belong to the lp group
sudo chown -R root:lp /var/spool/cups
and your user needs to be added to the lp/lpadmin group
sudo adduser <user> lp
sudo adduser <user> lpadmin
the other error that will occur if your user is not added to the lp/lpadmin group is that logging into the admin page with your user name will return a failed unauthorized page.

9. Sound Juicer can't read a CD
An error message pops up saying: "Sound Juicer could not read the track listing on this CD. The specified location is not supported."
I solved this by running:
sudo apt-get install gvfs-backends

10. A KDE app reports that Trash is full when trying to delete a file (and Trash is not full)
leafpad ~/,local.share/Trash/metadata
edit the line "Size=nnnnnnnnnnnnn"
to "Size=0"

11. gksu saves root password to keyring
I just found this happening recently.  When I launch any app using gksu it pops up without need for root password and a notice also pops up, Granted permissions without asking for password.
I'm not sure if it's since I added "gksu" launched apps onto the Openbox menu or not.  To eradicate this insecure behaviour, I edit the file ~/.gconf/apps/gksu/%gconf.xml
so that it reads
<entry name="save-to-keyring" mtime="1368699346" type="bool" value="false"/>
then restart the session (logout/login)

12. File system is inaccessible with error: Transport endpoint is not connected. 
This error can possibly come up for lots of reasons.  A disk partition becomes inaccessible while an app is reading/writing to it.  In my case it seems to be ntfs-3g dropping the fs.  I found how to remedy it (but not fix it for good) with umount and mount operations.  The mount point had disappeared too.
sudo fdisk -l
sudo umount /dev/sda2
sudo mkdir /media/FILES
sudo mount /dev/sda2 /media/FILES
Apparently it is something to do with package fuse.  Hopefully this will be updated.  Otherwise download latest here

13. Can't use checkinstall - "/bin/mkdir: cannot create directory"
sudo leafpad /etc/checkinstallrc
search Trans and edit the line to read:

14. Apt list gets locked - exiting terminal while apt was running!
remove the lock file
sudo rm -f /var/lib/apt/lists/lock
then retry apt
15. Tumblerd process eats up the system memory as it creates and holds thumbnail data as video is encoded
stop video thumbnailing by renaming the video thumbnailer module in /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ like so:
              cd /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/tumbler-1/plugins/
              sudo mv 
that's just my work-around for the moment! No more video thumbnails with that remedy though.

15. Error using make - Package libconfig was not found in the pkg-config search path.
if this returns empty or something other than /usr/lib/pkgconfig, then it may have been reset earlier on.
set it to default with 
export $PKG_CONFIG_PATH /usr/lib/pkgconfig
might need to install libconfig
sudo apt-get install libconfig-dev libconfig8-dev libconfig9 libdrm-dev

16. Error "unprivileged user cannot mount ntfs block devices" 
can't mount an inserted USB drive and get above error message...
there's bound to be a /dev/sdb1 entry in your /etc/fstab file
have a look and if it's there remove that line and save the file, and that's all it is.