- The total amount charged as interest on a loan or mortgage to a certain date.
- Total interest accrued.
- The sum of all interest payments to date or over the life of the loan.
- Something used for making mathematical calculations, in particular a small electronic device with a keyboard and a visual display
- a small machine that is used for mathematical calculations
- A calculator is a small (often pocket-sized), usually inexpensive electronic device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic. Modern calculators are more portable than most computers, though most PDAs are comparable in size to handheld calculators.
- an expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines)
cumulative interest calculator - Cumulative damage
Cumulative damage of welded joints
Fatigue is a mechanism of failure which involves the formation and growth of cracks under the action of repeated stresses. Ultimately, a crack may propagate to such an extent that total fracture of the member may occur. To avoid fatigue it is essential to design the structure with inherent fatigue strength. However, fatigue strength for variable amplitude loading is not a constant material property and any calculations are necessarily built on a number of assumptions. Cumulative Damage of Welded Joints explores the wealth of research in this important field and its implications for the design and manufacture of welded components.
After an Introduction, chapter two introduces the constant amplitude database, which contains results obtained in test conditions and which forms the basis of the basic S-N curves for various types of joint. Chapter three discusses the influence of residual stresses which can have a marked effect on fatigue behaviour. Chapter four explores variable amplitude loading and the problem of how information from laboratory tests, obtained under constant amplitude conditions, can be applied to the design of structures for service conditions. This problem is further investigated in the next chapter which is devoted to two and three level load testing. Chapters six, seven and eight look at the influence that the variety of variable loading spectra can have on fatigue strength, whether narrow or wide band loading or cycles of small stress range. Taking all of this knowledge, chapter nine discusses structure designs.
Cumulative Damage of Welded Joints is a comprehensive source of invaluable information for welding engineers, supervisors, inspection personnel and designers. It will also be of great interest for academics working in the fields of structural and mechanical engineering.
Story of khewra Salt Mines
2nd largest in world
Khewra Salt Mines is a salt mine located in Khewra, Jhelum District, Punjab in Pakistan, about 160 kilometres from Islamabad and 260 kilometres from Lahore. It attracts up to 40,000 visitors per year and is the second largest salt mine in the world. Situated in the foothills of the Salt Range, the Khewra Salt Mines are the oldest in the South Asia.
Salt has been mined at Khewra since 320 BC, in an underground area of about 110 sq. km. Khewra salt mine has estimated total of 220 million tones of rock salt deposits. The current production from the mine is 325,000 tons salt per annum.
The mine-head buildings have 19 stories, with 11 below ground. Only 50% salt is extracted and 50% is left as pillers to keep the mountain. The salt-mine is 288 meters above sea level and extends around 730 meters inside the mountains from the mine-mouth. The cumulative length of all tunnels is more than 40 km.
Salt occurs in a Pre-Cambrian deposit in the form of an irregular dome like structure. There are seven thick salt seams with a cumulative thickness of about 150 meters. At places the rock salt is 99% pure. Salt is transparent, white, pink, reddish to beef-color red. There are beautiful alternate bands of red and white color salt.
process of cumulative aggregation of grammatic fractals and tetrakys
process of cumulative aggregation of grammatic fractals and tetrakys
the one and one become joined into a higher order unit and then the higher order units become joined again in a fractal process that can be modelled along the lines of tetrakys
I have an update to make to this: although the fractal base is accurate, I am proceeding in this model in OCTAVES.
To get 'tetrakys' model, one must proceed by units (1+1 goes to 2 + 1 goes to 3 plus 1 goes to 4 which, with a very interesting null at the top of the pyramid (for those familiar with W D Gann etc.) gives cumalative sums of null, 2, 5, 9 (and note that 9 is the root of the Pythagorean geomatria system, indeed circa 500BC, it's unlikely they knew of 'zero' as a numerical concept (although they certainly knew of null as in no thing as root of all thing).
As a footnote, proceeding by octave gets very fast results - but using the 0,2,3,4 approach allows for far more creative flexibilty and variants on any given basic theme (this might appear all 'Greek' at present - but watch the trhead on Grammatical GA's & it will begin to make sense in eventually).
I will draw the new diagram up next week sometime..
cumulative interest calculator
An ecosystem is a complex of interconnected living organisms inhabiting a particular area or unit of space, together with their environment and all their interrelationships and relationships with the environment having a well-maintained ecological processes and interactions. It is characterised by the abundance of individual species populations; interspecies relationships; activity of organisms; physical and chemical characteristics of environment; flows of matter, energy, and information; and description of changes of these parameters with time. Hence, its surroundings can be categorised into physical and biological environment, which are self-defined, self-maintained and self-sustained dynamic natural systems. The physical environment comprises of lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, while the living beings in the biosphere constitute biological environment.The biosphere contains many delicate biological processes that have taken billions of years to evolve and there is a natural equilibrium for life sustaining processes dependent on relatively slow rates of recycling. These natural processes as well as resources are being over driven by human activities to meet the growing demands of the population. These developmental activities by humans ignoring the ecosystems and functional aspects are instrumental in bringing about irreversible changes in the ecosystem and their environment. The concern now is on the rise for the changes due to human induced activities that are proving detrimental, as it has exceeded the recycling rates of natural processes, which are altering the very nature of the environment.These changes are drastic, both to the environment and its inhabitants alike. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to do a retrospective analysis of the present situation to identify the degree of seriousness of different kinds of anthropogenic activities on the environment, plausible measures to curb further damaging to environment and better ways to live in harmony with the environment.