Dr. Cram, L. S.

L. Scott Cram received his Ph.D. in Biophysics from the Pennsylvania State University. He was Director of the Life Science Division and Program Director for the Office of Science Programs at the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he established the National Flow Cytometry Resource. As a Max-Planck Society fellow at the Max-Planck-Institut for Biophysikalische Chemie in Goettingen, he developed mammalian chromosome identification and sorting techniques. These techniques formed the basis on which the human genome National Laboratory Chromosome Specific Gene Library Project was founded. He is a Charter Member and former President of the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Dr. Cram has been an active participant in Indo-US Cytometry Workshops since 2002. Contact: scottcram42@gmail.com
Lab Module
Dr. Cram along with Dr. H. Krishnamurthy will discuss the basic principles of and components of a flow analyzer in a lab setting. Basic principles of cytometry will be presented so users learn not just how to use an instrument, but also how it works.

Tutorial
The initial stages of the human genome program required the creation of chromosome specific libraries. These phage and cosmid libraries were created using large numbers of flow sorted human chromosomes. From the initial stages of the human genome program to the present time, flow cytogenetics has made numerous contributions to the outcome as well as to closely related genomic and clinical applications. The technology associated with sorting chromosomes will be discussed from the standpoint of fluorescent probes, measurable characteristics, data interpretation, data display, and the techniques of actual sorting for different applications. These techniques and associated challenges (chromatid peaks, background debris, and sort purity), which had to be overcome, will be discussed. Clinical applications will also be described both from the standpoint of opportunities and limitations. The construction of specific FISH probes and the sorting of chromosomes from other species will be discussed.

Relevant Literature
G. van den Engh, B. Trask, L. S. Cram, and M. F. Bartholdi, Preparation of Chromosome Suspensions for Flow Cytometry, Cytometry 5: 108, 1984.

G. van den Engh, B. J. Trask, J. W. Gray, R. G. Langlois, and L. -C. Yu, Preparation and Bivariate Analysis of Suspensions of Human Chromosomes. Cytometry 6: 92, l985.

L. S. Cram, C.S. Bell, and J.J. Fawcett, Chromosome Sorting and Genomics, Methods in Cell Science, 24, 27-35 (2002).

L.S. Cram, J.W. Gray, and N.P. Carter, Cytometry and Genetics, Cytometry, 58: 33-36 (2004).

Hong Yang, Xi Chen, Wing Hung Wong, Completely phased genome sequencing through chromosome sorting, PNAS 108(1), 12-17 (2011).