Richard G. Swinburne

Richard Swinburne, perhaps one of the most systematic philosophers of religion since Aquinas, has emerged as one philosopher who has set the tone, style, and topics of many debates in contemporary (analytic) philosophy of religion. His style is clear and rigorous. He has interests in probability, philosophy of science, metaphysics, epistemology, and his careful approach to the issues makes him one of my favorites.


Swinburne's own website: publication list

(1961). "Three Types of Thesis about Fact and Value." Philosophical Quarterly 11(45): pp. 301-307.

(1962). "The Presence-and-Absence Theory." Annals of Science 18: pp. 131-145.

(1963). "Privacy." Analysis 24(2): pp. 127-136.

(1964). "Falsifiability of Scientific Theories." Mind 73(291): pp. 434-436.

(1964). "Times." Analysis 25(6): pp. 185-191.

(1965). "The Timelessness of God." Church Quarterly Review 323-37 and 472-86.

(1965). "Conditions for Bitemporality." Analysis. 26: pp. 47-50.

(1965). "Galton's Law-Formulation and Development." Annals of Science 21: pp. 15-31.

(1966). "The Beginning of The Universe." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 40: pp. 125-138.

(1966). "Affecting the Past." Philosophical Quarterly 16(65): pp. 341-347.

(1966). "Knowledge of Past and Future." Analysis 26: pp. 166-172.

(1966). "Cosmological Horizons." Philosophy of Science. 33(3): pp. 210-214.

(1967). "Grue." Analysis 28: pp. 123-128.

(1968). ''Miracles.'' The Philosophical Quarterly 18(73): pp. 320--328.

(1968). ''The Argument from Design.'' Philosophy 43(165): pp. 199-212.

(1969). "Primary and SecondaryTests." Analysis 29(6): pp. 203-205.

(1969). "The Christian Wager." Religious Studies 4: pp. 217-228.

(1969). "Vagueness, Inexactness, and Imprecision." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 19(4): pp. 281-299

(1969). "Whole and Part in Cosmological Arguments." Philosophy 44: pp. 339-340.

(1969). "Projectable Predicates." Analysis 30(1): pp. 1-11.

(1970). "Choosing Between Confirmation Theories." Philosophy of Science 37(4): pp. 602-613.

(1970). "Physical Determinism" Knowledge and Necessity, G.N.A.Vesey, ed.. London, 1970.

(1971). "Probability, Credibility, and Acceptability." American Philosophical Quarterly 8(3): pp. 275-283.

(1971). "The Paradoxes of Confirmation - A Survey." American Philosophical Quarterly 8: pp. 318-330.

(1971). "Popper's Account of Acceptability." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49: pp. 167-176.

(1971). "The Probability of Particular Events." Philosophy of Science 38(3): pp. 327-343.

(1972). "Cohen on Evidential Support." Mind 1972 81(322) pp. 244-248.

(1972). "The Argument from Design - A Defence." Religious Studies 8: pp. 193-205.

(1972). "Confirmability and Factual Meaningfulness." Analysis 33: pp. 71-76.

(1973). "Omnipotence." American Philosophical Quarterly 10(3): pp. 231-237.

(1973). "Sense and Nonsense in Physics and Theology." University of Keele, Inaugural Lecture.

(1973). "Personal Identity." Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 74: pp. 231-247.

(1974). "Meaningfulness without Confirmability - A Reply." Analysis 35: pp. 22-27.

(1974). "Duty and the Will of God." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4: pp. 213-227.

(1975). "Analyticity, Necessity and Apriority." Mind pp. 225-243.

(1976). "The Objectivity of Morality." Philosophy 51: pp. 5-20.

(1976). "Persons and Personal Identity" Contemporary British Philosophy (Fourth series), H.D.Lewis, ed.. London.

(1976). "Reply to Wallace's `On Making Actings Morally Wrong'." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3: pp. 551-2.

(1977). "The Problem of Evil" Reason and Religion, S.C.Brown, ed. Ithaca, Cornell University Press.

(1978). "Natural Evil." American Philosophical Quarterly 15: pp. 295-301.

(1979). "God's Action in the World." Epworth Review 6: pp. 89-100.

(1979). "The Cosmological Argument", in German translation in (ed.) N.Hoerster, Glaube und Vernunft. Texte zur Religions Philosophie, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich.

(1980). "Properties, Causation, and Projectibility. Reply to Shoemaker", Applications of Inductive Logic, L.J. Cohen and M.Hesse, eds. Oxford University Press.

(1980). "Conventionalism About Space and Time." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 31(3): pp. 255-272.

(1981). "The Evidential Value of Religious Experience." The Sciences and Theology in the Twentieth Century, A.R. Peacocke, ed. University of Notre Dame Press.

(1982). "Science is Both Inductive and Realist" The Questions Behind the Answers, D.R.Gregory, ed. University Press of America, Washington D.C. 

(1982). "Are Mental Events Identical with Brain Events?" American Philosophical Quarterly 1982 19: pp. 173-181.

70. "Verificationism and Theories of Space-Time" in (19) above.

72. Articles on "Causality" and "Theism" in (ed.) John Bowden, Dictionaryof Christian Theology, SCM Press, London, 1983.

(1983). ''Original Sinfulness.'' Neue Zeitschrift fur Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophi 27: pp. 235--250

(1983). "A Theodicy of Heaven and Hell." The Existence of God, Alfred J. Freddoso, ed., Notre Dame University Press.

(1983). "Mackie, Induction, and God" Religious Studies 19: pp. 385-391.

(1984). "Analytic/Synthetic." American Philosophical Quarterly 21:pp. 31-42.

(1985). "Original Sinfulness", Neue Zeitschrift fur Systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie 27: pp. 235-250.

(1985). "Thought." Philosophical Studies 48,pp. 153-171.

(1985). "Desire." Philosophy 60,pp. 429-445.

(1986). "Indeterminism of Human Actions." Midwest Studies in Philosophy 10, University of Minnesota Press, pp.431-449.

(1987). "Knowledge from Experience and the Problem of Evil" The Rationality of Religious Belief, W.J.Abraham and S.Holtzer, eds. Clarendon Press.

(1987). "Analogy and Metaphor" The Philosophical Assessment of Theology, G.J.Hughes, ed. Search Press.

(1987). "The Structure of the Soul." Persons and Personality: A Contemporary Enquiry, A.Peacocke and G.Gillett, eds. Blackwell.

(1987). "The Origin of Consciousness." Origin and Evolution of the Universe, J.M.Robson, ed. University of Toronto Press.

(1988). "Could There be More Than One God?" Faith and Philosophy 5 pp. 225-241.

(1988). "The Christian Scheme of Salvation." Philosophy and the Christian Faith, Thomas V. Morris, ed. Notre Dame Press University Press.

(1988). "Does Theism Need a Theodicy?" Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18: pp. 287-312.

(1988). "The Free Will Defence." Archivio di Filosofia 56,pp. 585-596.

(1989). "Introduction." Miracles, R. G. Swinburne, ed.. Macmillan.

(1989). "Meaning in The Bible." Religion, Reason and The Self, S.Sutherland and T.A. Roberts, eds. University of Wales Press.

(1990). "The Argument from the Fine Tuning of the Universe." Physical Cosmology and Philosophy, J. Leslie, ed. MacMillan.

(1990). "God's Necessary Being." L'Argumento Ontologico, M. M. Olivetti, ed. Cedam, Milan.

(1990). "Faith and the Existence of God." Key Themes in Philosophy, A.P. Griffiths, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(1990). "Could God Become Man?" The Philosophy in Christianity, G.N.A. Vesey, ed. Cambridge University Press.

(1990). "Tensed Facts." American Philosophical Quarterly 27: pp. 117-130.

(1990). "The Limits of Explanation." Explanation and its Limits, D. Knowles, ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(1991). "Necessary A Posteriori Truth." American Philosophical Quarterly 28: pp. 113-123.

(1992). "Revelation." Our Knowledge of God, K.J. Clark, ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

(1993). "Interpreting the New Testament - Comments on the paper of Attridge." Philosophical Theology and Biblical Exegesis, T.P. Flint and E. Stump, eds. University of Notre Dame Press.

(1993). "God and Time" Reasoned Faith, E. Stump, ed. Cornell University Press, 1993.

(1994). "Body and Soul." The Mind-Body Problem: The Present State of This Debate, T. Szubka and R. Warner, eds. Blackwell.

100. Articles on "Religion, Philosophy of, Problems of", "God", "Evil, The Problem of ", "Eschatology", "Eternity", "Immortality", "Hell", in (ed.) T. Honderich, Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press, 1995.

(1996). "Some Major Strands of Theodicy." The Evidential Argument from Evil, D. Howard-Snyder, eds. Indiana University Press.

(1995). "The Problem of Evil." Jahrbuch fur Philosophie des Forschungsinstituts fur Philosophie, P. Koslowski, ed., Passagen Verlag.

(1995). "Theodicy, our-well being, and God's Rights." International Journal for the Philosophy of Religion 38(1/3): pp. 77-93.

(1995). "Thisness." Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73(3): pp. 389-400

(1996). "Dualism Intact." Faith and Philosophy 13: pp. 68-77.

(1996). "Reply to Stump and Kretzmann." Faith and Philosophy 13: pp. 413-4

(1996). "The Beginning of the Universe and of Time." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 26(2): pp. 169-89.

(1996). "God and Morality." Philosophie de la Religion Entre Ethique et Ontologie, M.M. Olivetti, ed. Cedam.

(1997). ''The Irreducibility of Causation.'' Dialectica 51(1): pp. 79--92.

(1997). "Evidence for the Resurrection." The Resurrection, S. Davis et al., eds., Oxford University Press.

(1997). "Predictivism" Trames (Estonian journal), 2 99-108.

(1998). Articles on "Revelation" and "Soul" in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1998.

(1998). "Response to Derek Parfit." Metaphysics: The Big Questions, P. van Inwagen and D.W. Zimmerman, eds. Blackwell.

(1999). "The Modal Argument is not Circular." Faith and Philosophy 15, 371-2.

(1999). "Many Kinds of Rational Theistic Belief." The Rationality of Theism, G. Bruntrup and R.K. Tacelli, eds., Kluwer.

(1999). "Morality and God" Revue Internationale de Philosophie ,3/2003-no225-pp315-328 ;and (in Spanish) in (ed.) A.L. Cuenca, Resistiendo al oleaje, Cuaderno Gris, 1999.

(1999). "Analogy, Metaphor, and Religious Language." Metaphor and God-Talk, L. Boeve and K. Feyaerts, eds. Peter Lang.

(1999). "The Bible as Inspired Text" and "The Bible as Historical Evidence of the Resurrection" in Bible, Latvian Bible Society.

(1999). Replies to Critical notices in Religious Studies - "Reply: Further Defence of Christian Revelation" 1993, 29, 395-400,

(2000). "Reply to Richard Gale." Religious Studies 36 (2): pp. 221-5.

(2000). "Reply to Grunbaum." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 pp. 481-5.

(1999)."Sin" (in Russian) in (ed.) N.A. Pecherskaya, Atonement, Higher School of Religion and Philosophy, St. Petersburg.

(2001). Critical Notice , "Plantinga on Warrant." Religious Studies 37,pp. 203-14.

(2001). "Introduction." Bayes Theorem, R. G. Swinburne, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

(2001). "Philosophical Theism" Philosophy of Religion in The 21st Century, D.Z. Phillips and T.Tessin, eds., Palgrave.

(2001). "Evidence for the Incarnation." Jesus Then and Now, M. Meyer and C. Hughes, eds., Trinity Press International.

(2002). "A New Programme of Natural Theology" (in French) in (ed.)S.Bourgeois-Gironde et al, Analyse et Theologie, J.Vrin; and (very similar) "Natural Theology in the Light of Modern Cosmology And Biology" in Science and the Future of Mankind, Proceedings of Pontifical Academy of the Sciences 2000, 2001.

(2002). "Christianity and the Discourse of the World Religions - The Contribution of Philosophical Theology" Philosophischer Dialog der Religionen statt Zusammenstoss der Kulturen im Prozess der Globalisierung, P. Koslowski, ed. Kluwer.

(2002). "Contemporary Anglo-American Philosophy of Religion" (in Russian), The Holy Trinity, A.Kyrlezhev, ed. Moscow Patriarchate; and (in English) The Holy Trinity, M.Y.Stewart, ed. Kluwer.

(2002). "Response to my Commentators.Religious Studies 38(3): pp. 301-15.

(2002). ''Review of Hume's Abject Failure: The Argument Against Miracles.'' Mind 111(441): pp. 95--99.

(2003). "What is so good about having a body?" Comparative Theology, T.W.Bartel, SPCK.

(2003). ''Prior Probabilities in the Argument from Fine-Tuning.'' God and Physical Cosmology: Russian-Anglo American Conference on Cosmology and Theology. University of Notre Dame.

(2003). "The Argument to God From Fine-Tuning Reassessed." God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science, Neil A. Manson, ed.. Routledge: pp. 105--124. 

(2004). "The Argument From Laws of Nature Reassessed." Debating Design: From Darwin to DNA. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, New York.

(2004). " " Reason, Faith and History: Essays in Honour of Paul Helm, M. Stone, ed. Ashgate.

(2004)."Natural Theology, its 'Dwindling Probabilities' and 'Lack of Rapport' ." Faith and Philosophy 21(5): pp. 533-46.

(2007). "Cosmic Simultaneity." Einstein, Relativity, and Absolute Simultaneity, W.L.Craig and Q.Smith, eds. Routledge.

(2005). "Second Reply to Grunbaum." British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56, pp. 919-25

(2005). "The value and Christian roots of Analytical Philosophy of Religion." Faith and Philosophical Analysis, H.A.Harris and C.Insole, eds. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.

(2005). "Prior Probabilities in The Argument from Fine-Tuning." Faith and Philosophy 22,pp. 641-53.

(2005). "The Probability of The Resurrection" God and The Ethics of Belief, A.Dole and A.Chignell, eds. Cambridge University Press.

(2006). "Sobel on Arguments from Design." Philosophia Christi, 8,pp. 227-34.

(1995). "Intellectual Autobiography." Reason and the Christian Religion: Essays in Honour of Richard Swinburne, A. G. Padgett, ed. Oxford University Press. 

102. "The Content of Propositional Revelation", in (ed.) M. M. Olivetti, Filosofia della Rivelazione, Cedam, Milan, 1994.

(2006). ''Relations Between Universals, or Divine Laws?'' Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84(2): pp. 179--189.

(2007). "From Mental/Physical Identity to Substance Dualism." Persons:Human and Divine, D.W.Zimmerman, ed. Oxford University Press.

141."Philosophy of Religion" (in Chinese) in (ed.) Ouyang Kang, The Map of Contemporary British and American Philosophy, Peking People's Press, 2006. A revised version (in Russian) in Philosophy of Religion Almanac 2006-2007, published for the Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of the Sciences by Nauka, Moscow, 2007.

(2007)."A Simple Theism for a Mixed World - Response to Bradley." Religious Studies, 43, pp. 271-77.

(2007). "The Revival of Natural Theology." Archivio di Filosofia, 75, pp. 303-22.

(2008). "Christ's Atoning Sacrifice." Archivio di Filosofia, 76,pp. 81-7.

(2008). "What difference does God make to morality" Is Goodness without God good enough? A Debate on Faith, Secularism, and Ethics, R.K.Garcia and N.L.King, eds. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.

(2009). "Authority of Scripture, Tradition, and the Church" Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology, T.F.Flint and M.Rea, eds. Oxford University Press.

(2009). "Substance dualism." Faith and Philosophy. 26(5): pp. 501-13. 

146. " The Requirements for a satisfactory theodicy " ( in Russian ) in (ed.) V.Shokhin, The Problem of Evil and Theodicy, Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of the Sciences, 2007; and (very similar) ''The Problem of Evil" in (172) below.

(2010). "Evidentialism" A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, P.Draper and C.Taliaferro, eds. 2nd edition, Blackwell Publishing.

148. "Reply to Critics" in (172) below.

151. "Che cosa mi rende me? Una difesa del dualismo delle sostanze" in (ed.) A.Lavazza, L'Uomo a due dimensione, Bruno Mondadori, 2008.; and in (ed.) A.Lavazza, Contemporary Dualism: A Defence, Routledge, forthcoming.

(2010). "What makes a scientific theory probably true." Science and Religion in Dialogue, M. Y Stewart. Vol. 2. Malden: Blackwell. pp. 205-212.

(2010). "The argument to God from laws of nature." Science and Religion in Dialogue, M. Y StewartVol. 2. Malden: Blackwell. pp. 213-222.

(2010). "The Argument to God from fine-tuning. Science and Religion in Dialogue, M. Y StewartVol. 2. Malden: Blackwell. pp. 223-234.

(2010). "The Universe Makes it Probable That There is a God." Science and Religion in Dialogue, M. Y StewartVol. 2. Malden: Blackwell. pp. 203-234. (Combination of the above three.)

(2009). ''How the Divine Properties Fit Together: Reply to Gwiazda." Religious Studies 45(4): pp. 495--498.

(2009). "What Difference Does God Make to Morality?" Is Goodness Without God Good Enough? A Debate on Faith, Secularism, and Ethics, Robert K. Garcia & Nathan L. King, eds., Rowman and Littlefield: pp. 151--163.

(2010). "In Defence of Logical Nominalism." Religious Studies 46(3): pp. 311-30.

(2010). "In Defense of Logical Nominalism: Reply to Leftow." Religious Studies 46(3): pp. 311--330.

(2010). "What does the Old Testament mean?" Divine Evil? The Moral Character of the God of Abraham, M.Bergmann, M.Murray, and M.Rae, eds. Oxford University Press.

(2011). "God as the Simplest Explanation of the UniverseRoyal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 68 pp. 3-24.

(2011). "The Coherence of the Chalcedonian Definition of the Incarnation" The Metaphysics of the Incarnation, A.Marmodoro and J.Hill, eds. Oxford University Press.

(2011). "Could anyone justifiably believe epiphenomenalism?" Journal of Consciousness Studies 18(3-4): pp. 196-216.

(2011). "Gwiazda on the Bayesian argument for God" Philosophia, 32(2):pp. 393-6.

(2011). "Evidence" Evidentialism and its Discontents, T.Dougherty, ed. Oxford University Press.

(2012). "Bayes, God, and the Multiverse" Probability in the Philosophy of Religion, J.Chandler and V.Harrison eds, Oxford University Press.

163. "Dualism and the Determination of Action" in (22) above.

(2012). "How to determine which is the true theory of Personal Identity" Personal Identity - Complex or Simple?, G.Gasser and M.Stefan, eds. Cambridge University Press.

(2012). "Arguments to God From the Observable Universe." The Blackwell Companion to Science and Christianity, J. B. Stump & Alan G. Padgett, eds.. Malden: Blackwell Publishers, pp. 119--129.

165. "The Vocation of a Natural Theologian" in (ed.) R.Vitz, Turning East: Contemporary Christian Philosophy and the Ancient Christian Faith, St Vladimir's Press, 2012; and (in Polish) under the title "My Spiritual Autobiography: The Vocation of a Natural Theologian", Poznanskie Studia Teologiczne, 2012.

(2012). "What kind of necessary being could God be?" European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4(2): pp. 1-18

167. "Gregory Palamas and our Knowledge of God" in (ed.) A.Schumann, Logic in Orthodox Christian Thilnking, Ontos Verlag, 2013; in Studia Humana, forthcoming, and in a volume of Proceedings of a conference on Gregory Palamas, forthcoming.

(2013)."A posteriori Arguments for the Trinity", Studia Neoscholastica, 10 pp. 13-27.

(2013). "The Probability of the Resurrection of Jesus." Philosophia Christi, 15 pp. 239-52.

(2013). "Does God permit massive deception?" Philosophia Christi, 15 pp. 265-70; and ''Second Response to Cavin and Columbetti', Philosophia Christi, forthcoming.

171."Häggström om Swinburne och sannolikheten för Guds existens" , FilosofiskTidskrift, 2013/4.

(2014). "Time and Causality." American Philosophical Quarterly, 51 pp. 233-245..

173. "Could God be a Necessary Being?",Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, no.6, forthcoming.

174. Precis and Response to Reviewers in a symposium on Mind, Brain, and Free Will, European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 6 (2014) 1-3 and 51-63.

175. 'The Argument from souls to God', Religious Studies, forthcoming.

176. 'God's Omnipotence', in (ed.) B.Gocke Infiinite Properties, University of Notre Dame Press, forthcoming.


(Me and Prof. Swinburne c. 2005, Madison, WI)