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Introduction

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Bahawalpur (also Bhawalpur or Bhawulpore)  is the capital city of Bahawalpur District, Punjab Pakistan. Saraiki is the local language of the area. Urdu and English are also spoken by the people. Bahawalpur is located south of the Sutlej River and it lies in the Cholistanprincely state of Bahawalpur. The weather is hot and dry. Summer temperatures reach high forties degrees Celsius during the day and the nights are bit pleasant. pop. 403,408) located in region. It is situated 90 km from Multan,  420 km from Lahore and about 700 km from the national capital Islamabad. It was the capital of the former

History of Bahawalpur 

The city was founded in 1748 by Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi I, whose descendants ruled the area until it joined Pakistan in 1947. The Bahawalpur (princely state) was one of the largest states of British India, more than 450 kilometres long, and was  ruled by Nawab Sir Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V Bahadur, who decided to join Pakistan at the time of independence in 1947.

The Royal House of Bahawalpur is said to be of Arabic origin and claim descent from Abbas, progenitor of the Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad and Cairo.Sultan Ahmad II, son of Shah Muzammil of Egypt left that country and arrived in Sind with a large following of Arabs ca. 1370. He married a daughter of Raja Rai Dhorang Sahta, receiving  a third of the country as a dowry. Amir Fathu'llah Khan Abbasi, is the recognized ancestor of the dynasty.He conquered the Bhangar territory from Raja Dallu, of Alor and Bahmanabad, renaming it Qahir Bela.Amir Muhammad Chani Khan AbbasiAmir Bahadur Khan Abbasi abandoned Tarai and settled near Bhakkar, founding the town of Shikarpur in 1690. Daud Khan, the first of his family to rule Bahawalpur, originated from Sind where he had opposed the Afghan Governor of that province and was forced to flee. The Nawab  entered into Treaty relations with the HEIC, 22nd February 1833. The state acceded to the Dominion of Pakistan on 7th October 1947 and was merged into the province of West Pakistan on 14th October 1955. entered the imperial service and gained appointment as a Panchhazari in 1583. At his death, the leadership of the tribe was contested between two branches of the family, the Daudputras and the Kalhoras.

Important Places in Bahawalpur 

Noor Mehal is one of the three palaces that attracts tourists. Bahawalpur is also known for its distinctly embroidered slippers and shoes and the filigree pottery. It has a marble mosque in the Fawara Chowk and a few British buildings like the Science College. Bahawalpur has a modest museum with a fine collection of coins, medals, postage stamps of former State of Bahawalpur, manuscripts, documents, inscriptions, wood carvings, camel skin paintings, historical models and stone carvings. All the pieces date back to the Islamic and the pre-Islamic period.

It is an important marketing centre for the surrounding areas and is located on the cross roads between Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta and Karachi. Saraiki is the local language of the area. Urdu, Punjabi and English are also spoken and understood by most the people. There are three palaces, the main one Noor Mehal. Bahawalpur is also known for its distinctly embroiderd slippers and shoes and the filigree pottery which is made here. It has a marble mosque in the Fawara Chowk and a few British buildings like the Science College. Bahawalpur has a modest museum having a fine collection of coins, medals, postage stamps of former State of Bahawalpur, manuscripts, documents, inscriptions, wood carvings, camel skin paintings, historical models and stone carving etc. of Islamic and pre-Islamic period.  Islamia University of Bahawalpur had one of the largest university in the world Bahawal pur has also the Board of Intermediate and secondary education . Bahawalpur Museum was established in the year 1976. That is an autonomous body functioning under the administrative / financial control of the Board of Governors headed by District Coordination Officer, Bahawalpur. The Director is the principal of the institution who is responsible for its smooth functioning and effective management.In 1970, the Government of the Punjab decided to establish a new medical college in the province, in order to cater for the ever increasing demand of qualified doctors and to provide better health facilities to the people. As the fate would have, the historic city of Bahawalpur was chosen as the venue for this esteemed institution, which was named to commemorate the father of the nation Quaid-e-Azam Medical College, Pakistan.

Uch Sharif

Uch Sharif, 75 km from Bahawalpur, is a very old town. It is believed that it was founded in 500 BC. Some historians believe that Uch was there even before the advent of Bikramajit when Jains and Buddhist ruled over the sub-continent. At the time of the invasion by Alexander the Great, Uch was under Hindu rule. 

Uch Sharif has been described as a flourishing and beautiful town perched upon the plateau near the confluence of the Chenab and Ravi rivers. The famous shrines existing at Uch include those of Hazrat Bahawal Haleem, Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari, Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht, Shaikh Saifuddin Ghazrooni and Bibi Jawanadi. The shrine of Bibi Jawandi is a central Asian design, titled in the blue faience.

Uch is a small town today and divided into three different parts known as (i) Uch Bukhari, after Hazrat Syed Jalaluddin Bukhari Surkhposh, (ii) Uch Jilani, after the name of Hazrat Shaikh Mohammad Ghaus Qadri Jilani (Bandagi), who came from Halab in 887 AH, (iii) Uch Mughlan after the Mughal rulers 

Other Important Places 

  • Noor Mahal (House of the Royal Family)
  • Gulzar Mahal (House of the Royal Family)
  • Darbar Mahal (Royal Palace for operational controls of the state)
  • Farid Gate
  • Bahawalpur Museum
  • Bahawalpur National Library
  • Bahawalpur Zoo
  • National Wildlife Park, Lal Sohanra
  • Mausoleums
  • Channen Peer Tomb Yazman
  • Mausoleums of Haugha Sahib

General Features
Bahawalpur is has the only railroad bridge over the Sutlej river, making it an important rail centre. The surrounding area is mostly agricultural, and the city is a market town for mangoes, dates, wheat, sugarcane, and cotton. In addition, it has soap making and cotton spinning factories, as well as enterprises producing silk and cotton textiles, carpets, and pottery.

The Islamia University, a Medical College, and a Technical College are located in Bahawalpur.

State of Bahawalpur
The famous fort of Derawar is located near the city, being the private fort of the former royal family who continue to be major political players in Pakistan. The Lal Sohanra National Park is also located close to the city.

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