Moti Mosque (Pearl Mosque) is located in the Moti Mosque Quadrangle of the Lahore Fort. The mosque stands on a raised plinth of 6 feet 9 inches high. It is approached by a flight of eleven steps through an unpretentious portico at the northwest corner close to the portal of Jahangir's Makatib Khana.
As you step into the irregular octagonal hallway of
the mosque, hardly 21' x 25', darkened, and with
only a stream of light from the doorway, it is
impressive in the composition of its vaults with
their lofty proportions. Shorn of all decorative
features, its marble dassa (carved edging) on a
slightly raised floor featuring alcoves for shoes,
alone echoes its lost grandeur.
Three compartments of the front aisle, the central one, and those at the extreme ends are covered by domes, while the remaining compartments of both aisles have vaulting. The central compartment of the near aisle contains a mihrab deeply recessed in the back wall within the outlines of a cuspid arch. Adjacent to it on the north stands a mimbar (pulpit) of marble. In each of the other compartments of that aisle, the mihrab is indicated only by the outlines of a cuspid arch which, however, contains a nearly square niche at a height of 3 feet 10 inches from the floor. This feature is repeated in the side walls of both aisles. The floor of the prayer chamber is paved with marble slabs having musallahs marked with a black marble line, while the dado is defined by a double line of black and yellow marble. On the east is a compartment of irregular shape with three arched openings, of which the central one is plain and others are cusped. The eastern compartment is faced with marble and flanked on either side by a rectangular doorway set within the outlines of a cusped arch. The doorway to the north communicates to the portico, while that to the south is an entrance to the staircase ascending at the back of the eastern compartment to the roof. The wall on the south, which is faced with marble, bears the outlines of three cusped arches corresponding to similar arches which enclose the door openings of the northern compartments. The parapet bears pietra dura decoration inlaid with semi-precious stones in marble.
The shallow domes that you see are double domes, devised for better acoustics. The bulbous double domes are covered with marble and have lotus cresting which seems to have been crowned by metallic finials, now disappeared. The central dome, the largest, stands on a raised platform, nearly square, which springs from a circular drum 4 feet high. The platform is ornamented with a band of molding. The other two domes have lower drums and no platforms.
In view of a lack of any historical sources or
epigraphic evidence, there are conflicting opinions
regarding the authorship of the mosque—whether it is
Jahangir or Shah Jahan who should be credited with
this splendid piece of architecture. The confusion
was compounded by Henry Cope's assertion published
in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in
1858 regarding an inscription that he had found, on
"Moti Mandar in the fort" (a Sikh appellation for
Moti Masjid). According to Cope a certain Soondur
Khan, referring to himself as "the lowest of all
slaves of Jahangir, Padshah, son of Jalal-ud-din
Akbar Padshah Ghazi," had built the mosque.
Even though it is a small mosque—implying private and restricted usage—it has all the constituents of a mosque: a sahn or courtyard, a place for wazoo (ablutions) east of the courtyard, hujras (cloisters) for scholars or ulema, and an aiwan (main prayer chamber) with a central mihrab or
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