Transcribed by Helen Rosenstein Wolf
The Governor’s Intention—Capt. Barber’s Cuyahoga Company—Other Companies—The Test of Admission—A Battalion organized—It joins Rosecrans—Two more Companies—At Chickamauga—Covering J. C. Davis’ Retreat—Ordered to protest the Road—Looking over the Ground—Taking Position—The Duel across the River—The Rebels retreat—Various Scouts—On a Gunboat—A Rebel Spy—A Dangerous Road—A Texan Ambush—The Sharpshooters driven out of Town—Shelling the Place—The Torch—A Texas Charge repulsed—Other Gunboat Service—Joining Sherman—Guarding the Ammunition—Back with Thomas—Captain Barber mustered out—The Battalion mustered out—Names of the Cuyahoga Sharpshooters.
In the autumn of 1862 Gov. Tod undertook to raise ten independent companies of sharpshooters, to serve on special duty, without field officers. Capt. Gershom M. Barber raised a company which was largely composed of residents of Cuyahoga county, and which was denominated the Fifth Independent Company of Sharpshooters. The Sixth and Seventh companies were also recruited in this county; the captains having free access to the large camp of drafted men at Camp Cleveland. A portion of their men were actual residents of the county though generally credited to other counties in which the captains resided. The Ninth and Tenth companies were also largely composed of Cuyahoga-county men, but, as previously stated these were mustered into the Sixteenth Infantry and served with that regiment.
On the companies being completed, the Fifth, Sixth and
Seventh were organized in a battalion, and Capt. Barber, as the senior officer,
was placed in command. The men were all
picked with reference to their physical ability, and before being mustered each
was required to make a “string” of not exceeding twenty-five inches in five
shots, at one hundred yards off-hand or at two hundred yards at a rest. Their uniform was the same as that of the
infantry, except that the trimmings were green, and they were armed with
Spencer’s seven-shooting rifles.
They remained at Camp Cleveland, drilling as infantry and also practicing at the target, until March, 1863, when they joined Rosecrans’ army at Murfreesboro, and were attached to the general’s headquarters for special service. The battalion was never brigaded, but remained permanently attached to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland throughout the war; being detailed on special duty whenever necessary. The battalion was there joined by the Fourth and Eighth Independent companies; the whole being under the command of Capt. Barber. The Fourth company, however, was detached just before the battle of Chickamauga.
At the battle two companies, of which the Fifth was one, wee
in charge of the department headquarters.
On Sunday, the third day of the fight, while they were on their way,
under order, to join Gen. Rosecrans, and while in rear of Gen. Jefferson C.
Davis’ division, there was a general break along the Union lines, and that
division retreated; leaving the sharpshooters directly in front of the
enemy. Unable to join Rosecrans, Capt.
Barber reported to Davis, who ordered him to fall back four hundred yards and
form line of battle. He did so, and
Davis attempted to rally his division in the rear. It broke, however, and a similar order was
again sent to Capt. Barber and obeyed.
Four times the sharpshooters formed in line and engaged the enemy’s
advance; thus covering the retreat of Davis’ division, and at length following
it from the field.
When, after that battle, the rebels cut off the supplies from the army at Chattanooga, Gen. Rosecrans had a road built westward along the north side of the Tennessee. But the rebel sharpshooters from across the rive, at the point where it passes through the Cumberland mountains, broke up the first supply train; killing many of the men and horses. A regiment of Kentucky infantry and a batter of artillery both proved unable to protect the exposed point. Capt. Barber was then ordered to detail fifty men for that purpose. He obtained permission to go in command himself.
Taking his detail to the locality on the rainy afternoon of the 13th of October, 1863, he went over the exposed road, attended only by a guide, to lay out his plans. Nearly a hundred shots were fired across the river at the two men, but by keeping on the move they escaped injury. Having thus ascertained just where the enemy was posted, the captain at three o’clock the next morning led his men on to the ground, and stationed them in squads opposite the positions occupied by the rebels.
At dawn both parties began firing across the river. A series of lively duels was kept up until
ten o’clock, at which time the rebels withdrew up the mountain, leaving Capt.
Barber and his men complete masters of the position. Only one man was wounded and he but
slightly. They afterward learned from
spies and prisoners that the rebels suffered very severely in killed and
wounded before they abandoned the position.
The detachment was joined by the rest of the battalion, and held the
ground in question until Hooker’s two corps arrived and communications were
At Mission Ridge the sharpshooters were held in reserve. After that, they were at headquarters most of the time till the first of May, 1864, though they were engaged in a protracted scout between he hostile lines in February, and the Fifth and Eighth companies were located forty miles up the Tennessee, to protect Union citizens, during part of March and April.
From about the first of May until the first of July the
battalion manned a gunboat in the Tennessee, to keep the banks and vicinity
clear of rebel guerrillas and raiding parties.
On the 12th of May about sixty-five men came near being massacred through the management of the pilot of the gunboat, who turned out to be a rebel spy. The negro huts and storehouses of a plantation on the south side of the Tennessee had been made the headquarters of a boy of Texas Rangers, who were accustomed to cross the river, do what injury they could to the Union forces and return thither. Captain Barber determined to clear them out. The pilot suggested, and the captain agreed, that the boat should lie near the town, as it was called, through the night, then land below it and march up the river road, under the protection of the boat, to attack it.
In the night the pilot got ashore, and warned the rebels what they might expect. On landing, the captain found the river road so favorable to ambush and so little protected by the gunboat, that he struck across to another. On the sharpshooters nearing the forks of the two roads, near a hundred Texans sprang up out of the ambush in which they had placed themselves on the river road. Thirty or forty shots were fired on a side, when the rebels fled. The sharpshooters advanced into the so-called town, and attacked a store-house filled with plunder from the other side of the river. Immediately the rebels, concealed in other houses and in masked works on the hillside opened a heavy fire, driving the Unionists to the shelter of the gunboat, with a loss of three killed and wounded. The negroes were then warned to leave, and the gunboat shelled the town from end to end, soon driving out the rebels. Afterward a detachment was sent ashore to burn it, as was done to all houses from which the Union troops were fired on. The rest of the sharpshooters landed to repel attacks. The Texans, not knowing of the covering party, charged across an open space to destroy the burners. The sharpshooters met them with a terrific fire from behind cover with their Spencer rifles, and more than half the assailants were killed o wounded. These operations entirely broke up the nest of marauders which had previously lurked in the vicinity. The negroes were taken on the gunboat and sent to the contraband camp at Nashville, which was where they were anxious to go.
The sharpshooters, while patrolling the river, passed
through several other interesting experiences, which we have not space to
relate here. After their gunboat service
was over, they joined Sherman’s army at Big Shanty. The Seventh company became that general’s
headquarter guard, and the others were in charge of the amunition train of the
army of the Cumberland, from that point to Atlanta. Afterward the battalion of three companies
returned to Tennessee and was made Gen. Thomas’ headquarter guard, which
position it held till the close of the war.
In April, 1865, Capt. Barber was mustered out to accept the
lieutenant-coloneley of the One Hundred and Ninety-seventh Infantry, and the
battalion was mustered out on the 19th of July following.
MEMBERS FROM CUYAHOGA
Gershom M. Barber, enr. as Capt. Nov. 1, 1862. Promoted to Lieut. Col. 197th Inf. April 19, 1863.
Jonathan Pickard, enr. as 1st Lieut. Nov. 1, 1862. Res. Sept. 9, 1864.
W. N. Watson, enr. Oct. 18, 1862. Promoted to 2d Lieut. July 1, 1864, and to 1st Lieut. May 1, 1865. Mustered out with the Co. July 19, 1865.
Franklin H. Somers, enr. as 2d Lieut. Oct. 14, 1862. Promoted to 1st Lt. Nov. 20, 1863. Disch. May 7, 1864.
William C. Lemon, enr. as Sergt. Octl 11, 1862. Promoted to 1st Lt. May 1, 1865. Mustered out with the Cjo. July 19, 1865.
Edward P. Thompson, enl. Oct. 22, 1862. Promoted to Corp. Mustered out with the Co.
Francis E. Hacket, enl. Oct. 15, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Joseph R. Jotner, enl. Aug. 18, 1864. Disch. June 10, 1865.
Samuel Lay, enl. Oct. 10, 1862. Disch for disability June 24, 1864.
George W. Newton, enl. Oct. 23, 1862. Disch for disability Oct. 31, 1863.
William B. Waring, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Disch. Jan. 20, 1865.
Michael C. Smith, enl. Jan. 4,1 864. Mustered out with the Co.
John Noakes, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Promoted to Corp.
George A. Blakeslee, enl. Dec. 22, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
George B. Canniff, enl. Oct. 28, 1862. Disch. for disability June 27, 1863.
Truman Drake, enl. Dec. 8, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Henry H. Houseman, enl. Feb. 11, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Upton Houstman, enl. Dec. 12, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
William James, enl. Oct. 20, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
William Johnston, enl. Dec. 2, `863. Mustered out with the Co.
Thomas Locke, enl. Dec. 16, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
George W. Markee, enl. Dec. 16, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Artemus Pratt, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Thomas Robinson, enl. Dec. 7, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Andrew J. Windsor, enl. Dec. 13, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
William L. Stearns, cur. as 1st Sergt. Oct. 21, 1862.
Norman D. Meacham, enr. as Sergt. Oct. 27, 1863. Disch. for disability March 26, 1863.
Simeon S. Canniff, enrl. Oct. 22, 1862. Disch. for disability May 9, 1863.
Ephraim Pratt, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Disch. for disability Jan. 10, 1865.
Charles H. Porter, enl. Oct. 18, 1862. Disch. for disability Jan. 26, 1864.
Herman M. Reeves, enl. Oct. 13, 1857. Disch. for disability May 12, 1863.
Nicholas H. Ward, enl. Dec. 8, 1863. Disch. for disability April 16, 1864.
Joseph A. Clarke, enl. Oct. 17, 1862. Mustered out with the Co. July 19, 1865.
Sidney Downey, enl. Oct. 28, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Morris J. Stockman, enl. Nov. 1, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Elisha Lewis, enl. Nov. 3, 1862. Disch. Sept. 12, 1863.
Gilbert Terry, enl. Nov. 14, 1862. Disch. May 25, 1865.
Luke Abel, enl. Oct. 23, 1862. Promoted to Corp. Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 23, 1863.
Sullivan, S. Marble, enl. Oct. 14, 1862.
Charles G. Hues, enl. Nov. 6, 1862. Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 26, 1863.
Mark J. Chevalia, enl. Dec. 28, 1863. Mustered out with the Co. July 10, 1865.
Harvey T. Miller, enl. Dec. 21, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
William E. Williams, enl. Dec. 17, 1863. Left in Hosp. Jan. 27, 1865.
Gershom M. Barber, enr. as Capt. Nov. 1, 1862. Disch. April 11, 1865.
Jonathan Pickard, enr. as 1st Lieut. Nov. 1, 1862. Resigned Sept. 9, 1963.
Edward U. Adams, enl. Dec. 17, 1863. Disch. June 2, 1865.
James M. Hall, enl. Oct. 30, 1862. Disch. for disability June 22, 1863.
Simon Fockler, enl. March 1, 1863. Mustered out with the Co. July 13, 1865.
Louis Pelsker, enl. Dec. 10, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Robert English, enl. Feb. 20, 1863. Transf. to Inv. Corps Sept. 1, 1863.
Patrick Smith, enl. Oct. 11, 1862. Promoted to Corp. July 20, 1863. Mustered out with the Co. July 28, 1865.
George W. Morgan, enl. Dec. 6, 1862. Promoted to Corp. Oct. 30, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
John Black, enl. Oct. 18, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
James Bowles, enl.Feb. 21, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Frank Canfield, enl. Oct. 31, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Thomas B. Deselmo, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Ira E. Durand, enl. Oct. 11, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
James R. Saunders, enl. Jan. 12, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Samuel Wray, enl. Nov. 20, 1862. Mustered out with the Co.
Martin S. Ward, enl. Jan. 22, 1863. Mustered out with the Co.
Hiram Tisdale enl. Oct. 12, 1862. Transf. to Vet. Res. Corps Aug. 18, 1863. Promoted to Sergt. Mustered out Aug. 3, 1865.
David J. Nicholas, enl. Oct. 13, 1862. Died at Nashville, Aug. 20, 1863.
Frank Stephens, enl. Oct. 27, 1862. Died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 23, 1863.
Thomas Miller, enl. 10, 1862. Mustered out July 23, 1865.
History of Cuyahoga County, Ohio; Part Second: The Sharpshooters., compiled by Crisfield Johnson, Published by D. W. Ensign & Co., 1879, pages 161-162