Dirty Bomb Terror Attack

OBAMACSI.COM: The propaganda involving a dirty bomb has been rather steady since 9/11, but has increased in volume and veracity over the last 2 years. Since the nuclear terror false-flag failure at Super Bowl XLV in Dallas, Texas, on February 6, 2011, there has been an apparent move to launch multiple dirty bomb terror attacks in America. These dirty bombs may take the form of conventional explosives, but they will likely to be attached to a more spectacular act of terror such as a plane crash into a stadium or a skyscraper. A dirty bomb is rather harmless nature, minus the initial explosion, but the psychological damage due to all of the Hollywood propaganda could be rather substantial.

1. The Dirty Bomb": The science and propaganda behind a dirty bomb is quite confusing and purposefully so. The following two abstracts from two cited articles are contrasted to show bi-polar nature of the topic:

A) "Those closest to the [Dirty Bomb] would be the most likely to sustain injuries due to the explosion. As radioactive material spreads, it becomes less concentrated and less harmful...Depending on the scenario, an [Dirty Bomb] explosion could create fear and panic, contaminate property, and require potentially costly cleanup (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2011).

B) "But at one km, radiation doses would rise to six times background level, increasing the risk of cancer by about one in 100. At 500 meters downwind from the blast, the risk of dying of cancer from this radiation exposure would be about one in 50 and at 200 m radiation levels would be 80 times background level, equating to a one in seven increased risk of dying of the disease...The next challenge would be to deal with the contaminated parts of central London. Any clean-up job would be immense and costly, but left undisturbed the particles could remain harmful for 200 years (BBC, 2003).

2. Dirty Bomb Propaganda: Unprecedented dirty bomb propaganda packaged as news has been filter through both mainstream and alternative news sources in an attempt to psychologically prepare and terrorize the public prior to the dirty bomb false-flag terror attack. A dirty bomb response from the government will likely be used to quarantine and close parts of the cities affected. Based on the current propaganda, injuries sustained in the attacks will likely be exaggerated by the media, similarly to the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

3. Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies: A number of dirty bomb plots and patsies have been conveniently "discovered" by the U.S. government since 9/11. These incidents appear to be contrived in an attempt to terrorize the public, justify the wars in the Middle East, and psychologically prepare the American public for the dirty bomb scenario. A dirty bomb card is in the false-flag deck, the question is when will it be played.

4. Dirty Bomb Drills: Since 9/11, dirty bomb drills have become the norm across America. These drills prepare local, state, and federal law enforcement officials for a dirty bomb attack which now appears imminent. These drills also psychologically prepare government officials by insinuating that "terrorists" will be responsible for these atrocious acts of terror while evidence and history show otherwise. The dirty bomb terror drills have simulated dirty bomb terror attacks on planes, auto shows, race car tracks, sports facilities, and universities. A dirty bomb attack at an event with thousands of people will obviously create mass panic and chaos if and when the dirty bomb drill goes live.

5. Nuclear Science is Easy: If reports from the media and the U.S. government are to be believed, nuclear science is easy and even a boy scout can build a dirty bomb. These reports are issued to confuse people so when a real nuclear device is detonated, people will have an easier time believing that folks in a cave were able to build it. Obviously, nuclear science is, well, nuclear science, and it is extremely complex and intricate, ultimately making the only possible perpetrator of a nuclear attack a government entity.

6: Dirty Bomb: As Seen on TV: Like most earth changing events of the last 50 years, the “As Seen on TV” slogan can be dutifully applies. Dirty bomb propaganda films and documentaries have been slowly preparing the public for the inevitable dirty bomb terror attack that will undoubtedly be blamed on Muslims and Arabs. Interestingly, the facts and information contained within the movies regarding dirty bombs is in direct conflict with information from the United States Regulatory Commission. Essentially, a dirty bomb, aside from the initial explosion, is relatively harmless. Clearly, the TV and movie networks never got that memo.


OBAMACSI.COM: The science and propaganda behind a dirty bomb is quite confusing and purposefully so. The following two abstracts from two cited articles are contrasted to show bi-polar nature of the topic:

A) "Those closest to the [Dirty Bomb] would be the most likely to sustain injuries due to the explosion. As radioactive material spreads, it becomes less concentrated and less harmful...Depending on the scenario, an [Dirty Bomb] explosion could create fear and panic, contaminate property, and require potentially costly cleanup (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2011).

B) "But at one km, radiation doses would rise to six times background level, increasing the risk of cancer by about one in 100. At 500 meters downwind from the blast, the risk of dying of cancer from this radiation exposure would be about one in 50 and at 200 m radiation levels would be 80 times background level, equating to a one in seven increased risk of dying of the disease...The next challenge would be to deal with the contaminated parts of central London. Any clean-up job would be immense and costly, but left undisturbed the particles could remain harmful for 200 years (BBC, 2003).

Title: Backgrounder On Dirty Bombs
Unites States Nuclear Regulatory Commission



A “dirty bomb” is one type of a “radiological dispersal device” (RDD) that combines a conventional explosive, such as dynamite, with radioactive material.

The terms dirty bomb and RDD are often used interchangeably in the media. Most RDDs would not release enough radiation to kill people or cause severe illness - the conventional explosive itself would be more harmful to individuals than the radioactive material. However, depending on the scenario, an RDD explosion could create fear and panic, contaminate property, and require potentially costly cleanup. Making prompt, accurate information available to the public could prevent the panic sought by terrorists.
A dirty bomb is in no way similar to a nuclear weapon or nuclear bomb. A nuclear bomb creates an explosion that is millions of times more powerful than that of a dirty bomb. The cloud of radiation from a nuclear bomb could spread tens to hundreds of square miles, whereas a dirty bomb’s radiation could be dispersed within a few blocks or miles of the explosion. A dirty bomb is not a “Weapon of Mass Destruction” but a “Weapon of Mass Disruption,” where contamination and anxiety are the terrorists’ major objectives.

Impact of a Dirty Bomb

The extent of local contamination would depend on a number of factors, including the size of the explosive, the amount and type of radioactive material used, the means of dispersal, and weather conditions. Those closest to the RDD would be the most likely to sustain injuries due to the explosion. As radioactive material spreads, it becomes less concentrated and less harmful. Prompt detection of the type of radioactive material used will greatly assist local authorities in advising the community on protective measures, such as sheltering in place, or quickly leaving the immediate area. Radiation can be readily detected with equipment already carried by many emergency responders. Subsequent decontamination of the affected area may involve considerable time and expense.

Immediate health effects from exposure to the low radiation levels expected from an RDD would likely be minimal. The effects of radiation exposure would be determined by:

  1. the amount of radiation absorbed by the body;
  2. the type of radiation (gamma, beta, or alpha);
  3. the distance from the radiation to an individual;
  4. the means of exposure-external or internal (absorbed by the skin, inhaled, or ingested); and
  5. the length of time exposed.

The health effects of radiation tend to be directly proportional to radiation does. In other words, the higher the radiation does, the higher the risk of injury.

Protective Actions

In general, protection from radiation is afforded by:

  1. minimizing the time exposed to radioactive materials;
  2. maximizing the distance from the source of radiation; and
  3. shielding from external exposure and inhaling radioactive material.

More detailed guidance is provided in the questions and answers at the end of this Backgrounder.

Sources of Radioactive Material

Radioactive materials are routinely used at hospitals, research facilities, industrial and construction sites. These radioactive materials are used for such purposes as diagnosing and treating illnesses, sterilizing equipment, and inspecting welding seams. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission together with 33 “Agreement” States, which also regulate radioactive material, administer over 21,000 licenses of such materials. The vast majority of these materials are not useful as an RDD.

Control of Radioactive Material

NRC and state regulations require owners licensed to use or store radioactive material to secure it from theft and unauthorized access. These measures have been greatly strengthened since the attacks of September 11, 2001. Licensees must promptly report lost or stolen high-risk radioactive material. Local authorities also assist in making a determined effort to find and retrieve such sources. Most reports of lost or stolen material involve small or short-lived radioactive sources not useful for an RDD.

Past experience suggests there has not been a pattern of collecting such sources for the purpose of assembling an RDD. It is important to note that the radioactivity of the combined total of all unrecovered sources over the past 5 years (when corrected for radioactive decay) would not reach the threshold for one high-risk radioactive source. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said world-wide. The U.S. Government is working to strengthen controls on high-risk radioactive sources both at home and abroad.

Risk of Cancer

Just because a person is near a radioactive source for a short time or gets a small amount of radioactive dust on himself or herself does not mean he or she will get cancer. Any additional risk will likely be extremely small. Doctors specializing in radiation health effects will be able to assess the risks and suggest mitigating medical treatment, once the radioactive source and exposure levels have been determined.

There are some medical treatments available that help cleanse the body of certain radioactive materials. Prussian blue has been proven effective for ingestion of cesium-137 (a radioactive isotope). In addition, potassium iodide (KI) can be used to protect against thyroid cancer caused by iodine-131 (radioactive iodine). However, KI, which is available as a “over the counter” offers no protection to other parts of the body or against other radioactive isotopes. Medical professionals are best qualified to determine how to best treat symptoms (United States Nuclear Regulatory Committee, 2011).

Title: The "Dirty Bomb" Scenario
June 10, 2002

Osama Bin Laden has made no secret of his ambition to join the nuclear club — he has even proclaimed it a "religious duty" for Muslim states to acquire nuclear, chemical and biological weapons to attack the West. But intelligence officials believe that the best he has managed to achieve, thus far, is a limited membership of that club, in the form of radioactive material that could be dispersed using conventional explosives — the so-called "dirty bomb."


Speculation over a possible al Qaeda nuclear threat has mounted since John Ashcroft announced the arrest of Abdullah Al Mujahir, a U.S. citizen and former Chicago street gang member for allegedly conspiring with al Qaeda to detonate a diry bomb inside the U.S.

But that plot isn't the only thing worrying U.S. officials. The Times of London in November reported that Western intelligence officials believe bin Laden's organization has acquired nuclear materials, allegedly from Pakistan. Although the Pakistani government pooh-poohed the reports and insists its nuclear program is in safe hands, it had earlier placed two of its best-known former nuclear scientists in "protective custody." One had been an outspoken supporter of the Taliban.

Concerns over Pakistan's nukes aren't limited to the possibility of small amounts of nuclear waste finding its way into the hands of Al Qaeda. Know-how remains an essential component of any nuclear weapons program, and Western intelligence services are plainly concerned over the possibility of bin Laden's network attracting sympathetic individuals from among Pakistan's nuclear scientists.

But even if Al Qaeda is in possession of nuclear material, it need not necessarily have come from Pakistan. Unsubstantiated rumors have abounded for much of the past decade about the possibility of small nuclear bombs being lost by Moscow during the breakup of the Soviet Union, and possibly being sold by criminals to terrorists. In the past eight years, 175 cases have been recorded worldwide of nuclear materials (not bombs) being smuggled out of former Soviet territories and other countries.


Such material could have reached bin Laden through criminals — intelligence officials reportedly believe Al Qaeda operatives have been stung more than once by con men offering them relatively harmless spent fuel disguised as weapons-grade radioactive material — or by sympathizers in Chechnya. Bin Laden operatives reportedly also tried in 1993 to buy enriched uranium produced in South Africa on the black market.

While it may be far from inconceivable that bin Laden's network may have the capability to create a dirty bomb, operating a nuclear program would be a Herculean challenge for an organization whose survival depends on its relative invisibility. Even fully-functioning states such as Pakistan have needed decades of research and the assistance of nuclear-capable allies to develop their bomb programs, and they haven't had to hide the extensive scientific and industrial infrastructure required to build nuclear weapons. And given that a dirty bomb's function is primarily to spread terror through contamination, terrorists may be inclined to view chemical and biological weapons as a more attractive investment.

But just as the September 11 terrorists created fearsome weapons out of America's own civilian transport system, their successors may seek to do the same with the U.S. civilian energy infrastructure. The International Atomic Energy Agency warned last fall that "we have been alerted to the potential of terrorists targeting nuclear facilities or using radioactive sources to incite panic, contaminate property, and even cause injury or death among civilian populations," and called for massive new investment in the security of the world's nuclear energy facilities. Indeed, the first order of business in defending against an Al Qaeda nuclear threat may simply involve rendering America's atomic energy plants safe from attack (TIME, 2002).

What Is A "Dirty Bomb"?
October 9, 2005
ABC News

A "dirty bomb" is an explosive radiation dispersal device that uses a conventional weapon (e.g. dynamite) as its means of dispersing radioactive material. It is not the same as an atomic or nuclear bomb.

Where a nuclear weapon uses fission to provoke an enormous explosion of radiation, a dirty bomb simply scatters radioactive material that is likely to contaminate an area but not cause mass casualties from fire or radiation poisoning.

Dirty bombs are generally referred to as weapons of mass "disruption" as opposed to weapons of mass "destruction" because of their capacity to provoke widespread panic and fear of radiation, as opposed to large-scale casualties.

Potential Impact

The local contamination impact of a dirty bomb depends on 1) the size of the bomb, 2) the type and amount of radioactive material, 3) the type and size of conventional weapon used, and 4) the weather conditions at the time the device is detonated and the physical surroundings.

Main Dangers

Immediate deaths and injury are more likely to stem from the explosion than from any radiation. However, even low-level radioactive contamination of a city building or few blocks could take months to clean up. In certain cases, buildings may be more costly or difficult to decontaminate than to tear down and rebuild (ABC News, 2005).

Title: "Dirty Bombs"
October 19, 2006
Source: Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)


What is a “Dirty Bomb”?

A “dirty bomb,” also known as a radiological weapon or a readiological dispersal device (RDD), is a conventional explosive packaged with radioactive materials. A dirty bomb kills or injures through the initial blast of the conventional explosive, and by airborne radiation and contamination (hence the term “dirty”).


How much Expertise does it Take to Make a Dirty Bomb?

Not much more than it takes to make a conventional bomb. No special assembly is required; the regular explosive simply disperses the radioactive material packed into the bomb. The hardest part is acquiring the radioactive material, not building the bomb. According to a March 2002 Washington Post report, the Bush administration’s consensus view was that al-Qaeda had radioactive contaminants, such as strontium 90 and cesium 137, which could be used to make a dirty bomb.

In January 2003, British officials found documents in the Afghan city of Herat indicating that al-Qaeda had successfully built a small dirty bomb. In late December 2003, homeland security officials worried that al-Qaeda would detonate a dirty bomb during New Year’s Eve celebrations or college football bowl games, according to The Washington Post. The Department of Energy sent scores of undercover nuclear scientists with radiation detection equipment to key locations in five major U.S. cities, the Post reported.

The relative ease of constructing dirty bombs makes them particularly worrisome. Even so, expertise matters. Not all dirty bombs are equally dangerous: the cruder the weapon, the less damage it causes. It is unclear whether terrorists have access to the sophisticated technologies needed to work with high-grade radioactive material.

Is a Dirty Bomb a Nuclear Weapon?

No. Nuclear weapons involve a complex nuclear-fission reaction and are thousands of times more devastating.

Is a Dirty Bomb a Weapon of Mass Destruction?

Yes, but more because of its capacity to cause terror and disruption than its ability to inflict heavy casualties. Depending on the sophistication of the bomb, wind conditions, and the speed with which the area of the attack was evacuated, the number of deaths and injuries from a dirty bomb explosion might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb explosion. But panic over radioactivity and evacuation measures could create chaos. Moreover, the area struck would be off-limits during cleanup efforts, effectively paralyzing a local economy and reinforcing public fears.

Has a Dirty Bomb ever been Detonated?

No. According to a UN report, Iraq tested a one-ton radiological bomb in 1987 but gave up on the idea because the radiation levels it generated were insufficient. In 1995 Chechen rebels planted, but failed to detonate a dirty bomb consisting of dynamite and cesium 137 in Moscow's Ismailovsky Park. In 2002 the United States arrested an alleged al-Qaeda operative, Jose Padilla, for plotting to build and detonate a dirty bomb in an American city. In 2003 British intelligence agents and weapons researchers found detailed diagrams and documents in Afghanistan suggesting that al-Qaeda may have succeeded in building a dirty bomb. Al-Qaeda detainees in American custody claim such a dirty bomb exists, but none have been discovered.

Which Radioactive Materials could be used to make a Dirty Bomb?

Many types of radioactive materials with military, industrial, or medical applications could be used in a dirty bomb. Weapons-grade plutonium or freshly spent nuclear fuel would be the most deadly, but these are also the most difficult to obtain and handle. Medical supplies such as radium or certain cesium isotopes used in cancer treatments could also be used. As little as a measuring cup’s worth of radioactive material would be needed, though small amounts probably would not cause severe harm, especially if scattered over a wide area (Council on Foreign Relations, 2006).


OBAMACSI.COM: Unprecedented dirty bomb propaganda packaged as news has been filter through both mainstream and alternative news sources in an attempt to psychologically prepare and terrorize the public prior to the dirty bomb false-flag terror attack. A dirty bomb response from the government will likely be used to quarantine and close parts of the cities affected. Based on the current propaganda, injuries sustained in the attacks will likely be exaggerated by the media, similarly to the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

Title: What If A Dirty Bomb Hit London?
Date: February 14, 2003
Source: BBC

Abstract: It wouldn't take much for terrorists to wreak havoc in London - just a simple explosive and some industrial waste. Such is the gruesome reality of the dirty bomb.

Fears of a terrorist attack on the UK by Islamic extremists are running at an all-time high.


The discovery of the deadly poison ricin in a London flat has heightened concerns and recently Tony Blair said it was not a case of "if" but "when".

One frightening possibility is the so-called dirty bomb - a crudely-made device that combines a simple explosive with any radioactive material. The idea is that the blast disperses the radioactive material willy nilly.

The dirty bomb is perhaps the least understood of all terror weapons, but new research by BBC Two's Horizon programme brings home the full horror of how a dirty bomb attack might affect London.

The dirty bomb is sometimes called the "poor man's nuclear weapon". But whereas the aim of a nuclear bomb is instant and outright destruction, a dirty bomb would have an entirely different effect.

It would wreak panic in built-up areas, see large areas contaminated and closed off and result in long-term illnesses such as cancer, caused by the dispersed radioactive material attacking living cells.

Using sophisticated modelling, experts commissioned by Horizon constructed a scenario around a radioactive material called caesium chloride, which in the old Soviet Union was used in seed irradiating.

Much of this and other radioactive material used by the Soviets is now unaccounted for. No one knows whether it has fallen into unsafe hands.

Particles Disperse

Experts working for Enviros, a consultancy that advises nuclear authorities around the world, modelled a fictional explosion combining a handful of caesium chloride - equivalent to the contents of one Soviet seed irradiating machine - with 10lbs of explosive.

They then "placed" the fictional bomb in Trafalgar Square.

The blast itself might kill 10 people immediately. As the emergency services arrived at the scene of the incident a few minutes later, they would realise this was no ordinary blast.

"The simple buoyancy of the air that's been heated may carry the radioactive material tens of metres up into the air," says Graham Smith, of Enviros.

Almost immediately, millions of tiny flakes of caesium chloride would be floating in the breeze over London. In seconds, depending on the direction of the wind, the plume could reach Whitehall. A minute later Charing Cross, then the City and within half an hour radioactive smoke could reach London's suburbs - 10 kilometres away.

"We've got contaminated air moving across London and there would be no indication that contamination was there," says Mr Smith.

Cancer Time Bomb

As the air began to cool, the particles would fall on people who are completely unaware of the danger around them. They would settle on parks, gardens, pavements and cars.

The worry then is of a cancer time bomb. Every day we are exposed to natural radiation, and in low doses this background level is harmless.

Anyone five km from the blast would face only a tiny increased risk of cancer - one in 1,000 - as the background level would be largely unaffected.

But at one km, radiation doses would rise to six times background level, increasing the risk of cancer by about one in 100. At 500 metres downwind from the blast, the risk of dying of cancer from this radiation exposure would be about one in 50 and at 200 m radiation levels would be 80 times background level, equating to a one in seven increased risk of dying of the disease.

The next challenge would be to deal with the contaminated parts of central London. Any clean-up job would be immense and costly, but left undisturbed the particles could remain harmful for 200 years.

One option might be to abandon or demolish parts of the city.

But perhaps the biggest immediate threat wrought by a dirty bomb is not the destruction or the threat to life, but its ability to stir blind panic among thousands, maybe millions, of people.

A leak of caesium chloride in the city of Goiania, southern Brazil, in 1987 contaminated 200 people. The experience gives a useful template for how other cities might cope.

When news of an attack breaks, there will be a clamour for information and help. People will want to know the extent of contamination, but it can be hard to supply answers.

In the Brazil example, medical services were swamped as a tenth of the city's population queued for radiation screening.

It is the dirty bomb's power to spread fear and spawn chaos that makes it a really effective weapon (BBC, 2003).


OBAMACSI.COM: A number of dirty bomb plots and patsies have been conveniently "discovered" by the U.S. government since 9/11. These incidents appear to be contrived in an attempt to terrorize the public, justify the wars in the Middle East, and psychologically prepare the American public for the dirty bomb scenario. A dirty bomb card is in the false-flag deck, the question is when will it be played.

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies
Date: May 8, 2002
Jose Padilla
Chicago, Illinois
Alleged Dirty Bomb
Target: United States

Notes: Case was false-flag in that the incident was major terror news post 9/11 but the dirty bomb charges were later dropped. Coincidentally, Padilla was arested in Chicago, Illinoise.

U.S. Authorities Capture 'Dirty Bomb' Suspect
June 10, 2002

Abstract: Federal officials have captured a U.S. citizen with suspected ties to al Qaeda who allegedly planned to build and explode a radioactive "dirty bomb" in the United States, the Justice Department said Monday.

U.S. officials said Washington was the probable target of the plot. FBI Director Robert Mueller said the plot was in the "discussion stage" when the suspect, Abdullah Al Muhajir, was arrested. Mueller said the plot had not gone any further, to the knowledge of U.S. authorities.

Attorney General John Ashcroft said Al Muhajir -- who was born Jose Padilla -- was captured May 8 as he flew from Pakistan into O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. Officials described the flight as a reconnaissance mission.

Officials said that when Al Muhajir arrived in Chicago, he declared having $8,000 but was found to have more than $10,000 in his possession.

In the weeks before he flew to Chicago, Al Muhajir was tracked flying between Pakistan, Egypt and Switzerland, officials said.

U.S. officials later said an "associate" of Al Muhajir had been arrested in Pakistan before May 8. It was not clear whether this was the "associate" Ashcroft referred to when he said Al Muhajir was working with someone in Pakistan on plans to build a dirty bomb. (Full story)

A dirty bomb is a conventional bomb equipped with radioactive material designed to spread over a wide area.

Depending on the circumstances of the explosion, the number of deaths and injuries from a dirty bomb might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb explosion. But panic over radioactivity and evacuation measures could snarl a city, and the area struck would be off-limits for at least several months during cleanup efforts. (More on dirty bombs)

Ashcroft said Al Muhajir, 31, would be treated as an "enemy combatant" of the United States, a move that means he has fewer legal rights than an ordinary defendant in a criminal case.

President Bush signed off Sunday night on the decision to treat Al Muhajir as an enemy combatant, senior U.S. officials said, adding the government faced a Tuesday deadline to decide whether to charge Al Muhajir in the federal court system or turn him over to the Defense Department.

Bush accepted the recommendations of Ashcroft and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, the officials said, and the transfer from Justice Department to Defense Department custody was made Monday morning (CNN, 2002).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies
October 13, 2006
Dhiren Barot
London, England, New York, New York
Dirty Bomb Plot
New York Stock Exchange, International Monetary Fund, World Bank
Quote: "I plead guilty."
Notes: Son of an International Banker

Man Admits Terror Plot To Blow Up Wall St Amid 'Dirty Bomb' Revelation
October 13, 2006
Daily Mail

Abstract: A British Muslim terrorist mastermind faces life in jail after he admitted plotting a radioactive 'dirty bomb' attack in the UK and a string of devastating atrocities in the USA.

Dhiren Barot, 34, planned to kill "as many innocent people as possible" by blowing up some of the world's largest financial institutions including the New York Stock Exchange, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.

In the UK, the banker's son - who was brought up in London as a Hindu - plotted to detonate a radioactive bomb and blow up buildings by packing stretch limousines with gas cylinders in underground car parks.

The unprecedented and extraordinary attack was dubbed the 'Gas Limo project' and was designed to cause "injury, fear, terror or chaos" for hundreds of Britons.

Both plots were smashed by Scotland Yard in August 2004 when Barot was arrested in Harlesden, North West London, after a dramatic chase which culminated in him hiding in a barber's shop.

Yesterday a heavily-guarded Barot sat in the glass panelled dock at Woolwich Crown Court, South East London, as he heard the Crown outline how he plotted the wave of attacks.

The clerk of the court said to him: "On count one of this indictment you are charged with conspiracy to murder.

"The particulars of the offence being that on diverse days between January 1 2000 and August 4 2004, you conspired together with other persons unknown to murder other persons.

"Do you plead guilty or not guilty?"

Barot, wearing a khaki-coloured zip-up jumper and black shirt and sporting a short beard, said calmly: "I plead guilty." and made notes on his laptop computer throughout the hearing.

Outlining the basis of plea, Edmund Lawson, QC, said that the conspiracy against the US buildings included attacks on the Washington-based World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the New York Stock Exchange and two financial institutions: the Citigroup and Prudential buildings.

The idea, said Mr Lawson, was to carry out bombings "with no warning".

He added: "They were plainly designed to carry out explosions designed to kill as many innocent people as possible."

Detailing the planned UK attacks, Mr Lawson described "the gas limo project".

"That was... the main cornerstone or main target of a series of planned attacks involved packing three limousines with gas cylinders, explosives and the like, detonating them in underground car parks," he said.

The limo project was to be supported by 'three other projects' the court heard; "a number of further collateral objectives to cause injury, fear, terror or chaos".

The court heard how Barot sketched out details for a "radioactive dirty bomb project".

Mr Lawson added: "The defendant expressed the preference in respect of the radiation project was that it deserved to be an independent project in its own right.

"The radiation dirty bomb project was not intended to kill but rather to carry out the objectives I referred to:, injury, fear, terror and chaos

"The radiation project was designed among other things to affect some 500 people."

Barot, who was raised a Hindu, attended the highly rated Kingsbury High School in the North London suburbs.

His parents, Indian-born Manu Barot, a retired banker and his wife Bharati, arrived in Britain from Kenya in 1973 when their son was just 12 months old. following the imposition of draconian laws barring non-Kenyans working in economically important industries.

The family still live in a £300,000 house in a quiet 1930s cul-de sac.

Barot took exams in English, Maths, French, Graphical Communication, and Typewriting but was rejected from jobs with two High Street banks and left to pursue various menial jobs.

But, by the age of 20, however, he had converted to Islam after a family visit to the disputed territory of Kashmir - the subject of a bitter and bloody battle between India and Pakistan.

Barot also faced 12 other charges: one of conspiracy to commit public nuisance, seven of making a record of information for terrorist purposes and four of possessing a record of information for terrorist purposes.

The judge ordered all these charges to lie on file following his guilty plea to conspiracy to murder.

Mr Justice Butterfield, said that when Barot is sentenced at a later date he "would be the first Muslim terrorist to be sentenced for such a grave offence as conspiracy to murder. It is likely to attract very considerable debate and discussion".

Seven other men are due to face trial next year. Yesterday his mother, a supermarket worker, refused to comment when contacted by the Daily Mail by telephone.

Friends of the family said Barot was a lovely boy who had been brainwashed by extremists.

"He was a really good kid. How can a nice Hindu boy change into a Muslim? I believe he was brainwashed," said a neighbour.

"The family are some of the nicest people you could ever meet and it was a shock to people round here to hear about their son."

Another neighbour said: "The family are lovely and it's such a shock to hear this news because of what nice people they are."

The Barot family home was a few doors away from the childhood home of Rolling Stones drummer Charlie Watts. Watts also attended Kingsbury High School as did pop star George Michael.

Security at court yesterday was so tight that even police officers were forced to undergo checks (Daily Mail, 2006).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies
February 10, 2009
James G. Cummings
Bangor, Maine, USA
Radiological dispersal device components and literature, and radioactive materials
Notes: Accused Post-Mortem

Report: 'Dirty Bomb' Parts Found In Slain Man's Home
February 10, 2009
Bangor Daily News

Abstract: James G. Cummings, who police say was shot to death by his wife two months ago, allegedly had a cache of radioactive materials in his home suitable for building a “dirty bomb.”

According to an FBI field intelligence report from the Washington Regional Threat and Analysis Center posted online by WikiLeaks, an organization that posts leaked documents, an investigation into the case revealed that radioactive materials were removed from Cummings’ home after his shooting death on Dec. 9.

The report posted on the WikiLeaks Web site states that “On 9 December 2008, radiological dispersal device components and literature, and radioactive materials, were discovered at the Maine residence of an identified deceased [person] James Cummings.”

The section referring to Cummings can be read here.

It says that four 1-gallon containers of 35 percent hydrogen peroxide, uranium, thorium, lithium metal, thermite, aluminum powder, beryllium, boron, black iron oxide and magnesium ribbon were found in the home.

Also found was literature on how to build “dirty bombs” and information about cesium-137, strontium-90 and cobalt-60, radioactive materials. The FBI report also stated there was evidence linking James Cummings to white supremacist groups. This would seem to confirm observations by local tradesmen who worked at the Cummings home that he was an ardent admirer of Adolf Hitler and had a collection of Nazi memorabilia around the house, including a prominently displayed flag with swastika. Cummings claimed to have pieces of Hitler’s personal silverware and place settings, painter Mike Robbins said a few days after the shooting.

YouTube Video

An application for membership in the National Socialist Movement filled out by Cummings also was found in the residence, according to the report.

Cummings’ wife, Amber B. Cummings, 31, told investigators that her husband spoke of “dirty bombs,” according to the report, and mixed chemicals in her kitchen sink. She allegedly told police that Cummings subjected her to years of mental, physical and sexual abuse. She also said that Cummings was “very upset” when Barack Obama was elected president.

A “dirty bomb” is a type of “radiological dispersal device” that combines a conventional explosive such as dynamite with radioactive material, according to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Web site.

“Most RDDs would not release enough radiation to kill people or cause severe illness,” the NRC says, adding that “a dirty bomb is in no way similar to a nuclear weapon” because its effects occur in a very limited area compared to a nuclear explosion.

The report noted that “uranium, thorium, cesium-137, stontium-90 and cobalt-60 are radioactive isotopes and 35 percent hydrogen peroxide is a necessary precursor for the manufacture of peroxide-based explosives. Lithium metal, thermite and aluminum are materials used to sensitize and amplify the effects of explosives.”

The report stated that the uranium component was bought online from a U.S. company that was identified in the investigation, but not in the report.

John Donnelley, an agent at the FBI’s Boston office, declined Tuesday to comment on the report. Donnelley said some FBI reports are provided to law enforcement agencies and sometimes get released to media outlets.

“I wouldn’t be prepared to speak on that,” Donnelley said. “I have no comment.”

The Washington Regional Threat and Analysis Center is an intelligence gathering office affiliated with Washington, D.C., law enforcement. Telephone and e-mail messages left with the center Tuesday were not returned.

State police have identified Amber Cummings as the person who shot James Cummings. The couple’s 9-year-old daughter was present the morning of the shooting in what police have described as a domestic violence homicide.

Amber Cummings, who is staying in the Belfast area, has not been charged in the case, although the Waldo County grand jury currently meeting in Belfast could take up the matter during its session this week.

While state police have acknowledged that the 29-year-old Cummings was killed by a gunshot, the results of the autopsy have been impounded, as have the search warrants executed at Cummings’ High Street home following the shooting. Authorities spent days searching the home, according to neighbors.

Lt. Gary Wright, who heads up the Maine State Police Criminal Investigation Division team working the case, declined to comment on any aspects of the case when contacted Tuesday.

“We’re not going to comment on anything,” Wright said Tuesday evening. “It’s an open homicide investigation and we’re not going to comment. That’s our standard policy.”

Stephen McCausland, spokesman for the Maine Department of Public Safety, also had no comment on the report. “This is an active, open homicide investigation,” he said Tuesday evening, “and as a result, it’s inappropriate to get into confirming or denying aspects of that.”

Maine Deputy Attorney General William Stokes also declined to comment on the report Tuesday.

David Farmer, spokesman for Gov. John Baldacci, said Tuesday that it was inappropriate for the governor to comment on an open investigation. When asked about the copy of the field report sent to him by the Bangor Daily News, he said, “At this point, I have been unable to confirm the authenticity of the documents you sent to us.”

A spokesman for U.S. Sen. Susan Collins’ staff said there was no one able to comment on the report Tuesday night.

Telephone messages left with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security were not returned Tuesday evening.

Robbins, who worked on the house for a month last summer, described Cummings as an angry person who was verbally abusive to his wife. He said Cummings apparently was independently wealthy and did not work.

Robbins said Cummings talked incessantly about his love of guns and his fascination for Hitler. He said Cummings repeatedly berated his wife about home-schooling their daughter. He said Cummings had a controlling personality and wanted to know his wife and child’s every move.

Cummings grew up in California and lived in Texas before moving to Maine in August 2007. Although Robbins said Cummings told him he made his money in Texas real estate, it appears that the actual source of his wealth was a trust fund established by his father, a prominent landowner in the Northern California city of Fort Bragg. An Internet search of the James B. Cummings Trust indicated that it has an annual income of $10 million.

The FBI field intelligence report was apparently first reported on by unattributable.com, an online magazine which covers and blogs on current events (Bangor Daily News, 2009).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies
February 2, 2011
Al Qaeda
Dirty Bomb
Super Bowl XLV
Notes: The incident occurred 4 days prior to Super Bowl XLV in Dallas, Texas. It was later confirmed that Al Qaeda had a nuclear weapon, but due to the release of The Nuclear Bible, the claim has disappeared.

WikiLeaks: Al-Qaeda 'Is Planning A Dirty Bomb'
February 2, 2011
The Telegraph

Abstract: A leading atomic regulator has privately warned that the world stands on the brink of a "nuclear 9/11".

Security briefings suggest that jihadi groups are also close to producing "workable and efficient" biological and chemical weapons that could kill thousands if unleashed in attacks on the West.

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Thousands of classified American cables obtained by the WikiLeaks website and passed to The Daily Telegraph detail the international struggle to stop the spread of weapons-grade nuclear, chemical and biological material around the globe.

At a Nato meeting in January 2009, security chiefs briefed member states that al-Qaeda was plotting a programme of "dirty radioactive IEDs", makeshift nuclear roadside bombs that could be used against British troops in Afghanistan.

As well as causing a large explosion, a "dirty bomb" attack would contaminate the area for many years.

The briefings also state that al-Qaeda documents found in Afghanistan in 2007 revealed that "greater advances" had been made in bio-terrorism than was previously realised.

An Indian national security adviser told American security personnel in June 2008 that terrorists had made a "manifest attempt to get fissile material" and "have the technical competence to manufacture an explosive device beyond a mere dirty bomb".

Alerts about the smuggling of nuclear material, sent to Washington from foreign US embassies, document how criminal and terrorist gangs were trafficking large amounts of highly radioactive material across Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

The alerts explain how customs guards at remote border crossings used radiation alarms to identify and seize cargoes of uranium and plutonium.

Freight trains were found to be carrying weapons-grade nuclear material across the Kazakhstan-Russia border, highly enriched uranium was transported across Uganda by bus, and a "small-time hustler" in Lisbon offered to sell radioactive plates stolen from Chernobyl.

In one incident in September 2009, two employees at the Rossing Uranium Mine in Namibia smuggled almost half a ton of uranium concentrate powder – yellowcake – out of the compound in plastic bags.

"Acute safety and security concerns" were even raised in 2008 about the uranium and plutonium laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the nuclear safety watchdog.

Tomihiro Taniguchi, the deputy director-general of the IAEA, has privately warned America that the world faces the threat of a "nuclear 9/11" if stores of uranium and plutonium were not secured against terrorists .

But diplomats visiting the IAEA's Austrian headquarters in April 2008 said that there was "no way to provide perimeter security" to its own laboratory because it has windows that leave it vulnerable to break-ins.

Senior British defence officials have raised "deep concerns" that a rogue scientist in the Pakistani nuclear programme "could gradually smuggle enough material out to make a weapon," according to a document detailing official talks in London in February 2009.

Agricultural stores of deadly biological pathogens in Pakistan are also vulnerable to "extremists" who could use supplies of anthrax, foot and mouth disease and avian flu to develop lethal biological weapons.

Anthrax and other biological agents, including smallpox and avian flu, could be sprayed from a shop-bought aerosol can in a crowded area, leaked security briefings warn.

The security of the world's only two declared smallpox stores in Atlanta, USA, and Novosibirsk, Russia, has repeatedly been called into doubt by "a growing chorus of voices" at meetings of the World Health Assembly documented in the leaked cables.

The alarming disclosures come after President Barack Obama last year declared nuclear terrorism "the single biggest threat" to international security with the potential to cause "extraordinary loss of life" (The Telegraph, 2011)

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Plots & Patsies
Date: September 9, 2011
Suspect: Al Qaeda
Age: ?
Ethnicity: Arab
Location: Unknown
Weapons: Dirty Bomb
Target: New York, New York, Washington D.C.
Quote: N/A
Notes: Incident occurred 2 days before 10th anniversary of 9/11.

Title: Sources: Authorities Concerned About Possible Dirty Bomb, Times Square Strike
September 9, 2011
CBS News

Just two days before the 10th anniversary, New York City is on high alert.

Federal and local authorities have beefed up security after receiving intelligence about a credible threat. The alleged plot by al Qaeda involves detonating car bombs on bridges and in tunnels in New York and Washington D.C. to coincide with the anniversary of 9/11.

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Chopper 2 HD got a look at the NYPD in action on Friday — police cruisers and orange cones marked one checkpoint on the George Washington Bridge. On the West Side Highway, at one of the many checkpoints, police were stopping drivers and searching vehicles, specifically vans and trucks. There is also a threat to bridges and tunnels.

Security was equally tight at Penn Station, where armed guards were keeping watch over travelers as Transportation Security Administration agents performed random bag checks, swiping packs for gunpowder.

The crossroads of the world came to a grinding halt at various times Friday because for police Times Square has become the ground zero of the latest terror threat. Sources told CBS 2’s Marcia Kramer that another attempt to explode a bomb there is a key concern, and the intelligence suggests it could be a dirty bomb.

Based on informant information authorities are looking for three suspects. One is believed to be an American citizen. Two others apparently have U.S. travel documents.

Some of the information on the latest threat could be coming from Younis al-Mauritani, the man hand-picked by Osama bin Laden to develop terror targets in the United States. He’s a “most wanted list” senior al Qaeda operative who was arrested in Pakistan last week with his computer, BlackBerry and other tools.

“Remember, an awful lot of the security we have you don’t see,” Mayor Michael Bloomberg said. “I’m satisfied that Commissioner Kelly has deployed all of our resources doing everything that we should be doing.”

“Terrorism is theater and this is the stage,” NYPD Commissioner Ray Kelly said. “This is right now probably the world’s biggest stage. “

There was a lot of security you could see Friday in the Big Apple, especially in Times Square, because, as sources told Kramer, the intelligence includes information that al Qaeda wants to finish the job that started with Faisal Shahzad’s failed car bomb attempt in May 2010.

Top security officials told Kramer this is the al Qaeda way. Their 1993 attempt to topple the World Trade Center failed, so they came back again on 9/11. Shahzad’s car bomb fizzled, so now they want to try again.

But that’s only half of the problem. Officials are worried that this time it could be a dirty bomb.

“We have to think about a dirty bomb, where you take radiological material and mix it with conventional explosives,” Kelly said.

Kramer recently talked exclusively with Kelly about the possibility of a dirty bomb, but now sources said the classroom drills might have to be put into practice. Intelligence sources said the terrorists could be trying to make a dirty bomb this time my mixing radiological isotopes with an explosive device.

That’s why the NYPD is deploying all kinds of radiation detectors, panel trucks with sophisticated instruments. On Friday, cops had personal radiation detectors on their belts, and radiation detectors are being used by police within a 50-mile radius of New York City — in New Jersey, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania and on Long Island.

Kelly told Kramer the NYPD has units trained to deal with terrorists who have bombs.

“We think about how to handle these people. How do we approach them if we believe they have some device, a bomb, something that’s going to explode,” Kelly said. “We have to think about tactics and strategies.”

On Friday night, tourists and residents in Times Square didn’t seem too concerned with the threat of an attack.

“I think it’s the safest place on the planet right now,” Andre Vriese of California told CBS 2′s Sean Hennessey.

“Keep the country safe and keep terrorists out,” added Ken Jennings of Brooklyn.

“I mean, it’s been how long since 9/11? So we kind of get used to having the security around,” said Nigel McFarland of Brooklyn (CBS News, 2011).


OBAMACSI.COM: Since 9/11, dirty bomb drills have become the norm across America. These drills prepare local, state, and federal law enforcement officials for a dirty bomb attack which now appears imminent. These drills also psychologically prepare government officials by insinuating that "terrorists" will be responsible for these atrocious acts of terror while evidence and history show otherwise. The dirty bomb terror drills have simulated dirty bomb terror attacks on planes, auto shows, race car tracks, sports facilities, and universities. A dirty bomb attack at an event with thousands of people will obviously create mass panic and chaos if and when the dirty bomb drill goes live.

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Dirty Bomb
November 2002
"Operation Prometheus"
Agencies: 50 agencies participated in the drill, including the Massachusetts National Guard, FBI, American Red Cross, United States Coast Guard, Harvard School of Public Health, Children’s Hospital, Brigham, Women’s Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Location(s): Boston, Massachusetts
Drill simulated explosion of a dirty bomb on an inbound United Airlines flight from France.

Title: Dirty Bomb Drill Tests Boston Preparedness
November 12, 2002
Harvard Crimson

A dirty bomb exploded at Logan Airport last week and emergency personnel rushed to the scene and transported victims to local hospitals to be treated for radiation exposure.

This simulation drill was enacted throughout Boston to test emergency response procedures in the event of the detonation of a dirty bomb, a device that contains radioactive material that is released into the air upon explosion.

“September 11th was an indication to us,” said Jeff D. Ventura, spokesperson for Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “What if, instead of New York, it happened here? How prepared are we to handle disaster on a large scale?”

The drill, dubbed Operation Prometheus, began at Logan Airport on Thursday with the simulated explosion of a dirty bomb on an inbound United Airlines flight from France, and continued on Friday when 10 hospitals in the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals received victims coming in for treatment.

The main objective of the drill was to facilitate communication and cooperation among all emergency response agencies involved.

Over 50 agencies participated in the drill, including the Massachusetts National Guard, FBI, American Red Cross, United States Coast Guard and Harvard School of Public Health.

Girl Scout troops, schoolchildren and Harvard Medical School students joined in on the effort, as well.

“With all the federal, state and local agencies, it was alphabet soup,” said Stephen Morash, Boston Emergency Management Agency deputy director. “The immenseness of this exercise is something you wouldn’t see before in this city.”

Prior to the drill, all the agencies gathered in a conference hall to perform a tabletop exercise, in which they ran through a fake dirty bomb scenario so that all involved could communicate and ask questions, according to Ventura.

At 8:15 on Friday morning, the teaching hospitals were notified of the dirty bomb explosion. Their role in the drill was to assess the procedures in place for diagnosing and treating contaminated patients.

Children’s Hospital, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center were the three Harvard teaching hospitals involved in the functional part of the drill—testing hospital care—said Sarah J. Hamilton, director of area planning and development for the Medical Academic and Scientific Community Organization (MASCO).

“We executed a code amber, like a code blue on television,” Ventura said. “The hospital is locked down, we go into emergency response mode, and prepare for incoming casualties.”

Nonessential appointments are canceled and patients are relocated to other parts of the hospital to free bed space.

Twelve radioactive passengers were assigned symptoms, accepted for treatment, decontaminated and then evaluated, said Jean M. Hickey, head nurse in the Brigham and Women’s emergency department.

Harvard Medical School students volunteered to act as victims and wore tattered clothes to act their parts convincingly.

Brigham and Women’s also received 60 “worried but well” patients, who were not on the aircraft but feared exposure to the radiation.

In addition to treating the victims of the explosion, the hospitals also had to send all the evidence they discovered on to law enforcement agencies, Hamilton said.

“It’s a crime investigation as well,” she said. “It was also a test to see whether we could get patient information back to the airlines, find out where passengers went and confirm the status of victims.”

Because the airlines would be fielding phone calls from worried family members, it is vital that this patient information be relayed back to them.

Drills like these are done regularly in Boston, but this is the first time radioactive scenarios have been involved.

“All of this is relatively new to the hospital, and we felt like we did well,” Hickey said.

Morash agreed that the drill was a success but said improvements will need to be made in order to improve the efficiency of the response to radiation emergencies.

Two issues that will be addressed are protection of hospital employees from radiation and the handling, storage and transport of radioactive material or clothing.

“We need to do more with radioactive activities. You can’t see it, feel it or touch it, but we have to be wary of it,” Morash said.

A debriefing of all parties involved will be held in two weeks in order to critique the drill.

Medical students and hospital staff were not the only Harvard affiliates to help out with the simulation.

Stephen O’Connor, a Harvard University Police Department officer stationed at the Longwood Medical Campus, volunteered at MASCO’s Joint Operating Center, which is a central command unit that runs during emergencies.

“It was good to see that the organization went well, and how different services in the Longwood area came together for a common cause,” he said (Harvard Crimson, 2002)

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Dirty Bomb
June 10, 2003
Name: Unknown
Agencies: Police and Fire Departments
Location(s): Maryland, Fairfax County, Virginia
Notes: Drill simulated a dirty bomb attack at a crowded auto show.

Title: Dirty Bomb Drill
Date: June 11, 2003
Source: Associated Press

Abstract: With some experts warning that a terrorist attack using weapons of mass destruction is inevitable, public safety personnel around the nation's capital are stepping up their training.

Hundreds of them from four Maryland counties, as well as rescue experts from Fairfax County, Va., came together Tuesday for a drill simulating a dirty bomb attack at a crowded auto show. The drill was conducted at the Montgomery County Fairgrounds in Gaithersburg, Md., about 35 miles northwest of Washington, D.C. Fire departments throughout the Washington area are now treating any unusual explosion as though it might be a dirty bomb containing toxic chemicals or radiological components. The drill was designed to help responders hone the skills they would use if such a weapon is ever used.

"It's important that we train for these types of events because with the threat level swinging back and forth something like this could happen at any time," said Montgomery Fire Chief Tom W. Carr. The drill began with the release of a presumably toxic cloud, followed by two subsequent explosions which sparked fires. Civilians made up to appear as thought they had suffered from blast and burn injuries could be seen laying on the ground in a field behind a shopping center. Adding to the drama was a very real - and unexpected - car fire.

Evaluators from federal, state and local public safety agencies and military agencies walked amid the feigned chaos, observing the performance of those involved. Montgomery County Police also mobilized some officers to respond to ongoing threats included in the scenario.

"An anonymous caller called our 911 center and said there would be another attack while this was going on," police spokesman Capt. John M. Fitzgerald said of the drill, which was monitored by jurisdictions from throughout the region. "This type of attack would undoubtedly prompt a "Code Red" alert throughout the region and perhaps nationally," Fitzgerald

The drill is the latest in a series of exercises being held across the nation. The District of Columbia government is planning
a similar exercise this summer. "These drills remind us that things can get very bad, very quickly, they keep us from getting complacent," said Cpl. Rob Moroney, a spokesman for the Maryland State Police (Associated Press, 2003).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
October 16, 2007
Agencies: DHS, Red Cross, OHSU, Legacy Emanuel
Location(s): Phoenix, Arizona, Portland, Oregon, Guam
Drill simulated a full-scale "dirty bomb" explosion at the Portland International Raceway.

Blast Marks Start To 'Dirty Bomb' Drill
October 16, 2007

A loud explosion, crumpled buses and cars and dozens of victims lying on the ground with authentic-looking injuries lent an air of reality to a major terrorism exercise that took place Tuesday at the Portland International Raceway, and at locations across Portland.

Compounding the realism was a cold, steady rain that made the ground slick and tested sensitive electronics equipment.

YouTube Video

The city of Phoenix, Ariz., and the island of Guam are also taking part. The largest part of the drill, called TOPOFF 4, is taking place in Portland.

The small explosion Tuesday took place on a "set" at Portland International Raceway near a wrecked bus and other damaged vehicles. The set is designed to be a substitute for the Steel Bridge in Portland.

About 200 local residents acting as victims were then led to the explosion site. Emergency workers then commenced rescue operations.

During the drill, participants exposed to fake radioactive material were sent to OHSU and Legacy Emanuel for sorting and decontamination procedures. Many wore shirts soaked with fake blood and had stage makeup simulating burns or other injuries.

"There are many, many smaller scenarios that we don't know that are being injected in, to test out many parts of the system," Bob Porter, a Red Cross volunteer, told KATU News. Dozens of Red Cross workers are among the teams working during the dirty bomb drill.

Drew Starks played the part of a burn victim and is an emergency medical technician in real life. He said the scope and execution of the drill brings needed experience to emergency responders who may have only read about the procedures in an instruction book.

The drill is planned around a full-scale "dirty bomb" explosion and involves local emergency responders at the scene, in the city and on a national level. A "dirty bomb" is a conventional high-explosive spiked with radioactive elements. The resulting explosion spreads dangerous radioactivity over a large area and can make large sections of the affected area unlivable for extended periods of time.

People in the area can suffer from immediate radiation poisoning or the long-term effects of radiation exposure, including cancer.

Although dirty bombs do not explode with the force of an atomic bomb, terrorism experts believe modern terror groups may try to use them in American cities or elsewhere because they are easier to assemble and do not require the specific radioactive elements used in atomic weapons.

The purpose of the drill is to test the emergency response systems in the participating cities, along with medical response and the coordination of local and federal communication systems and officials.  The drill also helps responders be prepared for other situations such as earthquakes, major storms or other natural and man-made disasters.

Funding for the drill was paid for by money already earmarked in Oregon's budget and $2.5 million in federal funds.

Drill officials said the TOPOFF exercises originated not with the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks but with the deadly 1995 sarin gas attack in the Tokyo subway that killed a dozen people and injured nearly 1,000 others.

That attack was blamed on the Japanese religious group Aum Shinrikyo and did not involve al-Qaida or a group currently regarded as a terror risk by the United States.

"TOPOFF 4" stands for "Top Officials," and the current drill is the fourth exercise. The drill concludes on Friday (KATU News, 2007).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
June 17, 2008
Agencies: DHS, National Guard, West Virginia Emergency Response Team, Boston University School of Medicine’s Biomedical Crisis Management program
Location(s): Washington D.C., West Virginia
Drill simulated a dirty bomb somewhere in the Washington D.C. area.

Dirty Bomb Exercise Tests West Virginia's Emergency Services
June 18, 2008
Source: West Virginia Public Broadcasting

The scenario: A dirty bomb falls somewhere in the Washington D.C. area. Thousands of people evacuate to West Virginia. The state Homeland Security Department staged a major exercise yesterday to test whether West Virginia can handle such a scenario.

YouTube Video

In Berkeley County, the local Homeland Security and Emergency Services Department set up a decontamination station on a strip of land between the county’s hospital and Interstate 81.

Shortly after 11 a.m. a West Virginia Emergency Response Team semi truck and trailer pulled up.  Members from local fire and emergency services departments worked with members of the National Guard to empty the truck and erect tents where evacuees were decontaminated. 

State Military Affairs and Public Safety Deputy Director Christy Morris was on hand to observe.  Morris says there are several benefits to conducting this exercise:

“We haven’t had a complete statewide emergency in several years so this is a great opportunity to test phone numbers, to test names of people, make sure they’re still in their same jobs, and reacquaint themselves with each other in emergencies,” Morris says.

Local ham radio operators were also on hand to participate.  Jay Tabor is Vice President of the Opequon Radio Society.  Tabor says members were stationed here as well as at the county office of emergency services, the hospital and other key places:

“And this is exactly how we would distribute ourselves in a time of disaster,” Tabor says.  We would go the key critical points and provide a form of communication that might not be available.  A lot of people are very quick to pick up a cell phone but it’s very much when you have a disaster can you hear me now.”

About 30 volunteers played the role of evacuees from Washington D.C., including Steve Swim and Karen Lloyd:

“I think it’s a worthwhile thing to plan ahead for disasters and be prepared,” Swim says.

“Yeah, and as much as you practice there’s always going to be that situation where you’re not going to be prepared,” Lloyd says.  But having some things ready and knowing partially what you’re doing is going to be better than knowing nothing.”

Dr. Kip Thomas watched as events unfolded.  Thomas is director of Boston University School of Medicine’s Biomedical Crisis Management program.  Thomas is studying how communities can better respond to emergencies and will use results from Berkeley County’s exercise in his research.  Thomas says rural areas face several challenges in preparing for a crisis:

“I think the first challenge is not having enough resources to do these types of exercises often enough to be actually aware and ready for the things that are going to crop up when something like this happens,” Thomas says.  I think this is great that they’re doing it.  But I think the challenge is who’s actually going to head this way,  what is the problem going to be and then trying to determine that in the middle of a crisis.  Very difficult.”

Thomas says it’s costly to run emergency exercises like this and researchers like him hope to find ways to practice less expensively (West Virginia Public Broadcasting, 2008).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
June 2-5, 2009
"Empire 09"
Agencies: New York State Disaster Preparedness Commission, Department of Energy, 550 first responders from 30 agencies
Location(s): Albany, New York
Mock drill staging operation center set up at Albany County Hockey Facility with a responses to a “dirty bomb” attack in Albany

Disaster Training Taking Place In Albany
June 2, 2009
CBS News

Abstract: Five hundred and fifty first responders from 30 agencies will be in the Capital Region this week practicing for a worst case scenario. 

They'll be pretending two dirty bombs were detonated in Albany -- and are training themselves on how to would deal with that.

A mock staging operation center has been set up at the Albany County Hockey Facility. All the necessary equipment has been brought in and field monitors are out in different parts of the region, collecting mock chemical samples. 

The idea is to make mistakes now so mistakes aren't made if this were to happen for real. 

The training already makes the Capital Region safer because first responders from federal and state agencies are getting familiar with local responders and will know exactly how to work with them if this were to happen for real in the area (CBS News, 2009).

“Dirty Bomb” Squad Practicing In Capital Region
June 3, 2009
Times Union

Abstract: Between now and Friday, Capital Region residents might spot a low-flying helicopter and people in white “space suits.” There is nothing to fear, though the subject they are tackling is as serious as can be.

Hundreds of federal, state and local law enforcement officials are running through potential responses to a “dirty bomb” attack in Albany. Authorities are staffing a command posts on Albany Shaker Road as they examine how well prepared they are to deal with the theoretical detonation of two improvised radiological devices in Albany.

The reaction to the exercise, part of a three-day effort called “Empire 09,” was sEmpire 09. It featured radiation screenings, officials in white “space suit”-type outfits and aircraft to watch contaminated areas from the sky.

The exercise, hosted by the New York State Disaster Preparedness Commission, was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. It comes only weeks after the FBI arrested four alleged conspirators in a plot to blow up two synagogues in the Bronx and shoot down military planes at Stewart International Airport in Newburgh (Times Union, 2009).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Nuclear Device
June 13, 2009
Agencies: NYPD, FBI
Drill Location(s):
New York, New York
Drill simulated a
live “nuclear device” that was later diffused.

New York Drill For Possible Nuke War
June 13, 2009
Press TV

Abstract: US security authorities have conducted a semi-clandestine nuclear fallout drill in the City of New York in order to be prepared "for the worst."

The NYC Police Department (NYPD) in unison with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) carried out a massive almost-covert anti-nuclear exercise codenamed 'New York, you have a problem' in order to gauge the metropolitan promptness in responding to such attacks.

According to an AP report on Friday, hundreds of NYPD officers and FBI agents participated in the drill that involved the detection of a gamma-ray emitting device concealed in the heart of the urban area.

The group was also accompanied by an elite corps of federal weapons specialists who, under a US attorney general mandate, found a simulated “nuclear device” and diffused it.

Commenting on the nature of new threats on the City area including 'dirty bombs' and other unconventional explosive devices, head of FBI's New York office, Joseph Demarest, said, "It's something we're very concerned about."

Reflecting Demarest's comments, FBI's counterterrorism supervisor, Don Always, told reporters, "Hopefully, we'll never have to do this for real."

"But if we do, we have to do it right the first time," he went on to say.

Security forces have reportedly tested new hi-tech detection gadgets and other gizmos in the operation.

New York City authorities have frequently expressed concerns over a sudden occurrence of such attacks capable to claim numerous lives.

A dirty bomb is an explosive device equipped with nuclear, chemical or biological containers, which could be blown up without having to use sophisticated nuclear detonators.

The news of the NYC nuclear fallout drill comes in the wake of an assessment last week in which the Missouri Congressman Todd Akin warned of a looming nuclear threat on the US's West coast cities as adversarial regimes such as North Korea expand their nuclear and rocket launching capabilities.

The 62-year-old Republican Congressman advised the US administration to seriously consider current nuclear issues threatening US security, which demanded a fortified scheme to tackle the potential issues (Press TV, 2009).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Radioactive Material with Explosives
March 26, 2010
U.S. Air Force, FBI
Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota
Drill simulated an armed person who invaded the base's McAdoo Sports and Fitness Center shooting several people and releasing radioactive material through the use of conventional explosives. Minot Air Force base was the same location where 6 150 kiloton nuclear warheads went missing in 2007.

Air Force Base Conducts "Dirty Bomb" Drill
April 6, 2010
Source: Nuclear Threat Initiative

Abstract: Minot Air Force Base in North Dakota last month conducted a large-scale disaster response drill in which an attacker shot several people and then set off a radiological "dirty bomb," the UAir Force announced yesterday (see GSN, April 2).

The exercise involved base security personnel, along with roughly 50 organizers and assessors from the FBI, emergency management agencies and other entities and a similar number of volunteers.

In the drill, an armed person invaded the base's McAdoo Sports and Fitness Center on March 26, shooting several people and releasing radioactive material through the use of conventional explosives. Security teams hunted the shooter, extricated bystanders and secured the building, after which emergency personnel aided the wounded.

"Simultaneously, the rest of the base went into lockdown and all major control centers were activated," said 5th Bomb Wing antiterrorism officer P.J. Pallotta said. "Even our elementary schools on base practiced lockdown procedures. It was a very plausible scenario."

Mock victims were also treated at the base hospital.

The simulation demonstrated that the base is well prepared for a possible attack, according to 5th Bomb Wing Vice Commander Col. Julian Tolbert.

"The airmen who participated in today's exercise showed focus and a willingness to overcome the many obstacles seen with such a scenario," Tolbert said. "It's unfortunate we must train for days like today, but I feel confident knowing the base has skilled professionals ready to react to any situation" (Nuclear Threat Initiative, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
April 26-30, 2010
"Liberty RadEx"
Agencies: DHS, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, City of Philadelphia, 700 personnel from federal, state and local agencies and the private sector
Location(s): Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Drill simulated a radiological dispersion device which was detonated in Independence National Park. The drill was the largest dirty-bomb drill ever sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Liberty RadEx Drill To Test National Clean-Up And Recovery Efforts After Mock ‘`Dirty Bomb’ Attack
Date: April 26, 2010
Source: EPA

Abstract: More than 700 personnel from federal, state and local agencies and the private sector are participating in a 5-day homeland security exercise that began today in Philadelphia. The exercise, called Liberty RadEx, is the largest drill of its kind sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to test the country’s capability to clean up and help communities recover from a dirty bomb terrorist attack. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and City of Philadelphia are co-sponsoring the drill.

Liberty RadEx portrays conditions at least 30 days after a radiological dispersion device was detonated in Independence National Park. The drill is unique in that it simulates the end of the emergency phase when response operations transition to new teams brought in to test areas for radiation contamination, determine cleanup plans, and help communities recover.

“Our first concern is that the public understands Liberty RadEx is a drill and the activities people might see at different locations are only simulations of what might happen in a real event,” said EPA Regional Administrator Shawn M. Garvin. “This exercise is significant because it will help inform how all levels of government, businesses and community organizations can work together to meet challenges associated with long-term cleanup and community recovery from a dirty bomb attack.”

“Intergovernmental exercises such as Liberty RadEx are essential in maintaining our ability to respond to events and for evaluating the effectiveness of our response plans,” said Pennsylvania Environmental Protection Secretary John Hanger. “DEP's Bureau of Radiation Protection will be participating throughout the week by providing staff, technical support, and expertise.”

“The LibertyRAD exercise marks another milestone in Philadelphia's preparedness efforts by evaluating how federal, state and local governments will work collaboratively following a disaster with the long-term devastating consequences a dirty-bomb attack causes,” said MaryAnn E. Tierney, deputy managing director for the City of Philadelphia’s Office of Emergency Management. “Conducting the exercise in a densely populated urban area that is home to some of our nation’s most treasured historic sites and critical infrastructure will be a valuable learning experience for all involved.”

“An exercise of this magnitude offers an unprecedented opportunity to collaborate with our interagency partners. This exercise will provide a comprehensive assessment of our ability to coordinate and communicate with federal, state, and local responders,” said Rear Admiral Wayne E. Justice, commander of the U.S. Coast Guard 5th District.

The majority of Liberty RadEx ‘play’ will occur April 27–29 at venues in Philadelphia, and at one site in Ridley Park, Pa. Site visits and tours are available for the media and others interested in observing (EPA, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Improvised Nuclear Device
April 26, 2010
"National Level Exercise (NLE)"
U.S. Northern Command
Location: Las Vegas, Nevada
Drill was to
simulate terrorists detonating an improvised nuclear device assembled with smuggled weapons-grade uranium.

Title: Military Cancels Nuke Attack Test
Date: April 26, 2010
Washington Times  

Abstract: The U.S. military has canceled a major field exercise that tests its response to a nuclear attack, angering some officials who say that what is now planned for this month will be a waste of time.

U.S. Northern Command in Colorado withdrew from major participation in this month’s National Level Exercise (NLE), a large-scale drill that tests whether the military and the Department of Homeland Security can work with local governments to respond to an attack or natural disaster.

The exercise was canceled recently after the planned site for a post-nuclear-attack response — Las Vegas — pulled out in November, fearing a negative impact on its struggling business environment.

A government official involved in NLE planning said a new site could not be found. The official also said the Northern Command’s exercise plans for “cooping” — continuity of operations, during which commanders go to off-site locations — also had been scratched.

“All I know is it’s been turned into garbage,” said the official, who asked not to be identified because of the sensitivity of the information. “It’s a nonevent.”

The NLE, which is supposed to be a series of hands-on exercises to test the system in the event terrorists use a nuclear device, has become instead a “tabletop exercise at best,” the official said.

Maj. Michael Humphreys, a Northern Command spokesman, said the military officials decided to delink the Ardent Sentry exercise from the National Level Exercise, but he stressed that the command conducts other exercises and “cooping” at other times.

“This exercise enabled both the [Defense Department] and other agencies to review their processes and procedures, and focus future training efforts on closing gaps and additional areas identified during the exercise,” Maj. Humphreys said. “This year, Ardent Sentry will not be linked with the NLE.”

He said NorthCom will work with the Pentagon in its role in the NLE.

In a statement to The Washington Times, the Pentagon said: “It was necessary to cancel the field exercise portion of the NLE due to the inability to get another state/local community to engage on short notice after the original venue was changed. NorthCom still has a requirement to exercise its core requirements. It is just doing this at another location.”

Created after the Sept. 11 attacks, the NLE is the country’s largest exercise of its kind — combining activities among the military, Department of Homeland Security and local governments to test their joint, emergency response capabilities.

Homeland Security spokesman Clark Stevens said his department still plans major field work.

“NLE 2010 provides an important opportunity to exercise and assess emergency response and recovery capabilities in the face of a major disaster or a terrorist attack against the United States,” Mr. Stevens said.

“Working with local partners in a number of states, the scenario will allow emergency response officials at all levels of government to test response plans, communication capabilities, and interagency coordination — tools that are vital to the effective response in a real-world event.”

The field exercise in Las Vegas was to simulate terrorists detonating an improvised nuclear device assembled with smuggled weapons-grade uranium (Washington Times, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Crude Nuclear Device 
May 19, 2010
FBI and other U.S. local, state and federal agencies
Los Angeles, California
Drill simulated the tracking down, deactivation and removal of a crude nuclear device at the Los Angeles Coliseum.

Title: Nuclear Terror Drill Staged In Los Angeles
Date: May 19, 2010

Abstract: The FBI and other U.S. local, state and federal agencies this week are dealing with a simulated nuclear terror attack in Los Angeles, United Press International reported.

"Threats involving weapons of mass destruction are complex, and confronting them must be practiced constantly," said FBI Assistant Director Steve Martinez, who heads the bureau's Los Angeles field office.

Participants in the three-day exercise worked to track down, deactivate and remove a crude nuclear device at the Los Angeles Coliseum, according to an FBI statement. In addition, authorities intended to seek out other devices dispersed throughout the city (NTI, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb 
May 19, 2010
"Golden Guardian"
National Guard, Air Force, CalEMA

A dirty bomb and shooters rocked the campus of California State University San Marcos.

Terror in Redwood City: Emergency Drill Prepares For Terrorist Attack
May 19, 2010
The Daily Journal

Abstract: The explosion that broke yesterday morning’s quiet at the Port of Redwood City was little more than a quick bright flash and billowing plume of black smoke rising up beyond a row of trees.

What did not dissipate quickly, though, was the unexplained blow-up’s fallout — first responders staging areas to assess the injured, hundreds of military and public safety members trying to contain a fire and chemical release and bloodied and battered people strewn in the mud around the Cemex facility.

YouTube Video

Those on the ground didn’t know yet what had happened — the 10 a.m. explosion was actually the second terrorist attack which, coupled together, blew up a ship and collapsed a building — but they knew they needed help.

A stick piercing Lauren Fehd’s lung left the 18-year-old worried that her 8-month-old fetus was in distress. Pamela Brown, 25, jumped out a second-story window to escape the building but was also wheezing and blistered from the chemical release. Joan Kyle, 26, was hit on the head by a rock but, while digging Fehd and Brown from the rubble, faced an unexpected danger. It was a snake, which gouged a wound in her arm.

“Wait — you saved us? That is awesome!,” said Brown after hearing Kyle tell her story.

Kyle double-checked her story card on a lanyard around her neck.

Yep, in yesterday’s mock terrorism drill, the three women survived, albeit in need of serious help.

But in helping victims like the trio, emergency personnel from local, state and federal were the ones being aided. The simulated response exercise known as Golden Guardian was one of several statewide testing local reaction to terrorist attacks at various ports, including Redwood City. Past drills have included disease and natural disasters.

California Emergency Management Agency Secretary Matthew Bettenhausen said the drills are also reminders to the greater public to be prepared for 72 hours, including an escape route from the home and knowing where to find gas and water meters.

The annual event started in 2004 under Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger who was invited to the Redwood City exercise but could not attend.

The governor’s absence was barely noticeable in the sea of roughly 400 participants, including members of the national guard, Air Force, CalEMA and public safety organizations throughout the Peninsula.

Camouflage-clad soldiers and military vehicles rumbled down Seaport Boulevard just outside the Pacific Shores Center. Elsewhere in the state, a terrorist attack on a container ship at the Port of Oakland caused a hazardous plus that resulted in an evacuation. At Pier 48 in San Francisco, divers used the Navy Marine Mammal Program which uses dolphins to recover an explosive device. A dirty bomb and shooters rocked the campus of California State University San Marcos and hostages were taken after a terrorist group took over a Catalina Express ferry boat moored at Long Beach Ferry Terminal.

Back in Redwood City, though, some of the affected had concerns other than their immediate safety — primping. As orange-vested organizers placed actors and explained nuances of their individual symptoms — lethargic means tired, one explained to a woman who wasn’t quite sure how to act — bandages were adjusted and bruises touched up. A smiling woman with blood stains running down her sweatshirt applied blood to the back of another while one nearby man looked less successful in surviving the collapse. He had an angry looking gash across his throat and ghostly white face.

Paul Cramer, 24, freshened up his injuries with a spray bottle of fake blood while his roommate Teddy Vigil, 24, was on the ground with a gnarled foot underneath a piece of Hertz equipment.

Vigil said he was hit by a car, leaving him unable to walk and unconscious. Like the others in the simulation, though, he had been there since 6 a.m. and had been warned to expect an 11-hour day. The actors had answered casting calls on Craigslist and the simulation followed three days of practice, according to Fehd.

Although Tuesday’s drill was simulated, officials said the scenarios and the actors help emergency personnel know how to react if a real situation comes to pass.

“It’ s so easy to forget ... how important this is. The events in New York City a few weeks ago remind us of how important this is,” said Redwood City Mayor Jeff Ira (The Daily Journal, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drill
Type: Improvised Explosive Dirty Bomb Device 
June 8-20, 2010
Palmetto Shield & Operation Red Dragon
U.S. Army, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, FEMA, American Red Cross
Location: South Carolina

Drill simulated a
IED dirty bomb explosion at a mock car and bike show.

Anderson-Area Agencies Prepare For Emergency Drill
May 29, 2010
Independent Mail

Abstract: There will be explosions and military trucks on the streets of Anderson County, but it won’t be real.

In the weeks of June 8 through June 20, Anderson County emergency response teams — from law enforcement units and fire departments to emergency management workers and the coroner’s office — will participate in a mock terrorist attack in the Anderson area.

Called Palmetto Shield and Operation Red Dragon, organizations from Anderson, Abbeville, Greenville, Greenwood, Oconee and Pickens counties will work with the U.S. Army, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the American Red Cross, among other agencies, to simulate the coordination of efforts in the face of a real emergency.

As with other drills, the activities in June will use actors and mannequins to imitate real patients and casualties, said Taylor Jones, emergency services director for Anderson County. And while the exercise isn’t real, the threat is, he said.

“There are a lot of plants in the region that are very critical to the economic engine of South Carolina and the country,” Jones said. “This area is also crucial to the energy-producing engine of our area, the whole Southeast and the nation at large.”

The scenario will play out like this: On June 8, intelligence agencies will start to hear chatter that a terrorist group is planning an attack somewhere between Atlanta and Charlotte.

Throughout the week, intelligence will continue to point to some sort of pending attack.

On June 12, a domestic violence call in Honea Path will result in officers finding bomb-making equipment. From there, a series of events will happen, including the explosion of an improvised explosive device at a Greenwood train facility, the discovery of more bomb-making equipment at an Abbeville home and a call to assist with the aftermath of a hurricane on the coast.

The training exercises will culminate on June 19 when two trucks head down Interstate 85 toward Anderson and get off at exit 19. One truck will drive up Clemson Boulevard toward Pendleton and stop at the Michelin plant in Sandy Springs. An IED dirty bomb will explode there, injuring eight and killing two.

But that truck will be a diversion to the “real” event, another IED dirty bomb at a mock car and bike show at the Anderson University Athletic Campus, the former Anderson County Fair and Expo Center on Williamston Road.

“This will be the real target, something with a lot of people,” Jones said. “This IED will take out 150 people with 25 dead.”

Local agencies will have a chance to work with national organizations as well as with specialized equipment available in the state, he said. For instance, when the city of Anderson Police Department is faced with the attack, it will call in the U.S. Army Reserves to assist with decontamination, reconnaissance and air sampling.

“This is part of their Operation Red Dragon,” Jones said. “It gives the Army a chance to work with civilians and learn how to get out of the military mind-set and work more effectively with local units.”

Simulating mass fatalities will be a “major test of our resources,” said Greg Shore, Anderson County Coroner and MedShore Ambulance Service chief executive officer.

“This is probably the largest simulated exercise involving real-time events we’ve been involved with,” Shore said. “It will give us an opportunity to test our mass fatality plan of action.”

Abbeville County Coroner Ronnie Ashley will participate in the drill, Shore said, by managing the activity at the South Carolina Coroner’s Association regional response trailer.

The trailer is equipped to provide supplies in the event of a mass fatality emergency. It will be staged near the Anderson University Athletic Campus, Shore said.

MedShore will activate its 42-member disaster response team, whose paramedics and emergency medical technicians will answer simulated calls in more than 60 ambulances, he said.

“We’ve been training with local agencies but this drill will test our ability to work with state-level and federal emergency response agencies,” Shore said. “We’re excited to see how we respond.”

It will also give the responding agencies an opportunity to check on how well they communicate with one another as well as the public.

“We’ll be activating our (billboard emergency alert system), to let people know that it’s just a drill,” said Anita Donley, public information officer for the Anderson County emergency services division. “We’ll also be doing updates on our Web site, sending out emergency texts and updating people through our Facebook and Twitter accounts. For the people within a 1-mile radius of the actual event site, we will be activating our reverse 911, to call residents and let them know this is a drill. We really want to be able to test all of our procedures.”

Honea Path Police Chief David King said the event will be a learning experience for all the parties involved.

“It’s going to be a very beneficial training opportunity for our department to work and learn together with Anderson County Sheriffs Office,” King said. “Anderson sheriffs SWAT team, emergency preparedness officials and state and federal agencies as well. It will also test our communications between our dispatch center, law enforcement agencies and all our emergency services. Everything will be handled just as a real emergency exist. A lot of hard work is going into this training by all agencies involved. … Our goal is to make sure we are prepared to protect our community and county.”

Jones said the event will be paid for with grants and federal money. Overtime that will be paid for the event will be paid through a $92,000 grant, he said, while the initial work on the project was covered by a $35,000 state grant,

And the money spent on the project, he said, will stay in the Upstate.

Federal agencies, when they bring in their people and equipment to the area for the drill, are expected to spend more than $25,000 a day on food, shelter, equipment and other resources.

“This is as much a boost to our own pockets as our own sense of security,” said interim Anderson County administrator Rusty Burns. “On May 21, the Department of Homeland Security issued a report that said, ‘The number and pace of attempted attacks against the United States over the past nine months have surpassed the number of attempts during any other previous one-year period.’ Just like with home fire drills, none of us can ignore the need to be prepared for the worst. And while many of us will sleep better knowing our agencies are prepared to deal with this, ultimately many others will sleep better because of the food on their table and the money in their pockets that resulted from these organizations spending their training dollars in Anderson.”

Jones said several teams with the Anderson County Sheriff’s Office will participate, including a group of criminal investigators who will gather intelligence and report it. Anderson County Sheriff John Skipper said the exercise would no in no way detract from the day-to-day operations of the sheriff’s office (Independant Mail, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
(CBRN) Chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear device
July 13, 2010
Fire, Hospitals
Drill Location:
Barnsley, Yorkshire, England
Drill simulated a
(CBRN) device had exploded in the Meadowhall shopping centre and crowds of people with radiation burns needed to be treated

Title: Dry Run For Nuclear Terror Medics
Date: July 14, 2010
Yorkshire Post

Abstract: Fire crews and hospital staff carried out an exercise in Barnsley yesterday to test the emergency response to a terrorist attack in South Yorkshire.

The scenario was that a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) device had exploded in the Meadowhall shopping centre and crowds of people with radiation burns needed to be treated.

Volunteers were showered in "decontamination" tents at Barnsley Hospital before being allowed in the hospital's emergency department.

Mike Lees, head of emergency planning at Barnsley Hospital, said: "Exercises like this are all about gaining experience for the future, for the time when we have to deal with real, large-scale emergencies" (Yorkshire Post, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Improvised Nuclear Device
July 28, 2010
Operation Golden Phoenix 2010
Agencies: OEM
Drill Location(s): Los Angeles (Burbank), California
Drill simulated
a response to the detonation of 10-kiloton improvised nuclear device and the live demonstration of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Integrated Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (ICBRNE) real-time sensor technology system.

Agencies Drill For Nuclear Terrorist Attack
Date: July 28, 2010
The Nuclear Bible

Abstract: Firefighters, police, sheriff's deputies, paramedics, the county coroner and other emergency services personnel will participate in a TRAINING exercise that simulates a response to the detonation of 10-kiloton improvised nuclear device. The drill is "not based on any actual intelligence information or threat to Los Angeles or the United States," said Ken Kondo, a spokesman for the county's Office of Emergency Management.

It is geared toward advance planning for such an event and to share information and technology between first responders and public safety personnel at local, state and federal levels.
"The greatest threat to U.S. and global security is no longer a nuclear exchange between nations, but nuclear terrorism by violent extremists and nuclear proliferation to an increasing number of states," said Obama in announcing a shift in the country's nuclear policy. Such an improvised nuclear device could be small enough to be carried in a briefcase, but would wreak "indescribable" devastation, Kondo said. After detonation, depending on wind patterns, a plume cloud could cover much of the Southern California area.

"The most critical point to be made is that
the majority of the population will survive this kind of an incident and participating agencies must be prepared to manage the consequences in a deliberate and focused manner, in order to protect lives and preserve property," Kondo said. Any nuclear blast would leave damaged buildings, broken windows and potential nuclear fallout in its wake, so residents would be urged to shelter in place. "It's better to be safe inside" in such a scenario, said Kondo. Just as in the event of an earthquake or other potential natural disasters, residents should be prepared with plenty of supplies, including food, water and a battery-operated radio to listen to emergency communications.

Personnel from 88 cities, 137 unincorporated areas and more than 200 special districts will participate in the exercise, dubbed "Operation Golden Phoenix 2010."
Emergency operations centers throughout the Southland will be activated as part of the drill and communicate with the Los Angeles County Emergency Operations Center, said Kondo. In Burbank, public safety personnel will host a live demonstration of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Integrated Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive (ICBRNE) real-time sensor technology system. The sensors monitor conditions and alert officials about the detection of radiation in the area.

The planning team for today's events includes the Los Angeles County Chief Executive Office, Office of Emergency Management; the City of Los Angeles Emergency Management Department; and the county's Department of Public Health. Ventura County officials will also participate, as part of the exercise will anticipate the possibility of evacuating residents to other counties. The training is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate and facilitated by the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Asymmetric Warfare.

The county Office of Emergency Management has developed two programs to prepare citizens and the media for all hazards and catastrophic events.
The county spokesman urged residents to use the online materials to develop a family emergency plan and to stock necessary supplies. "If it does happen, it will happen quickly," Kondo said. "If you have a plan, you will be able to survive‖ (Nuclear Bible, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Dirty Bomb
August 9-13, 2010
"Exercise Desert Wind"
U.S. Airforce
Edwards Air Force Base, California 
Drill simulated a dirty-bomb explosion and the effort to contain, maintain and eliminate the spread of damage from the simulated explosion.

Team Edwards Concludes Exercise Desert Wind With Dirty-Bomb Drill
Date: August 2010
Source: CBRNIAC Newsletter

Abstract: The 95th Air Base Wing (ABW) [Edwards Air Force Base, California] concluded a week-long emergency disaster drill called Exercise Desert Wind 10-4, August 9 through 13, 2010. The exercise picked up where it left off in May of this year from a hypothetical earthquake which wreaked havoc around the Southwestern U.S. ABW personnel participated in recovery efforts with Force Protection Condition exercises, emergency disaster drill evacuations and recovery, simulated hazardous material spills and a dirty-bomb explosion.

Military and civilian personnel participated in the exercise that included interagency participation through the Defense Support of Civilian Agencies. Participants also practiced receiving Antelope Valley-area evacuees and providing temporary housing of those evacuees on base. Edwards’ Fire Department and 95th Medical Group personnel donned personal protective equipment and simulated the use of specialized monitoring gear to check for chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosives contamination levels in the immediate area.

In near 100 degree temperatures, the exercise ended with a simulated dirty-bomb detonation. Edwards Federal Fire Department, Department of the Air Force guards and 95th Security Forces Squadron responded to contain, maintain and eliminate the spread of damage from the simulated explosion (CBRNIAC Newsletter, 2010).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
April 5-10, 2011
NYPD, 70 Law Enforcement Agencies
New York, New York, United Nations
Drill simulated 4 fictional terror cells intent on targeting New York City with a “dirty bomb.” NYPD Commissioner Ray Kelly: “We’ll be manning up to 400 checkpoints throughout the Metropolitan Area to test our ability to intercept radiological material. There actually will be samples of radiological materials”

First Responders, NYPD Conduct ‘Dirty Bomb’ Drill In NYC
Date: April 5, 2011
Source: CBS News

Abstract: A week-long series of terror drills involving dozens of agencies and first responders begins Tuesday in the Big Apple. The focus will be on one of the great concerns of the post-9/11 era: nuclear terrorism, Jay Dow reports.

The NYPD and 70 other law enforcement agencies across our region will test their ability to detect radiological materials and prevent an attack orchestrated by four fictional terror cells intent on targeting New York City with a “dirty bomb.”

YouTube Video

The drill began with a massive deployment Tuesday morning at the United Nations, and will run through Saturday.

NYPD Commissioner Ray Kelly said New Yorkers can expect to see a heightened presence near bridges, transit hubs, and on the waters around New York City.

“We’ll be manning up to 400 checkpoints throughout the Metropolitan Area to test our ability to intercept radiological material. There actually will be samples of radiological materials,” he said.

Kelly said over the next five days, residents can expect to see a heightened presence near bridges, transit hubs, and on the waters around New York City.

“The goal is to exercise our capacity to intersect radiological material coming into the city,” he said.

The exercise will be supervised by an outside consultant and, with overtime pay inevitable, funded by a federal grant.

“We’ve distributed, both in the New York City Police Department and other agencies throughout the Metropolitan Area 4,200 radiation-detection devices,” said Kelly

Particular areas that will be impacted include the Macombs Dam Bridge, the 225th Street Bridge, the 138th Street Bridge, the 155th Street Bridge and the Third Avenue Bridge.

“We need to be protected by whatever means necessary,” said Pierre Baptiste of Manhattan.

“With what’s happening in the world, it’s needed. We’re at war on all fronts, so it’s best to start here. Sooner or later it’s going to get here,” said Charles Watson of the Bronx (CBS News, 2011).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Type: Dirty Bomb
July 27, 2011
National Guard, Department of Energy, Office of Emergency Management, Suffolk County Police Department
Location(s): New York, New York (The Brookhaven RAP team, which is responsible for the region that stretches from Maryland and the western border of Pennsylvania all the way up to Maine, will work with CST teams from Connecticut and Pennsylvania in the coming months)
Notes: Drill simulated a dirty bomb containing radioactive contaminants exploding in an area southeast of BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source II construction site.

Title: Radiological Assistance Program Drill “RAP” Up
Date: August 10, 2011
Source: Brookhaven National Laboratory

Abstract: With helicopters, soldiers, emergency vehicles, and a fictitious dirty bomb on site July 27, Brookhaven Lab looked more like the set for a new blockbuster action movie than a place where scientists are studying the origins of the universe and working on the nation’s energy challenges.

That morning, the New York National Guard's 24th Civil Support Team (CST) for Weapons of Mass Destruction traveled by air and expressway from Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn to BNL for a training drill conducted by the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) that also included members of the DOE-Brookhaven Site Office, the Nonproliferation & National Security Department, Police and Fire and Rescue groups, the Office of Emergency Management, and Suffolk County Police Department Emergency Services.

The scripted situation for the drill involved a simulated dirty bomb containing radioactive contaminants exploding in an area southeast of BNL’s National Synchrotron Light Source II construction site. In the hours afterward, participants assessed the situation, characterized the radioactive materials from the “blast” and then responded using plume models and other tools.

“We hope that we won’t ever have to actually use what we practice, but with that being said, this drill went extremely well and everyone involved got something out of it,” said Lee Michel, training and outreach coordinator for Brookhaven’s RAP team.

“The real strength in these drills is bringing together multiple agencies to rehearse how we would execute in a real situation,” said Major Jody Lupo of the CST. “Our unit wouldn’t be anywhere near where it is today without the support we receive from the people at DOE and Brookhaven.”

The Brookhaven RAP team, which is responsible for the region that stretches from Maryland and the western border of Pennsylvania all the way up to Maine, will work with CST teams from Connecticut and Pennsylvania in the coming months (Brookhaven National Laboratory, 2011).

OBAMACSI.COM: Dirty Bomb Drills
Dirty Bomb, Radioactive Capsules
September 1, 2011
National Guard
Seattle, Washington
Notes: Drill simulated a "dirty bomb" exercise - complete with a fake-looking blown-off plastic arm. 

'Dirty Bomb' Drill Puts Seattle Central, National Guard To The Test
September 2, 2011
Capitol Hill Seattle

YouTube Video

Abstract: For Robert Huss, head of security for Seattle Central, Thursday's "dirty bomb" exercise -- complete with a fake-looking blown-off plastic arm -- atop the school's science and math building was an opportunity to test out the safety procedures for the campus he is responsible for.

For the specialists of the Washington National Guard Civilian Support Team 10, a day of drills hunting for small radioactive capsules provided the opportunity to put their skills to the test in a busy city environment in the heart of Capitol Hill.

While it was annoying for the big media flyovers it encouraged, the drills involving the school, the Guard, State Patrol and SPD have been relatively regular occurrences on Seattle's community college campuses including SCCC, Huss said.

Previous SCCC drills have been held at night. The timing of Thursday's exercise, Huss told CHS, had nothing to do with the approaching ten-year anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. And Huss said to expect more drills of a similar nature in the future. Fake blown-off plastic arms included, we presume (Capitol Hill Seattle, 2011).


OBAMACSI.COM: If reports from the media and the U.S. government are to be believed, nuclear science is easy and even a boy scout can build a dirty bomb. These reports are issued to confuse people so when a real nuclear device is detonated, people will have an easier time believing that folks in a cave were able to build it. Obviously, nuclear science is, well, nuclear science, and it is extremely complex and intricate, ultimately making the only possible perpetrator of a nuclear attack a government entity.

Title: Extreme DIY: Building A Homemade Nuclear Reactor In NYC
Date: June 23, 2010
Source: BBC

Abstract: Mark Suppes is part of a growing community of amateur "fusioneers".

Many might be alarmed to learn of a homemade nuclear reactor being built next door. But what if this form of extreme DIY could help solve the world's energy crisis?

By day, Mark Suppes is a web developer for fashion giant Gucci. By night, he cycles to a New York warehouse and tinkers with his own nuclear fusion reactor.

The warehouse is a non-descript building on a tree-lined Brooklyn street, across the road from blocks of apartments, with a grocery store on one corner. But in reality, it is a lab.

In a hired workshop on the third floor, a high-pitched buzz emanates from a corner dotted with metal scraps and ominous-looking machinery, as Mr Suppes fires up his device and searches for the answer to a question that has eluded some of the finest scientific minds on the planet.

In nuclear fusion, atoms are forcibly joined, releasing energy. It is, say scientists, the "holy grail" of energy production - completely clean and cheap.

The problem is, no-one has found a way of making fusion reactors produce more energy than they consume to run.

'I was inspired'

Mr Suppes, 32, is part of a growing community of "fusioneers" - amateur science junkies who are building homemade fusion reactors, for fun and with an eye to being part of the solution to that problem.

He is the 38th independent amateur physicist in the world to achieve nuclear fusion from a homemade reactor, according to community site Fusor.net. Others on the list include a 15-year-old from Michigan and a doctoral student in Ohio.

"I was inspired because I believed I was looking at a technology that could actually work to solve our energy problems, and I believed it was something that I could at least begin to build," Mr Suppes told the BBC.

While they might un-nerve the neighbours, fusion reactors of this kind are perfectly legal in the US.

"As long as they [private citizens] obtain that material [the components of the reactor] legally, they could do whatever they want," says Anne Stark, senior public information officer for California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

During fusion, energy is released as atomic nuclei are forced together at high temperatures and pressures to form larger nuclei.

Scientists say devices like Mr Suppes' pose no real threat to neighbouring communities or the environment because they contain no nuclear materials, such as uranium or plutonium.

"There is no chance of any kind of accident with fusion," says Neil Calder, communications chief for Iter, a multi-national project begun in 1985 with the aim of demonstrating the feasibility of fusion power.

"There's no CO2 pollution, there's no greenhouse gases, you can't use it for proliferation [the spread of nuclear weapons] - it has so many advantages," he said.

'Mechanics to janitors'

Government-led efforts to produce power from fusion have been going on around the world for 50 years.

Iter - funded by the EU, US, Japan, Russia, India, China, and South Korea - is working on a multi-billion dollar, advanced reactor, due to be built in the south of France by 2019.

But the availability of equipment and technology has seen an increasing number of amateurs enter the fray.

"We have people in the whole gamut, from physicists to electronics people to car mechanics to even one janitor - and all these people share a common bond to do nuclear fusion in their home," said Richard Hull, founder of Fusor.net.

Some experts are sceptical that all these people are producing fusion reactions, but when he demonstrates his device, Mr Suppes says a bubble meter placed next to the reactor indicates that a fast neutron, a by-product of fusion, has been produced.

The amateur scientist began building his reactor two years ago, purchasing parts on eBay with $35,000 of his own money and about $4,000 he raised on a website that connects artists and inventors with private investors.

"Real researchers that are working at Los Alamos [US Department of Energy National Laboratory] and are working at Lawrence Livermore are following this and commenting on it, even though it's not an officially sanctioned project," he says.

Tricky situation

Mr Suppes sees his work in nuclear fusion as more than just a hobby, and he intends to try to build one of the world's first break-even reactors - a facility producing as much energy as it uses to operate.

"He now has to go out and do what everybody else has to do, which is to convince people to invest in his project - whether its government funding or private funding to carry him through," said Mr Calder.

Mr Suppes is hoping to build a break-even reactor from plans created by the late Robert Bussard, a nuclear physicist who drew up plans for a fusion reactor that could convert hydrogen and boron into electricity.

Work on a scaled up version of a Bussard reactor, funded by the US Navy, has already been taking place in California.

But Mr Suppes believes he will be able to raise the millions of dollars it takes to build a Bussard reactor because he feels someone with enough money "will feel they cannot pass up the opportunity" to find out if it will work.

Iter said it would be wrong to dismiss out of hand the notion that an amateur could make a difference.

"I won't say something that puts these guys down, but it's a tricky situation because there is a great deal of money and time and a lot of very experienced scientists working on fusion at the moment," said Mr Calder.

"But that does not eliminate other ideas coming from a different group of people."

What neighbours say

For Mr Suppes, convincing the experts is one thing. Convincing the locals is another problem entirely.

"A homemade nuclear fusion reactor being built in Brooklyn - I would have thought there would be some sort of rules and laws about messing around with nuclear fusion in your apartment," said Brooklyn resident Stephen Davis. "I'm not sure I'd like that living right next to me."

"The fact that he's trying to form a new kind of energy is all well and good," said another local, Christopher Wright. "But without the proper scientific work behind it, I don't know if it's too good of an idea."

But others had a more positive outlook on Mr Suppes' reactor.

"I think it's a good idea. If a guy can make an invention like that, it should definitely be spread around so we don't need to depend on oil," Brooklynite Chris Stephens told the BBC.

"We need to do something that's new and more creative for society" (BBC, 2010).

Title: If A Boy Scout Can Get Nuclear Materials, What's Stopping Terrorists?
Date: February 8, 2011
Source: PBS

Abstract: Back in the days when we thought a "dirty bomb" might be a raunchy joke gone awry, young David Hahn was gathering all the radioactive material he could get his hands on. But he came in peace.

Hahn is the man who earned the sobriquet "The Radioactive Boy Scout" in 1995 when he came very close to building a breeder nuclear reactor in his backyard in suburban Detroit. I am serious as a meltdown.

YouTube Video

I heard about his tale while I spent some time with some of New York's finest - the anti-terrorism unit. In the course of a whirlwind day that involved time in a chopper, a boat, an SUV and the 4 train, I picked up on the legend of the really rad Boy Scout from my home state.

I kept asking if anyone could or would have the time, energy, money and knowledge to gather up some readily available radiological materials, duct tape it to some dynamite, and make himself or herself the kind of dirty bomb that the post-9/11 world has come to fear and loathe.

And finally one of the anti-terror cops mentioned David Hahn's story. A little bit of digging and we found David more than willing to tell his tale. We were booked to DTW faster than the half-life of Seaborgium (look it up!).

David is now in his mid-30s and going to college to become a practitioner of the science of public relations. Before he landed back in Michigan, he had two stints in the service: one tour as a Marine and one as a Navy enlisted man. In that latter role, he became the helmsman of the USS Enterprise -- a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier -- which he says is a bear to parallel park.

That job presented a ironic turn for the kid who grew up devouring a 1960s vintage Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments - which offered all kinds of interesting, sometimes dangerous, ways for kids to get a taste of the what it is like to be a scientist.

David loved the story of Pierre and Marie Curie's discovery of Radium. In fact, he could not stop thinking about the glowing material depicted in the drawing on that page in the book. He figured it was the best way to solve the energy crisis. With his father's encouragement, he decided to become an Eagle Scout (did you know 11 of the 12 Apollo moonwalkers were scouts? First man on the moon Neil Armstrong and moonwalker Charles Duke were the two Eagle Scouts of the group).*


Naturally, the atomic energy merit badge interested him the most. The book required the Eagle wannabe to make a model of a nuclear reactor out of straws and matches and stuff. David decided he would rather make the real thing -- and then set about to gather up as much hot stuff as he could lay his hands on.

He got Thorium from lantern mantles, Americium from smoke detectors and Radium from old clock dials. He had pretty much all he needed to make a small breeder reactor, which can generate more fissile material than it consumes. It sounds like a cool trick but as you can imagine these things have a way of going south ... to China.

David spent sometimes eight or 10 hours a day in his backyard shed trying to fashion himself a breeder reactor. All he wanted to do was transform one element to the next. He thinks he may have done that but cannot be sure.

Before things got even weirder in his backyard, David got cold feet, gathered up his stuff, put it in the trunk of a car and proceeded to get pulled over by the fuzz. Game over. A moon-suited team was there in a jiffy -- and his shed, the hot stuff and much of the dirt in his backyard made its way to a radioactive waste dump in Utah.

David's reactor-building days were done. But since he never broke the law -- or meant any harm, he never did any time in the can. A bomb? He said he never thought for a moment about building a bomb!

But here is the bottom line -- and why he was a nice addition to our story: He says it was awfully darn hard to gather up all the smoke detectors, Coleman lantern mantles and old clocks.

Matter of fact, they say you would need about 2 million smoke detectors to make a single dirty bomb of any consequence.

What we should be worried about is the radioactive material that sits in machines inside hospitals. There is enough Cesium in one blood irradiator to make many dozens of dirty bombs. So let's hope they are battening the hatches inside hospitals these days.

We don't want anyone getting a dirty bomb merit badge (PBS, 2011).


OBAMACSI.COM: Like most earth changing events of the last 50 years, the “As Seen on TV” slogan can be dutifully applies. Dirty bomb propaganda films and documentaries have been slowly preparing the public for the inevitable dirty bomb terror attack that will undoubtedly be blamed on Muslims and Arabs. Interestingly, the facts and information contained within the movies regarding dirty bombs is in direct conflict with information from the United States Regulatory Commission. Essentially, a dirty bomb, aside from the initial explosion, is relatively harmless. Clearly, the TV and movie networks never got that memo.

Title: Horizon: "Dirty Bomb"
Date: January 30, 2003
Source: BBC

A dirty bomb is a radiological weapon but unlike a nuclear bomb, its purpose is to contaminate rather than destroy. It uses normal explosives to disperse radioactive materials in the local environment, creating a hazard to health that could last for years unless cleaned up.
The relative ease of making such a bomb means it is a potent terrorist weapon but Horizon's investigation shows that the risk to health from most such devices need not be great. It also underlines the need for governments to act to secure radioactive sources from falling into criminal hands. Horizon deliberately avoids outlining the production process in any detail.

Horizon publishes the results of specially commissioned research, modelling two possible dirty bomb scenarios: attacks on either London or Washington DC. The main conclusion is that the health risks from a dirty bomb explosion are localised to people who are close to the incident or are in contact with the contamination. Although the modelled attack scenarios could have wide-ranging economic repercussions, the majority of the population of either capital city would have only a negligible increase in their risk of developing cancer.

No one has ever exploded a dirty bomb in anger, but there has been at least one close call. In November 1995, a security alert in Moscow eventually unearthed a package of radioactive material, wired with explosives. The Russian authorities kept the incident from the public; a warning to the world about the risk of so called 'radiological dispersion devices' went unannounced. More recently, documents found in Afghanistan as well the FBI's arrest of Jose Padilla en route to Chicago have made security services the world over take seriously the risk of an attack.

Health Effects

A dirty bomb is a small and relatively simple device, sometimes inaccurately called a poor man's nuclear weapon. The radioactive material it contains is unrefined and plays no part in detonating the bomb. The amount of conventional explosive need not be large and may not kill anyone. Its power lies in the cloud of dust released at the same time, producing a nuclear fallout that has a range of health effects. All assessments of likely results make assumptions about the size of the dirty bomb (how much radioactivity it disperses), the type of radiation and the environment in which it explodes.

Anyone who comes into contact with radiation increases their risk of cancer. In a dirty bomb attack, only those who receive the very largest doses - perhaps if injuries prevent their immediate decontamination - could potentially suffer mild radiation sickness. Its symptoms include hair loss and vomiting. (At exposure levels far beyond any dirty bomb, radiation sickness can kill.)

Radioactive Sources

Dirty bombs can make use of many different radioisotopes, substances that naturally produce

alpha, beta or gamma radiation. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna attempts

to keep track of all kinds of radioactive materials as they move around the globe.

It's December 2001 and the Agency's Abel Gonzalez hears alarming news from the former Soviet republic of Georgia: two woodcutters are in hospital with severe radiation burns. How have they been exposed to such high levels of radiation? Gonzalez immediately sends inspectors to the region, anxious to locate the radioactive source before anyone else might. The IAEA team eventually finds two canisters of low grade strontium-90. The sources are so dangerous that the collectors work 40 second shifts to limit their own exposure. 14 hours later, the strontium is safely inside lead-lined casks.

Orphan Sources

The strontium is in the forest thanks, it seems, to a plan by the then USSR to develop mobile electricity generators, powered by radioactivity. Thousands of the generators were built. The Agency has also learned of other Soviet initiatives - including an agricultural scheme that involved irradiating seeds using caesium chloride. It's becoming clear that the former Soviet Union is littered with unguarded (so called 'orphan') radiation sources.

Radiological Security

There's no need to rely on Soviet relics for a supply of radiological material. Engineering industries and health services routinely use radioisotopes. In March 1998, the US town of Greensboro, North Carolina went on high alert after medical instruments used to treat cervical cancer disappeared from its General Hospital - each contained a small amount of radioactive caesium. Surveying the hospital with geiger counters showed they had not been misplaced. The State's radiological protection board took over. A citywide search on the ground and from the air failed to recover the equipment. Whoever took the caesium got away with it.

Yet it seems there is no criminal action needed to get hold of radiation sources. Also in North Carolina, in June 2002, a small quantity of caesium turned up amongst scrap metal in a junkyard. The industrial equipment it came from had been thrown away when a company had closed down. US authorities estimate that thousands of similar radioactive sources could be missing in general circulation.

The Horizon Scenarios

To assess the impact of a strontium or caesium chloride dirty bomb, Horizon imagined two credible attack scenarios - one in London's Trafalgar Square, the other on the Washington DC underground train network - and commissioned expert opinion on the effect of each.

Trafalgar Square Scenario

The fictional attack supposes a dirty bomb combining 4.5kg of Semtex plastic explosive with a large caesium chloride radiological source (activity rate: 74,000 gigabecquerels), detonated in the open air.

The blast itself kills the bombers and a handful of people nearby. The dust cloud from the bomb immediately carries the powdery caesium tens of metres up into the air. The plume travels downwind at 300m per minute.

As soon as the emergency services arrive on the scene, it becomes apparent that there is radioactivity present. Evacuation of the immediate area follows but there are few visible health problems. No one contracts radiation sickness, the problem instead is a potential cancer timebomb hanging over central London for a generation. How great?

Exposure to radiation is measured in sieverts (Sv), a unit that takes account of our bodies' varying susceptibility to alpha, beta and gamma radiation. 1Sv causes radiation sickness; 8Sv will kill you. Wherever you live there is natural background radiation, from the ground, the air, food and water. It typically amounts to 0.002Sv.

  1. Horizon's simulation suggests that anyone 5km away receives an additional radiation dose of just 0.001Sv (half as big as background); the cancer risk is marginal, rising by a factor of just 0.1%.
  2. People 1km distant sustain a 0.012Sv dose and run a cancer risk that is increased by 1%.
  3. It is only those who remain within 500m of the Square that face a major threat from the contamination. Anyone who continues to use the area within 200m of the bomb site for an extended period of time will receive a radiation dose 80 times background - 0.16Sv - sufficient to cause cancer in 1 in 7 people.

Washington DC Metro Scenario

This fictional dirty bomb incident uses a smaller device in a more contained space. The amount of caesium is 74 gigabecquerels, one thousandth of the mass in the London scenario. It's also cruder, using just a firework as its explosive force.

Detonated in a quiet corner of a subway station, the dispersal blast is over in a second and does not attract any attention. In fact, no one even realises there has been an attack, until the terrorists announce their action 24 hours later. In that time, thousands of commuters and hundreds of trains will have spread the radioactive caesium widely through the station and, more selectively, the entire underground network.

Modelling the health effects shows that the cancer risk to the general public is very slight.

  1. A typical commuter doubles their radioactive exposure, compared to background levels. Statistically they stand a 1 in 4,000 risk of contracting cancer in their lifetime.
  2. It is Metro staff who face graver concerns. After a day's work, their cancer risk is 1 case in 100 people.

Responding to an Attack

The most serious effect of both dirty bomb scenarios is the uncertainty that would be sure to follow. Contamination could be patchy and it may be difficult to assess its extent immediately. The demands to screen people and assess the safety of buildings could be immense in either city.

Preventing Panic

Scientists do not have entirely to imagine what the response to a dirty bomb involves. They do have one case study to examine. In 1987, the Brazilian city of Goiânas suffered radiological contamination after a scrap metal merchant stole a small caesium chloride canister and cut it open. Despite its gentle and relatively contained release, the powdery dust drifted across the city. Four people died and around 200 were contaminated.

The understandable reaction of the million-strong population was to seek absolute reassurance about their own health. 10% demanded immediate screening to see whether they had been affected. Hospitals were overwhelmed and residents took to the streets in protest.

Cleaning up

The Brazilian experience offers emergency planners information about the decontamination process too. Removing the radioactivity took six months; some buildings had to be demolished as too radioactive to be worth cleaning up.

And 'cleaning up' the radiation is perhaps a misnomer; 'moving it on' would be better. 3,000m³ of rubble, earth and debris was removed, enough to fill a football field waist high. All of it continues to be low level radioactive waste.

Responding to the scenarios

Disaster planners are using the Brazilian example to predict the effect on other cities. In Horizon's Washington scenario, the likely result is the closedown of parts, perhaps all, of the Metro for decontamination.

In London, as in Goiânas, the cost of making some buildings safe would be too great. This could prompt a decision to demolish or abandon some limited areas. This would depend partly on the speed of response. An immediate clean up can remove around 50% of the radiological contamination but over time the particles combine with the cement in walls and pavements, making the radioactivity much harder to remove.

The greatest uncertainty for contingency planners is the public reaction. What do you say to people once the news first comes out? Would people understand the difference that the size and type of radiological source makes? And would people follow the best advice, namely to stay put? The more information people have, the better equipped they will be to deal with the aftermath of any kind of incident (BBC, 2003)

Title: "Dirty War"
Date: September 24, 2004
Source: Wikipedia

Abstract: "Dirty War" is a 2004 BBC, in association with HBO Films, made-for-TV movie thriller/drama about a terrorist attack on Central London, written by Lizzie Mickery and Daniel Percival. It was originally broadcast on BBC One on September 24, 2004, on HBO on January 24, 2005, and the first time on American broadcast television on PBS on February 23, 2005. It won a BAFTA Award for Best New Director (Fiction), Daniel Percival.
The film opens with a June 2003 quote from E. Manningham Buller, director general (DG) of MI5: "It will only be a matter of time before a crude chemical, biological or radiological (CBRN) attack is launched on a major western city" and provides the basic premise for the film.

The film follows the journey of radioactive material, hidden in vegetable oil containers, from Habiller, Turkey (~210 km west of Istanbul) through Sofia, Bulgaria, to Deptford, to an East End Indian food takeaway restaurant, and to a rented house in Willesden, where it assembled into a dirty bomb.

When the first bomb goes off in the heart of London, next to the entrance to Liverpool Street Underground station, the city's inadequate emergency services plans are put to an immediate test - with disturbing results for a population ill-prepared to understand or obey anti-contamination and quarantine orders.

In addition to touching upon the motivations of the Islamic extremist terrorists to conduct what they saw as a martyrdom operation, the events are shown through the eyes of three principal groups.

Nicola Painswick, Minister for London, and Deputy Assistant Commissioner (DAC) John Ives (Ewan Stewart), of the Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Branch, present a governmental point of view.

Watch Commander Murray Corrigan of the London Fire Brigade, and his wife Liz Corrigan, who works for the National Health Service, present two viewpoints.

Detective Sergeant (DS) Mike Drummer and Detective Constable (DC) Sameena Habibullah lead the Police investigation to catch the terrorists before the bombs are detonated. DC Habibullah, an English Muslim policeman from Luton, who speaks Urdu, Punjabi, and Arabic, presents a unique point of view throughout the film.

The film is considered an accurate portrayal of a potential radiological terrorist attack with subsequent emergency response. As such, the film has been used to train first-responders in the US who may be called upon to respond to similar incidents (Wikipedia, 2011).

Title: "Right At Your Door
Date: September 8, 2006
Source: Wikipedia

"Right at Your Door" is a 2006 American thriller film about a couple and follows the events surrounding them when multiple dirty bombs detonate in Los Angeles. The film opens with Brad (Rory Cochrane), an out of work musician, making a cup of latté for his wife Lexi (Mary McCormack) who is still in bed. She soon leaves for work and Brad is left at home alone. Over the radio he hears that several suspected dirty bombs have been detonated across Los Angeles.

He exits his house and sees large amounts of smoke rising from the city center and gets into his car to drive towards the city center in order to find her. Brad tries to contact her through her cell phone, but only receives a busy signal. He soon finds that most roads now have police blockades.

An ash covered car is stopped by the police. One policeman notices Brad watching from inside his car and goes over to him to tell him to go back home. The police officers aim their weapons at the driver as he gets out and demand that he get back into his car. He ignores their warning and is shot down by the police. Brad decides to leave and go back home when he encounters a small boy called Timmy (Scotty Noyd Jr.) who is watching the rising smoke from the city center. Brad tells him to run home to his parents as fast as he can as it is not safe where he is.

Once home Alvaro (Tony Perez)enters the house and asks Brad if he can stay with him as there is no one at the neighbor's house where he was working. They hear that survivors of the blasts are being quarantined as the weapons were dirty bombs and the authorities advise people to seal up their homes before the contaminated dust cloud reaches them.

Brad and Alvaro then proceed to seal up the house with duct tape and plastic. As it becomes increasingly more obvious that Lexi might not come home, he takes some of Lexi's clothes and leaves them outside the back door with some food and water. Brad and Alvaro then proceed to seal off the front door. Radio newscasts claim that the bombs contained several toxins and an unknown viral strain (Wikipedia, 2011).

Title: The Dirty Bomb Diaries
Date: February 22, 2007
Source: Dirty Bomb Diaries

Abstract: If you were trapped in a city after a radioactive Dirty Bomb detonated, what would you be willing to do?   Who would you become?

YouTube Video

Witness the conflict through the eyes of a single woman struggling at Ground Zero with no supplies, sporadic phone service, a lack of police support and a city ready to tear itself apart. 

With a Season One web presence of 2 Million Internet Views, DBD has captured fans with its Sixteen Episodes - each under Four Minutes.  DBD has spread beyond You Tube and MySpace and onto Strike.tv, KoldCast.tv, Tubefilter.tv, Revver, DailyMotion, Ziddio, Veoh, Crackle and Vimeo - to name a few (Dirty Bomb Diaries, 2007).

Naked Science: Dirty Bomb Attack
November 12, 2009
National Geographic

In Dirty Bomb Attack, a one-hour docudrama for the National Geographic Channel, a US city is the target of a hypothetical radiological attack. The episode begins with a dramatization of a car bomb detonating in a busy street and sets up the question, what happens next?"

The answer is given through the lens of representative characters: a victim near the blast site whose radiation symptoms develop over time; first responders who go into the hot zone to save lives and help with the clean up; a pregnant mother and her child living in a contaminated area who must be evacuated and forensic scientists who comb through evidence to determine how lethal the attack was and who is responsible.

By concentrating on these key story lines and weaving back and forth between them Dirty Bomb Attack paints an accurate and often gripping picture of the aftermath of a radiological attack and gives viewers useful information in the event that we ever find ourselves faced with this kind of disaster in the future. This episode examines the effects of a hypothetical radiological attack from a car bomb on a major U.S. city.

The purpose is to give useful information in the event that such an event should occur. The stories of several characters are told to dramatize the effects on various types of people: those responding in the "hot zone", a person near to the blast whose symptoms develop over time, a pregnant woman who must evacuate, and investigators who comb through debris to determine who set the blast (National Geographic, 2009).

Nova: "Dirty Bomb"
February 25, 2011

"Dirty Bomb" probes the realities and implications for public health policy of a disaster that many consider to be all but inevitable: a terrorist attack on a major city using a radioactive "dirty bomb." The program strives to answer crucial questions about this menacing new weapon in the terrorists' arsenal, questions such as: What exactly is a dirty bomb? How dangerous could one be, and how much radiation could it release? What will need to be done to clean up after an explosion?
Unlike a nuclear bomb, which can destroy an entire city, a dirty bomb does most of its work psychologically. Diabolically simple, the device is made of nothing more than conventional explosives wrapped around some unrefined radioactive material, such as strontium, cobalt, or cesium—all obtainable from thousands of poorly regulated sources.
To test the consequences of a projected attack, "Dirty Bomb" dramatizes two scenarios based on sophisticated models developed by a team of radiation experts, including Michael Levi, the director of the Strategic Security Project at the Federation of American Scientists. One of these scenarios looks at the consequences of a dirty-bomb detonation in the Washington, D.C., subway system, and the other at a detonation's aftermath in Trafalgar Square, London. More sobering than the direct effects of any explosion, however, is that an incident like the ones dramatized in "Dirty Bomb" could cause widespread panic and crippling damage to the economy—achieving the terrorists' fondest wishes—even if no one died when the bomb went off.

U.S. officials are convinced that some sort of dirty-bomb attack is imminent. In spring 2002 American Al Qaeda sympathizer Jose Padilla was arrested on suspicion of planning a dirty-bomb attack in the U.S. Several months earlier, American intelligence agents in Afghanistan uncovered detailed Al Qaeda plans for a sophisticated version of a dirty bomb.

"The understanding was basically at a fairly advanced physics level," says former CIA head of intelligence Vince Cannistraro. "It wasn't just the kind of formula that you might be able to pick up off the Web.... It was a pretty well-thought-out scenario on how to make the most deadly kind of dirty bomb imaginable."

Aside from the effect of the explosion itself, which would injure or kill those in its immediate vicinity, some people near the blast might be exposed to levels of ionizing radiation high enough to cause sickness or death. Many others would be at risk from radioactive contamination that could linger for decades or even centuries, causing an increased rate of cancer if nothing is done to clean the area. Even if quite small, the increased cancer risk may be unacceptable to the public, leading to demolition or abandonment of affected areas at a cost of billions, and potentially trillions, of dollars.

Experts have already learned what to expect from previous accidents. In Goiaina, Brazil, in 1988, a radiation contamination incident occurred in which a small quantity of radioactive cesium chloride discovered by scrap-metal merchants led to four deaths and an enormous cleanup effort. Decontamination took six months and generated more than 5,000 cubic yards of radioactive waste. (For more on this tragedy, see Chronology of Events.)

More serious incidents have occurred in the former USSR, where many tons of radioactive substances were produced for experimental crop treatment and other uses during the Soviet era. Much of this extremely dangerous material is now at large. The program shows an incident in the Republic of Georgia, in which a security team disposes of a deadly canister of strontium that was discovered by hunters. Each member of the security team could spend only 40 seconds near the highly lethal source before reaching maximum allowable exposure.

Even the U.S. has had close brushes with accidental nuclear contamination, including a cesium industrial gauge that was discovered in a scrap yard in North Carolina—fortunately, before it was melted down. And in 1988, radioactive needles for cancer treatment disappeared from a hospital in Greensboro, N.C., and have yet to be found.

"We certainly have problems in our own backyard," concedes Dr. Jack Caravelli of the U.S. Department of Energy. "Do I worry about a dirty bomb being made from material of American origin? Yes, I do" (PBS, 2003).

"Source Code"
April 1, 2011

"Source Code" is a 2011 American science fiction-techno-thriller film directed by Duncan Jones, written by Ben Ripley, starring Jake Gyllenhaal, Michelle Monaghan, Vera Farmiga, Russell Peters and Jeffrey Wright. The film had its world premiere on March 11, 2011 at SXSW and was released by Summit Entertainment on April 1, in North America and Europe.

Army helicopter pilot Colter Stevens (Jake Gyllenhaal), last aware of being on a mission in Afghanistan, wakes up on a commuter train traveling to Chicago. He finds that to other people – including his traveling partner Christina Warren (Michelle Monaghan) – he appears as Sean Fentress, a school teacher. As he comes to grips with this revelation, the train car explodes, killing everyone aboard and derailing it and a tanker train traveling the other direction.

Stevens regains consciousness inside an unfamiliar cockpit. Through a screen, Air Force Captain Colleen Goodwin (Vera Farmiga) verifies Stevens' identity. She explains Stevens is in the "Source Code", an experimental device created by Dr. Rutledge (Jeffrey Wright), scientist for Beleaguered Castle (a military unit named after the card game), that allows its user to experience the last eight minutes of a person's life within an alternate timeline.

Stevens is being asked to use Source Code to discover the location of a bomb aboard the train and identify who detonated it. Goodwin explains that the train explosion occurred that morning, and was a warning by the bomber as a precursor to a larger dirty nuclear device that will be detonated in downtown Chicago.

Though Stevens' actions cannot change the past and save the lives aboard the train, identifying the bomber in the alternate timeline will prevent the deaths of millions more in this one.Once back aboard the train, Stevens disarms Frost, and then handcuffs him to a railing. Stevens uses Frost's cell phone to call authorities to inform them of the location of the dirty bomb, and then proceeds to throw Frost's phone off the train (Wikipedia, 2011).

"Dirty Bomb"
Date: November 21, 2011
Source: Michigan Film Reel

What do you get when you manipulate the DNA of a virus to react to radio active material and inject the virus into humans for study? Watch the movie and find out.

Staring: Liz Nolan (Milla Gates) John Westra (Dominic Hines)  Matthew Dennis (Raymond) Kevin Seccombe (Kaden Atums) Victoria Mullen (Cybil Atums)  Ed Mcgregor (Seth Vertis) and many more.

Military trained government scientist Milla Gates is the most valuable scientist in the world when she discovers that her own government turned on her and sold out to private corporations for a virus she discovered in Afghanistan.

Terrorist organizations are using the virus to put into Dirty Bombs to be released on American soil.

Milla is in a race to stop the dirty bombs and find out who’s really behind it all (Michigan Film Reel, 2011).