Harappa Sahiwal Pakistan


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Harappa

Harappa Pakistan is today a large village in the Sahiwal District  of Punjab, 15 miles southwest of the district town. Archaeologists  think that ancient Harappa was the urban center dominating the upper Indus region, much like Mohenjo-daro dominated the lower Indus Valley and Ganweriwala might have been the urban center for what is now Rajasthan.The site at Harappa was first briefly excavated by Sir Alexander Cunningham in 1872-73; two decades after brick robbers carried off the visible remains of the city. He found an Indus seal of unknown origin.  The first extensive excavations at Harappa were started by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni in 1920. His work and contemporaneous excavations at Mohenjo-daro first brought to the world's attention the existence of the forgotten Indus Valley civilization as the earliest urban culture in the Indian subcontinent. His work was followed later in the decade by that of Madho Sarup Vats, also of the Archaeological Survey of India. Excavations by other archaeologists  continued in the 1930's, and in1946 Sir Mortimer Wheeler excavated the so-called fortification walls and found the first pre-Indus Valley civilization (Kot Dijian) deposits. After independence in 1947 and coming in District Sahiwal of Province of Punjab, Pakistan, Harappa was excavated by Mohammed Rafique Mughal of the Archaeological Survey of Pakistan in 1966. In 1986, the first systematic, multi-disciplinary excavations of an  Indus Valley city were begun by the Harappa Archaeological Project (HARP), under the direction of George F. Dales and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer.The main features of the plan, the citadel on the west and the mounds of the ‘lower city’ towards the east and southeast have already been indicated. To the north a slightly hollowed belt containing notably green crops marks an old bed of the Ravi River. Today the river flows 6 miles further north. Between the citadel  and the riverbed, Mound F has been found to contain a remarkable and significant piece of town planning; to the south of the citadel lie the outlying hills, the Harappan cemetery and the post Harappan cemetery. To the southeast, sporadic digging has been carried out in Area G, but the ragged Mound E and its surroundings are virtually unexplored.There is an enormous amount still to be learned about the site, most of which remains unexcavated. The earliest deposits on  the site go back to 5300 B.C. and the area seems to have been continuously inhabited ever since. Archaeological evidence is the key to understanding Harappa’s past. Although Harappa continues to be the center of historical debate, further archaeological explanations may some day reveal the validity or inaccuracy in the historical accounts of Harappa. Regardless of its impact on written history, archaeology will continue to reveal the way of life  for Harappa's inhabitants.

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