· Review Shutter Speed exercise.
· Begin Discussing how to use shutter and aperture settings to create unique effects in your photos.
· Discuss the best ways to share student work on the website.
· Redo Shutter Speed exercise.
Point and Shoot with Fixed Settings (if applicable)
Digital Photography - Definitions Saturday, March 21, 2009
Shutter Speed From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Factors that affect the total exposure of a photograph include the scene luminance, the aperture size (f-number), and the exposure time (shutter speed); photographers can trade off shutter speed and aperture by using units of stops. A stop up and down on each will halve or double the amount of light regulated by each; exposures of equal exposure value can be easily calculated and selected. For any given total exposure, or exposure value, a fast shutter speed requires a larger aperture (smaller f-number). Similarly, a slow shutter speed, a longer length of time, can be compensated by a smaller aperture (larger f-number).
Slow shutter speeds are often used in low light conditions, extending the time until the shutter closes, and increasing the amount of light gathered. This basic principle of photography, the exposure, is used in film and digital cameras, the image sensor effectively acting like film when exposed by the shutter.
Shutter speed, or more literally exposure time, is measured in seconds, but often marked in reciprocal seconds. A typical exposure time for photographs taken in sunlight is 1/125th of a second, typically marked as 125 on a shutter speed setting dial. In addition to its effect on exposure, shutter speed changes the way movement appears in the picture. Very short shutter speeds are used to freeze fast-moving subjects, for example at sporting events. Very long shutter speeds are used to intentionally blur a moving subject for artistic effect.
Adjustment to the aperture controls the depth of field, the distance range over which objects are acceptably sharp; such adjustments generally need to be compensated by changes in the shutter speed.
In early days of photography, available shutter speeds were somewhat ad hoc. Following the adoption of a standardized way of representing aperture so that each major step exactly doubled or halved the amount of light entering the camera (f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, etc.), a standardized 2:1 scale was adopted for shutter speed so that opening one aperture stop and reducing the shutter speed by one step resulted in the identical exposure. The agreed standards for shutter speeds are:
Each standard increment either doubles the amount of light (longer time) or halves the amount of light (shorter time). For example, if you move from 1 sec to 1/2 second, you have effectively halved the amount of light entering the shutter. This scale can be extended at either end in specialist cameras. Some older cameras use the 2:1 ratio at slightly different values, such as 1/100 s and 1/50 s, although mechanical shutter mechanisms were rarely precise enough for the difference to have any significance.
The term "speed" is used in reference to short exposure times as fast, and long exposure times as slow. Shutter speeds are often designated by the reciprocal time, for example 60 for 1/60 s.
Camera shutters often include one or two other settings for making very long exposures:
F/stop From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shutter priority refers to a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific shutter speed while the camera adjusts the aperture to ensure correct exposure. This is different from manual mode, where the user must decide both values, aperture priority where the user picks an aperture with the camera selecting the shutter speed to match, or program mode where the camera selects both.
Shutter priority with longer exposures is chosen to create an impression of motion. For example, a waterfall will appear blurred and fuzzy. If the camera is panned with a moving subject, the background will appear blurred. When photographing sports or high-speed phenomena, shutter priority with short exposures can ensure that the motion is effectively frozen in the resulting image.
Shutter priority is often abbreviated with Tv (literally, "time value") or S on a camera mode dial.
Aperture priority, often abbreviated Av (for Aperture value) or A on a camera mode dial, is a setting on some cameras that allows the user to choose a specific aperture value while the camera selects a shutter speed to match. The camera will ensure proper exposure. This is different from manual mode, where the user must decide both values, shutter priority where the user picks a shutter speed with the camera selecting the aperture to match, or program mode where the camera selects both.
Another common use of aperture priority mode is to suggest how the camera should determine a shutter speed, without risking a poor exposure. In landscape photography a user would select a small aperture when photographing a waterfall, hoping to allow the water to blur through the frame. When shooting a portrait in dim lighting, the photographer might choose to open the lens to its maximum aperture in hopes of getting enough light for a good exposure.
In addition, aperture priority mode allows the photographer to force the camera to operate the lens at its optimum apertures within its aperture range for a given focal length of the lens. Commonly, lenses provide greatest resolving power with a relatively medium-sized aperture.