Air Force One

Recording: http://www.jwpepper.com/sheet-music/media-player.jsp?&type=audio&productID=10279940


The Forbidden City

Recording: http://www.jwpepper.com/sheet-music/media-player.jsp?&type=audio&productID=10364214


pentatonic scale is a musical scale or mode with five notes per octave in contrast to a heptatonic (seven-note) scale such as the major scale and minor scale.Pentatonic scales are very common and are found all over the world. 

An Irish Air

Recording: http://www.jwpepper.com/sheet-music/media-player.jsp?&type=audio&productID=10014112


Fires of Mazama

Recording: http://www.jwpepper.com/sheet-music/media-player.jsp?&type=audio&productID=2481712

Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chancemusic; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). 

Video: https://www.britannica.com/place/Mount-Mazama/images-videos/Volcanic-history-of-Crater-Lake/18417

The Steppes of Russia

Recording: http://www.penders.com/PopUpAudioPlayer.html

Pictures of the Steppes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Steppe

The Russian Steppes cover a vast swath of land in the heartland of the Eurasian continent stretching from the western half of the North Caucasian Plain, eastward to the southern Volga valley, south to the Urals, and west to parts of Siberia. The region's central location reflects the central role its development has played in the history of Russia.


  • The Russian Steppes are a vast plain, sometimes rolling, sometimes very flat. The vast stretches of plain are broken naturally only by rivers like the Don, Volga and Ural and their tributaries. Steppe climate is semiarid, experiencing short, hot summers and long, cold winters. Minimal rainfall--the area receives less than 400 mm of precipitation per year--combined with routine hot, dry easterly winds from Asia render the region susceptible to periodic droughts.

Plants and Animals

  • In its natural state, the Russian Steppes' plant life consisted mostly of grasses, mostly feathergrass, herbs, wild flowers and shrubs with scattered tree groves. Surviving native animal life is equally sparse. Rodents, including marmots, hamsters, polecats and other weasels, mole rats, and five species of suslik, a type of ground squirrel, are today the most common species. Before human activity, the steppes were full of larger mammals such as bison, antelope and the Tartar fox, but these are now highly endangered.


  • For centuries, the primary inhabitants of the Russian Steppes were Turk and Mongol nomadic pastoralists. As herders, they burned down trees to encourage the spread of grasses to give their flocks more room to graze, in the process pushing Slavic farmers deeper into the forests of the north and west. Once Ivan IV conquered the region for Russia in the mid-16th century, Slavs, most notably the Cossacks, took control of the region but did not farm it until the 18th century.


  • Once agricultural use of the steppes began in the mid-18th century, the region's population exploded from less than 400,000 to almost 15 million by the end of the 19th century. They plowed pasture into rich, arable land for growing cereals. Farmers' removal of already scarce trees led to soil erosion, climate change and devastating dust storms. As years went on, various proposals for strategic tree planting and irrigation techniques were proposed for exploiting the soil for growing grain. Today, the biggest concern is how to restore the heavily depleted soil to its former rich, fertile state.

African Dreams

Recording: http://www.jwpepper.com/sheet-music/media-player.jsp?&type=audio&productID=10311385

Ted talk:  https://www.ted.com/talks/william_kamkwamba_how_i_harnessed_the_wind

Book:  https://www.harpercollins.com/9780061730337/the-boy-who-harnessed-the-wind

Culture: http://www.our-africa.org/malawi/people-culture

Call and Response involves a style of singing in which the call by one singer, that is the melody of one singer is responded or sung by another. It involves two different phrases, played by two musicians where the second melody is a response to the first phrase. The call and response forms the basis of verse-chorus traditions in many cultures. Call and response in music echoes similarities to the call and response form of communication between the speaker’s call and the listener’s responses.

What is the Origin of Call and Response?

Call and Response singing has its origin in Sub-Saharan Africa where the tradition continues to be used effectively during large gatherings and tribal meetings. Slaves brought from Africa transported the tradition of call and response music with them and in fact used it as a means of communication with each other. Black communities found call and response singing a great mode of combating their illiteracy. Typically, a lead singer would sing the main lines which were responded by the congregation eliminating the need of any hymn books.


What are the features of Call and Response Music?

Call and response is a music form identified with African music and culture though it also commonly used in musical traditions of other cultures. Apart from being used in music call and response is used as a mode of communication in rituals such as hymn singing in churches. Call and response music can exist in verbal or nonverbal format and are equally interesting to the ear. It is not necessary that one has to understand the language of the song or music to enjoy it. The tone and melody of the rhythm often explain the nature of the song and hence can be enjoyed across cultures. Call and response music have been successfully recorded and marketed across the world owing to its aesthetic appeal.


What is the structure of Call and Response music?

Call and response may lack any preordained structure and often sounds like a melodious communication with the participants exchanging ideas and information through the music of the song. For example in the music form of jazz, various instruments are used to improvise a musical exchange of melodies. At times call and response may have a more structured form as in hymn singing followed in the church. Singers may follow a specific format by relying on hymn books to know the sequence of the text.


What is the use of Call and Response?

Call and Response has been adapted to suit various needs by all kinds of people in the world. Teachers dealing with young children may use call and response songs to help children understand and remember mew concepts of a lesson. Protesters often use the call and response format to sing or voice their protests during rallies. In African cultures call and response patterns is widely used in public gatherings and in rituals apart from vocal and non-vocal expressions of music. Call and response is dominant in Cuban music and is also extensively used in Indian Classical music in the form of Jugalbandi. 


William Kamkwamba was raised in Malawi, an African country where magical thoughts prevailed but modern technology was a mystery. From books he read, young William imagined building a windmill that might, one day, bring electricity and water to his village and drastically change the lives of his neighbors. Hoping to someday study science, his country was debilitated by famine that forced William to drop out of school and forage for food as thousands throughout the country died of starvation. However, William's passion remained indefatigable and, using scrap metal, tractor parts, and bicycle halves, he ingeniously built a crude yet operable windmill that powered four lights and his radio. News of William's achievement soon spread beyond his country's borders, and the young boy who was once thought of as crazy became a hero to many around the world. 

 Program music music that is intended to evoke images or convey the impression of events. 

Measure 1 – Introduces the first theme that symbolizes the simple purity and innocence of young William, who was a poor but happy and obedient boy.

  1. 2-5 – he is nurtured by an honest and hard-working family.

  1. 6-14 – He is very close to his cousin Geoffrey and friend Gilbert (3 main lines of music)
  1. 15-18 Transition – growing up
  1. 19-33 Hard times, sad times and good times
  1. 34-36  William gets an idea!
  1. 37-60  Drumming is a large part of Malawian culture
  1. 61-86  Woodwinds introduce a new theme in call-and-response style.  This new pentatonic theme represents what typical folk music sounds like.  The section also represents a building sense of excitement and realization of achievement.  However, the music remains simple to reflect the simple lifestyle of the Malawian people.
  1. 87-109  Brass join in and help celebrate life and its simple pleasures.  William and his friends learned to be happy with what they had, not what they did not.
  1. 110-121  Development – Windmill construction begins out of collected junk parts.
  1. 122-143  Canonic imitation.  Parts going together- tension and excitement building.
  1. 144-159  William's theme returns.  Throw the switch.  It works!  Rejoice!  His friends and family are all with him to share in the celebration.
  1. 160-179 Party time!  Dance!  Celebrate the wind!

mm.  180-182 The wind!