1.1 - The evolution of the Council of Europe Cultural Routes Programme. Historical excursus. Penelope Denu

The chapter illustrates the evolution of the Programme of Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe, from its origins to its most recent development, with the establishment of the Enlarged Partial Agreement on the Cultural Routes in December 2010 and the adoption of Committee of Ministers Resolutions CM/Res(2010)52 and CM/Res(2010)53.

1.2 - Aims and philosophy of the CoE Cultural Routes.

Penelope Denu

The Council of Europe has pursued cultural co-operation since its creation in 1949.

Its conventions in the cultural field span half a century of policy making, from the European Cultural Convention adopted in 1954 to develop mutual understanding among the peoples of Europe and reciprocal appreciation of their cultural diversity, to the 2005 Faro Convention.

The Cultural Routes programme is a direct application of the Council of Europe’s convictions regarding the value of cultural heritage for society, the importance of fostering multiple cultural identities and the need to stimulate intercultural dialogue. The cultural routes themselves are therefore called upon to uphold effectively these values at grass-roots level and to contribute to furthering the “soft law” approach of the Council of Europe.

1.3- The cultural context.

Penelope Denu and Eleonora Berti

The chapter presents the fundamental resolutions, policies, agreements, charts and values at the European and International level which are useful for the Cultural Routes managers.

In particular the  European Cultural Convention, the World Heritage Convention, the Faro Convention, the European Landscape Convention and the charters on Cultural Routes created by other international institution's programmes will be analysed.

  1. European Cultural Convention
  2. Unesco Conventions (World Heritage and Intangible Heritage)
  3. Faro Convention
  4. European Landscape Convention
  5. Other relevant conventions and texts
  6. Conclusions and lines of action for the implementation of the Conventions and Charters through the Cultural Routes.


2.1 - How to create a Cultural Route: phases of the project.

Eleonora Berti

The chapter will provide the managers of the Cultural Routes projects practical tools and guidelines to fulfil the set of requirement and criteria demanded by the Council of Europe to the new routes. The chapter will present the most important phases in the project of a cultural route and the rule of the European Institute of Cultural Routes in this important part of structuring and implementation of the project.

The chapter explains the objectives and the criteria of the Resolution Res(2010)52 and how a new project of cultural route can implement, in accordance within its theme, the philosophy and the values of the Council of Europe in the different fields of actions demanded -

2.1.1                     Preliminary diagnosis : identifying the key issues of the project

2.1.2                     Examination and explanation of the objectives and criteria described in the

Resolution (2010)52 on the Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe

2.1.3                     Phases of the project:

a.       Defining a European theme

b.      Identifying the elements of the route (criteria)

c.       Creating a European network

d.      Organising common activities

e.      Creating a visibility charter

2.1.4 Feasibility and foreshadowing of the projecct

2.2 -   How to create an European network: a legal approach.

The aim of the chapter will be to give an overview on the legal status used by the cultural routes already certified and to give a framework on the possible legal status for the new project of Cultural Routes, based on the opportunities and difficulties existing in the different countries members of the Council of Europe and on the specific requests on this topic contained in the Resolution Res (2010)52.

2.3 - Certification procedure.

Penelope Denu and Eleonora Berti

A new project has to pass different stages from the presentation of the dossier to the certification by the Council of Europe, involving different bodies: the European Institute of the Cultural Routes, the Enlarged Partial Agreement structures, the Council of Europe, the independent experts evaluating the projects.

The chapter describes the procedures for certification of new projects of Cultural Routes, in accordance with Resolutions Res(2010) 52 and Res(2010)53, explaining the rules and the importance of the various bodies and actors involved in the process.

2.3.1                     How and when the dossier has to be presented

2.3.2                     The phases of evaluation of the file

2.3.3                     Presentation before the Governing Board

2.3.4                     The decision on certification

2.3.5                     The award ceremony.


3.1 -       The scientific dimension of cultural routes: scientific board and networks of knowledge

Maria Gravari Barbas, Université Sorbonne Panthéon

The aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance of scientific boards and knowledge networks related to the European Cultural Routes as well as the role that these scientific bodies can play for the creation, the monitoring/evaluation, the enrichment and the further development of the routes.

The chapter will also put in evidence the role of scientific boards and networks of knowledge for the clustering of research centers, universities (students and academicians) in relation with stakeholders, nonprofit organizations and local/regional/national actors. It will show that this clustering can play an important role not only for each Cultural Route, but also, in a larger scale, for the European itineraries, by developing a European research network on Cultural Routes. The chapter will finally provide some examples of good practices related to the action and roles of selected Cultural Routes scientific boards.


3.1.1               Scientific board and knowledge networks as necessary tools for the creation and the

           development of European Cultural Routes

3.1.2               Nature, role, and responsibilities of the scientific boards and the knowledge networks

3.1.3               Examples and good practices


3.2 -       Marketing and Branding the Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe

"Why a strong brand identity matters"

            Nick Hall, Expert, Council of Europe

The introductory text will take a holistic look at how the Cultural Routes should invest in creating a strong brand identity for themselves and why successful branding ultimately pays off in the long-term development of the route. The introduction will also look and the importance of planning and making use of a wide range of marketing channels and opportunities, effectively bringing excellent short and medium term successes for the promotion of a route.

Looking at the Council of Europe's brand as a starting point, this section will look at the importance of having a strong and instantly recognisable brand and how a route can develop its own competitive identity without overwhelming or confusing consumers with yet more logos. The section will look at the difference between a label and a brand and explore different approaches towards developing a strong set of brand values both a route and European levels.  

A masterclass in marketing, a section will give practical advice to help routes plan successful marketing initiatives and a ensure a good return on their investment; particularly important as available funds are often very limited. The section will look at the importance of offering a clear value proposition to customers and ensuring an appropriate level of product development to offer clear fulfilment to marketing campaigns.  Technology is changing all the time and as it continues to evolve so do marketing practices, with new opportunities to reach consumers presenting themselves every day. This section is a practical 'how to' guide on getting the most out digital media, with tips and tricks on creating a big impact without breaking the bank. Each of the sub-sections below will offer a clear explanation with practical 'know how' on how to approach each field with a review of tools and resources that can help save a lot of time and illuminate the dependency on web developers, creatives and programmers, leaving more time and financial resources to invest in promotion.

3.2.1          Building a Brand

o   Successful Branding of Cultural Routes

o   The Council of Europe Brand

o   A Common Brand Approach

o   Design and Creative Approaches

o   Label vs. Brand

o   Existing Complementary and Similar Brands

3.2.2          Marketing Principles

o   Product Development and Value Proposition

o   Defining Target Markets and Segmentation

o   Successful Campaign Planning

o   Partnership and Co-op Marketing

o   Achieving Fulfilment from Events

o   Understanding Consumer Interests and Behaviour

3.2.3          Digital Marketing and Innovation Toolkit

o   Web Design

o   Email Newsletters

o   Search Engine Optimisation

o   Media Planning and Search Engine Marketing

o   Social Media

o   Mobile and Tablet

o   Gorilla Marketing

o   Analytics and Performance Testing

o   Semantic Web

o   Do's and don'ts

Putting Theory into Practice and Staying Ahead of the Game

3.3 -   The heritage of cultural routes: between landscapes, traditions and identity.

            Eleonora Berti, European Institute of Cultural Routes, and Alessia Mariotti, University of Bologna

The Cultural Routes are presented as a cultural territorial cross-border project: the chapter presents how this cultural territorial cross-border project has to be linked within the territories which it crosses and how the participation of the inhabitants of the areas which it goes through is a fundamental element in the “identification” process, which the inhabitants have to undertake, and in the actions aimed at achieving a sustainable development of their territory, as recommended by the Resolution (2010)52.

3.3.1          The components of the cultural route as a cultural territorial cross-border project

3.3.2          The rules of the heritage for the territories, their identity and visibility

3.3.3          The reticular and territorial patterns in the cultural planning of the Cultural Routes

3.3.4          Participative democracy and participative approaches along the cultural routes

3.3.5          Conclusion and guidelines.

3.4 -   The geographic dimension of a Cultural Route: clusters, cultural districts and tourism   systems.

            Alessia Mariotti, University of Bologna

A cultural route has a number of different dimensions: historic, geographic, economic, social, etc. In this chapter we will focus on the economic geography factors underpinning the development of a viable route and more precisely its role in the creation of territorial clusters and districts dynamics, involving both the culture and the tourism sector.

In particular the chapter outline will be the following:

  1. Routes and territorial development, a questioning introduction
  2. Cultural districts and local tourism systems: from the theory to the practice
  3. Policies for a sustainable local development of tourism and culture through cultural routes
  4. Case studies
  5. Conclusions and remarks

3.5 -   Sustainability and social responsibility through Cultural Routes.

            Yoel Mansfeld, University of Haifa

3.5.1          Introduction: Setting the framework for socio-cultural sustainability in the context of

communities in and around Cultural Routes

3.5.2          Insight into past and current socio-cultural policies and practices in Cultural Routes.

3.5.3          Setting specific socio-cultural goals for sustainable communities in and around Cultural Routes: a planning, development and management approach

3.5.4          Towards best practice in Socio-cultural responsibility among communities in and around Cultural Routes: Proposed community-centred tools.

o   The role of socio-cultural feasibility studies

o   Stakeholder mapping and analysis

o   Introducing the integrated NGT-Value Stretch tool

o   Practical guide to socio-cultural carrying capacity measurement

o   Application spectrum on communities in and around Cultural Routes


4.1 -   Performance evaluation and development of sustainable cultural tourism Measures for the Council of Europe Cultural Routes.

            Ksenya Kovanova, Expert, Council of Europe

This Chapter offers an outline of CoE cultural routes’ evaluation tools and criteria that were developed in line with the most recent Committee of Ministers Resolution on Cultural Routes CM/Res(2010)52 and the recommendations of the Study on the Impact of the CoE Cultural Routes on SMEs Innovation, Competitiveness, and Clustering. These criteria will be employed for CoE cultural routes (activities and projects) performance assessment in order to help the CoE cultural routes to address the existing challenges, to collaborate more effectively trans-nationally, and to realise their potential for cultural tourism developpment. Recently the CoE Cultural Routes have also gained considerable attention from the policy makers. That is why regular evaluation of Council of Europe’s cultural routes’ performance and impact is essential for continuous tracking and estimations of their progress, capacities, their needs and requirements more accurately. In addition, the recently completed Study on the Impact of the CoE Cultural Routes on SMEs Innovation, Competitiveness and Clustering (2011)  identified CRs performance evaluation as one out of four strategic areas, along which a focused action is needed in order to assure sustainable development of the CoE Cultural Routes Programme in the future.

Therefore, professionally elaborated evaluation tools and criteria need to be employed in order to help the CoE cultural routes to address the existing challenges, to collaborate more effectively trans-nationally, and to realise their potential for cultural tourism development. This will also allow the routes to preserve the uniqueness of their heritage sights while opening them to larger audiences of visitors. Moreover, these evaluation tools must be developed in line with major CoE principles and requirements and take into account the text of the most recent Committee of Ministers Resolution on Cultural Routes CM/Res(2010)52.

4.2 -   New tourists and new tourism strategies for Cultural Routes. 

            Wided Majdoub, University of Sousse


4.2.1          Is new type of tourism arising?

o   Characterising the changes

o   From assumptions of experience…

o   To creative tourism

4.2.2          Strategies for cultural routes: reinventing tourism?

o   The growth of experiential marketing

o   Moving from a Good Dominant Logic to a Service Dominant Logic

o   Cultural routes and the co-creation of value


4.3 -   Fund Raising for Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe.

            Marianna Martinoni, Fundraising consultant, The Fund Raising School - AICCON Bologna

The chapter aims to understand what the future will look like for the funding of the cultural field given the serious economical crisis we are experiencing, in particularly concerning the funding of a program like Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe. This particularly critic scene compels cultural operators and organizations to urgently find their own and effective strategy toward economic sustainability, as a result of a careful scrutiny of their own functioning and projects and of the environment where they operate, taking into account the complexity of tools and ways of collecting funds through the private markets- individuals, business, foundations. To cope with the general reduction in government spending in culture sector, it is therefore necessary to involve new potential supporters of arts and culture such as foundations, individuals and business companies by sharing goals and results and allowing them to experience rich and stimulating arts and culture contexts.

The chapter aims to provide useful information at a macro-economical level or simply at the level of the day-to day activities of organizations involved in the program.

By facing the matter in concrete terms, it's important not to forget that fundraising strategy adoption implies the cultural organizations' willingness – which is not always obvious- to deal with deep and profound change as far as internal settlements, communication strategies and public involvement.

Choosing a suitable fundraising strategy requires an important commitment for the organization in order to scrutinize itself and its environment, its own stakeholders, real and potential public target.

4.3.1          Fundraising for Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe: existing tools and new

possibilities to support projects and activities in the involved countries

4.3.2          European Commission and Cultural Routes Program

4.3.3          Cultural Routes and Local Governements

4.3.4          Beyond public funds, collecting funds through the private market:

o   How to involve Business beyond sponsorship

o   Grant making foundations: how to involve corporate and community foundations 

o   Individuals: how to involve European citizens as individuals in supporting cultural

European heritage


4.4 -   Guidelines for a cultural routes management plan.

            Alessia Mariotti, Univeristy of Bologna and Eleonora Berti, European Institute of Cultural Routes,

Management plans for cultural heritage have become more and more relevant in the last ten to twenty years, in particular for sensitive areas such as historic city centres, cultural tourism attractions and heavy visited landmarks or for systems of homogeneous cultural elements in trans border regions. UNESCO and the World Heritage Centre have first raised the issue and strongly supported the State Parties in the elaboration of such plans for their properties.

The programme of Cultural Route does not establish at the moment any specific tool in this sense, but along different Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe the local authorities have created master plans to manage both Cultural Routes and related territories.

In this chapter we will shortly introduce the main methodology for the elaboration of Management Plans for cultural heritage properties, giving few examples of different type of sites and plans, also suitable for cultural routes. In particular we will try to show if and when management plans are useful for cultural routes managers, underlining the feedback and follow-up  function of the plans and its role in the monitoring and evaluation phase of the project.

  1. What is a Management Plan?
  2. Different sites(routes) different methodologies
  3. Case studies
  4. Guidelines

Useful links / Liens utiles

European Institute of Cultural Routes

Council of Europe

Study of Impact of European Cultural Routes on SMEs’ innovation and competitiveness

Enlarged Partial Agreement on Cultural Routes


Resolution Res(2010)53 establishingan enlarged partial agreement on cultural routes

Resolution Res(2010)52 on thecriteria for the award of the “Council of Europe Cultural Route certification”