7. Bibliography‎ > ‎

II. Community Engagement

Arts Council England. (2005). Respond: A practical resource for developing a race equality action plan. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/respond-a-practical-resource-for-developing-a-race-equality-action-plan/

Respond is a resource to help regularly funded organisations develop a race equality action plan (for inclusive and permanent change). While primarily designed for regularly funded organisations, the publication may help other arts organisations look at how they approach race equality” (2). The study focuses on race equality, but at the same time claims to be applicable to other areas of equity, such as disability. It is a practical tool demonstrating how to develop a race equality plan step-by-step, through auditing, monitoring, and evaluating an organization. Arts Council England encourages all its regularly funded organizations to follow a particular seasonal timetable for implementing their equity action plan, and offers support as well as governance to these organizations. In executing a race equality plan, the story offers cases of good and bad examples in particular practices of Governance, Employment, Programming, Audience development, Education, and Organizational Development.


Association of Fundraising Professionals, Kaleidoscope.

Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Publications/content.cfm?ItemNumber=2777&navItemNumber=2779

This seasonal newsletter covers a wide range of topics in the area of fundraising, with a tendency to focus on fundraising among culturally diverse communities and the inadequacy of western best practices in philanthropy in these circumstances, and the importance of knowing cultural practices and norms and utilizing diversity for creative planning methods.


Australia Council for the Arts. (2011) Arts research in progress and planned across Australia.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research_hub/arts_rippa/all

An Australia Council for the Arts initiative that brings together approximately 94 projects conducted by different cultural organizations and policy makers, ranging from January 2006 to December 2015 (projected completion date for the ones in progress). The purpose of this initiative is said to “research into the arts as social, cultural or economic practice, with an emphasis on investigating contemporary policy issues and trends in the cultural sector, providing information, analysis and insight to help drive policy and planning. It includes qualitative and quantitative research into arts audiences and participants, as well as analytical research into creative industry development, arts impacts, infrastructure support for artists and regulatory and policy instruments” (2006). These 94 projects on file have mixed focuses, covering many aspects of cultural pluralism.


Australia Council for the Arts. (2003-2006) Diversity.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/diversity

Newsletter of the Australia Council for the Arts containing information about arts in a multicultural Australia. It ceased publication with the March 2006 issue. Issues: February 2003, April 2004, October 2004, March 2006. Back issues which explore topics of young artists, identity, new media initiatives, cultural brokerage, cultural diversity and sustainable development, multicultural arts marketing, and diversity in the performing and visual arts. Diversity discusses achievements of the Australia Council’s Arts in a Multicultural Australia policy. It’s five-year strategic plan seeks to address “skilling, promotion and integration”, for “action and advocacy in the arts” (web).


Australia Council for the Arts, & British Council. (2008). Making creative cities: the value of cultural diversity in the arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/making_creative_citiies

“In March 2008, the British Council joined with the Australia Council for the Arts to present a one-day forum in Melbourne, Making Creative Cities: The value of cultural diversity in the arts. The forum was envisaged as a platform in which arts practitioners, policy makers and commentators from around the East Asia region could interface with their UK counterparts to address key issues around interculturalism in creative and urban contexts. Combining panel discussions with facilitated roundtable workshops amongst small groups of participants, the forum stimulated debate around three core areas: the intersection of interculturalism with creative leadership and with creative expression, and the role of interculturalism in the production of creative cities. The main section of this paper attempts to summarise the day’s wide-ranging discussions. The final outcomes page maps a number of areas that both the Australia Council for the Arts and the British Council are interested in investigating further.” (3)


Barry, Jennifer. (2003). Marketing to culturally diverse audiences. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/arts_marketing/promotion/marketing_to_culturally_diverse_audiences

The Australia Council hosted a forum on Marketing to Culturally Diverse Audiences. This overview identifies the importance of community partnership and summarises the highlights from the day, including strategies to develop Non English Speaking Background audiences that are relevant to ethno-specific markets.


Bertone, Santina, Keating, Clare, & Mullaly, Jenny. (2000). The Taxidriver, the Cook and the Greengrocer: The representation of non-English speaking background people in theatre, film and television. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/the_taxidriver,_the_cook_and_the_greengrocer_the_representation_of_non-english_speaking_background_people_in_theatre,_film_and_television

“The findings of this report prompt some fundamental questions about how well and how fully the arts community draws upon the extraordinary diversity in our community. It asks how we react to and what we experience on our stages and screens and ultimately how we then present ourselves on the world stage. The taxidriver, the cook and the greengrocer is the result of a national study conducted by a collaborative research team consisting of researchers from the Workplace Studies Centre and the Communications Law Centre, Victoria University of Technology, together with consultants Effective Change.” (web). The study identifies many problematic trends of non-English background people’s employment and representation (under-representation) in theatre, film and television. Having a close cultural tie to English theatre traditions, mainstream Australian performing art organizations often employ the same people with Anglo-Celtic values and fail to present positive and accurate image of NESB people. Examples of community-based work, and culturally diverse organizations are being analyzed as success cases. The study also contains interviews of academics, artists, presenters, and other professionals in the identified fields, on their understanding of this study and its implications.


Brown,Stuart, Hawson, Isobel, Graves, Tony, & Barot, Mukesh. (2001). Eclipse: Developing strategies to combat racism in theatre. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/eclipse-developing-strategies-to-combat-racism-in-theatre/

Report from a conference looking at how the theatre industry can develop strategies to combat institutional racism in theatre, as well as developing understanding of AfricanCaribbean and Asian theatre. A well-rounded and concise report covering all aspects of organizational planning - from leadership to staffing, and from programming to marketing and outreach. The study proposes over twenty recommendations for participants at the conference.


Cliché, Danielle, & Wiesand, Andreas. (2009). Achieving intercultural dialogue through the arts and culture? Concepts, policies, programmes, practices. Sydney: International Federation of Arts Councils and Cultural Agencies.

Retrieved from http://media.ifacca.org/files/D'Art39Final.pdf

A study done to map views and collect cases of good practice of IFACCA members, researchers, arts practitioners and NGOs, on the role of intercultural dialogue in the arts and arts policies. It suggests that there is no single arts strategy or cultural policy to address intercultural dialogue, stressing the need to focus on local efforts before thinking of international strategies. The report sets up the boundaries of intercultural dialogue in the arts, and the impetus behind programs and policies that support this conversation. This dialogue is important because of its function in respecting human rights, promoting cultural diversity in the arts, promoting dialogue between/among Aboriginal and ethno-racial groups, and between countries. It surveys arts and cultural organizations on what they are doing to promote intercultural dialogues, summarizes prominent methods, and examines the challenges that such initiatives must negotiate (33-34). This resource is also available in French and Spanish.


Collins, Jock. (2011). Identities and diversity. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Sydney: University of Technologies Sydney.

Retrieved from http://utsescholarship.lib.uts.edu.au/epress/journals/index.php/mcs/issue/view/138

This collection of nine articles seeks to discuss “the notion of identities and diversity from multiple, dynamic, perspectives is central to the cosmopolitan research project, as is the notion of agency”. The majority of the essays explore the issue of identity, specifically the many aspect of Chinese immigration to Australia – the discriminative government policies in Australian history, “The Chinese” as the others, diasporic interdependence within different ethnic Chinese communities, Chinese as non-mainstream both politically and culturally, and Chinese immigrant legal battles (i-iii). These articles may help organizations who seek to engage Chinese communities to better understand the upbringing of Chinese diasporic identity.


Cope, Bill, Kalantzis, Mary, & Ziguras, Christopher. (2003). Multimedia, multiculturalism and the arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/multimedia,_multiculturalism_and_the_arts

“A report commissioned by the Australia Council for the Arts to address the question: are multimedia trends in Australia leading to increasing homogeneity or do they suggest tools for cultural pluralism? This publication is an updated version of a discussion paper prepared for the Australia Council for the Arts in 1998, entitled A multicultural superhighway?.” (web) The study analyzes access to multimedia as a mean of artistic expression for multicultural society. The widespread of multimedia is a tool for cultural pluralism but at the same time raises questions of homogeneity in a globalized world. Whether or not certain information and communication technologies restrict access to English speakers instead of enhancing production amongst diverse communities is being explored.


DHR Communications. (2010). How people live their lives in an intercultural society. Dublin: Irish Committee of the European Cultural Foundation.

Retrieved from http://www.eurocult.org//sites/www.eurocult.org/files/How_People_Liver_their_Lives_in_an_Intercultural_Society.pdf

Examines cultural diversity in Ireland beginning with the history of migration to Ireland and the success of intercultural dialogue in terms of defining cultural identity, impacting education, the delivery of public services, and the impact it has on integration in local communities. This regional study is not particularly concerned with the arts, however the role of leadership in interculturalism may have an implication on organizational level, just as the elimination of barriers to engage communities through educational and public services is applicable to the programming of an organization.


Directorate-General for Education and Culture (EU). (2006). Intercultural dialogue conference and exhibition: Best practices at community level.

Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/dialogue/index_en.html

This resource details 29 cases of best practices in intercultural dialogue in Europe, conclusions of the workshops held during the conference, and strategies for implementing intercultural initiatives. Compared with the European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research’s publication, this study brings intercultural dialogue down to the organizational level, and offers practical case studies of collaborations between cultural institutions, such as museums, schools and libraries. Photos of the case programs are provided, as well as the contact info of the hosting organizations, which is an great asset for organizations who seek to partake in collaborative intercultural projects. Although most of the cases are concerned with programming, there are cases of community engagement in promoting inter-city change, as well as equal opportunity employment practices.


Field, Yvonne, & Harrow, Marietta. (2001). Routes across diversity – developing the arts of London’s refugee communities. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.takingpartinthearts.com/content.php?content=955

This report examines Arts Council England, London's Regional Challenge activity in the second year of the New Audiences Programme. Regional Challenge, one of the 14 strands of the New Audiences Programme, aimed to develop projects specific to each region. It describes the activity that aimed to develop the arts of London’s refugee communities by developing and externally evaluating 11 refugee led arts projects. Recommendations to different affiliating organizations (arts council, refugee community organizations, arts organizations, and statutory sector) are made in the end, to promote greater collaboration and engage London’s various refugee communities.


Forte, Maximilian C.. (2010). Indigenous cosmopolitans: transnational and transcultural indigeneity in the twenty-first century. New York: Peter Lang Publishing

A collection of essays and case studies on indigenous peoples from the perspective of cosmopolitan theory, and on cosmopolitanism from the perspective of the indigenous world. Analysing ethnography from around the world, the authors demonstrate the universality of the local – indigeneity – and the particularity of the universal – cosmopolitanism. Chapter seven, Transnational Migration and Indigeneity in Canada: A Case Study of Urban Inuit, examines the contemporary urban Inuit space in Canadian cities and its “internal cosmopolitanism” for bringing together different generations of urban Inuit people (11).


Gunew, Sneja, & Rizvi, Fazal. (1994). Culture, difference and the arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/culture,_difference_and_the_arts

Culture, difference and the arts brings together a set of essays by leading cultural critics, arts practitioners and administrators who address the challenge of developing new ways of thinking about the role of the arts in a multicultural society. Essays: “Arts for a multicultural Australia: redefining the culture (points out that “aesthetic traditions and excellences are invented categories often used to practice a politics of exclusions”),” “Vocabularies of Excellence: rewording multicultural arts policy (furthers the previous discussion in saying that in Australia, the notion of excellence ultimately serves to marginalise NESB artists),” “An inconstant politics: thinking about the traditional and the contemporary (suggests a re-evaluation of the presentation of the “contemporary”, not as an opposition to the “traditional”, but in its transitional … multicultural context”),” “The arts, education and the politics of multiculturalism (calls for a new arts education that encourages students to “articulate their diverse lived cultures”, instead of loosing their culture to achieve a homogenised identity),” “Aboriginal arts in relation to multiculturalism (criticizes the “monopolisation of the Aboriginal arts industry by non-indigenous Australians”),” “Australian (dis)contents: film, mass media and multiculturalism (brings to light the problematic practices in contemporary film, television and the mass media to marginalise and patronise “the other”),” “Traditions and transition in South Asian performing arts in multicultural Australia (discusses the growth of South Asian performing arts and its potential for “evolving a distinctive culture … in multicultural Australia”),” “Big banana and little Italy: multicultural planning and urban design in Australia (focuses on urban design in both public and private spaces, and the industry’s inadequate representation of the Australian multicultural society),”

“Community arts and its relation to multicultural arts (calls for a greater understanding amongst funding agencies to wisely use their power in “broadening participation and skill levels in the community, support local content and innovation, and nurture audiences to be more culturally informed”),” “Consultation and ethnic communities (talks about the importance of consultation with NESB artists and communities in “the formulation and implementation of arts and cultural policies”),” “Funding: a checklist (offers a practical checklist for NESB artists who are seeking funding from both the government and non-government organizations),” “Persistent encounters: the Australia Council and multiculturalism (analyzes the history of the Australia Council for the arts and the institutional resistance that challenges the formation and implementation of multicultural policies).” (xi-xvi).


Helen Denniston Associates. (2003) Holding up the Mirror: Addressing cultural diversity in London’s museums. London: London Museum Agency.

Retrieved from http://research.mla.gov.uk/evidence/documents/Holding_up_the_mirror.pdf

The report examines the issues of ethnicity and racism and the role of London’s museums and galleries in a diverse city, and how they address the challenge of appealing to diverse audiences. It makes recommendations for how museums can stay culturally relevant and necessary in a changing society by refocusing their activities to address a diverse urban reality. Having researched over 174 museums across England, the report highlights best practice cases and areas for improvement, and methods for establishing organizational commitment, engaging with communities, changing internal cultures, mainstreaming diversity, and reflecting diversity in collections and interpretation.


Jennings, Mel. (2003) A practical guide to working with arts ambassadors. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/a-practical-guide-to-working-with-arts-ambassadors/

“This is a guide to setting up an 'arts ambassador's' programme in arts organisations and using arts ambassadors as an effective tool for audience and market development. It explores good working relationships and time investment that may lead to positive changes in an organisation. (web)”


Jermyn, Helen, & Desai, Philly. (2000). Arts – what’s in a word? Ethnic minorities and the arts. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/arts-whats-in-a-word-ethnic-minorities-and-the-arts/

This publication includes key findings and recommendations for developing ethnic audiences for mainstream and culturally diverse arts, focusing on African, Caribbean, South Asian and Chinese people. Not only does it offer great statistics on various aspect of ethnic minorities in England (size, composition, age structure, spending habit, social activities, engagement in the arts…etc.), the article also provides background information on government policies as well as that of the major funding agencies in dealing with ethnic minorities in the arts. The study identifies and analyzes ten different barriers for ethnic minorities to attend mainstream cultural events, and makes recommendations in the end for arts organizations to address these barriers. In order to enable arts organizations to evaluate their own audiences, a list of potential focus group questions are provided in the end.


Kapetopoulos, Fotis. (2004). Who goes there? National multicultural arts audience case studies.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/who_goes_there_national_multicultural_arts_audience_case_studies

Our cultural diversity has gained increasing relevance for arts and cultural organisations both as a management and marketing issue. Who goes there? National multicultural arts audience case studies provides the first national market research into audiences for multicultural arts product undertaken in Australia. It calls for organizations to develop a concerted plan to incorporate multiculturalism with the arts, and target on communities that are not yet represented. As success cases, this report examines three programs over the periods 2001-2003: Carnivale Multicultural Arts Festival, NSW; para//elo contemporary performance group, SA; and kultour, a national multicultural art touring network initiated in 2002 by the Australia Council for the Arts. Who goes there? examines patterns emerging from audience surveys, focus groups, observation and key stake holder interviews between June 2002 and April 2003. The patterns emerging in the case studies suggest that, like all arts and entertainment programs, multicultural ones are dependent on relevance, skill and production values. Cultural diversity adds value in a world of product and brand clutter.


Maitland, Heather. (2005). Navigating difference: Cultural diversity and audience development. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.takingpartinthearts.com/content.php?content=1203

Arts managers, policy makers, practicing artists, academics, audience members, and commentators explore the relevance of cultural diversity in the arts, and implications for policy makers, management, programming, marketing and audience development. This is done through examining the imbalance of power and inequality, complexities of representation, how we use language, internal dynamics of an organization, and creativity and innovation in programming. A large project which details many case studies and best practice stories from arts organizations. From an economical and demographic perspective, the study begins by pointing out the necessity for cultural organizations to “stay relevant” to the population changes (16). Chapter two identifies challenges against organizational changes. Chapter three examines British arts organizations’ progression towards diversity. Chapter four draws examples from UK’s engagement with diversity in the sports and business sector. In the end, the article suggests “practical guidance on the implications of cultural identity and diversity for management, programming, marketing, and audience development” (98).


Migliorino, Pino, & Cultural Perspectives. (1998). The world is your audience: Case studies in audience development and cultural diversity. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/the_world_is_your_audience_case_studies_in_audience_development_and_cultural_diversity

“Focussing specifically on the development of audiences of a culturally diverse nature and of non-English speaking background, The world is your audience follows the path from planning through to development, marketing and presentation so the reader can refer to specific topics or use it as a step-by-step guide. Commissioned by the Australia Council for the Arts from Pino Migliorino and Cultural Perspectives, the development of The world is your audience: case studies in audience development and cultural diversity is premised on the fact that people from non-English speaking backgrounds are not attending mainstream cultural venues and arts activities in the same proportion as those from an English speaking background” (web). The commissioning of this report demonstrates Australia Council for the Arts’ commitment to audience development. It is a practical tool on auditing an organization’s existing audiences and identifying new target groups. A comprehensive step-by-step guideline on non-English speaking audience development is well backed up with the use of 23 case studies. Interestingly, the study also provides cases and guideline on the reverse situation of mainstream audience development for NESB productions.


Scott, Katherine, Selbee, Kevin, & Reed, Paul. (2006). Making connections: Social and civic engagement among Canadian immigrants. Ottawa: Canada Council on Social Development and Carleton University.

Retrieved fromhttp://www.ccsd.ca/pubs/2006/makingconnections/

The study concludes that immigrants to Canada, despite many social and economic barriers, are willing to contribute time and money to social causes. They exhibit comparable rates of social and civic engagement as Canadian-born populations. This is determined by examining rates of volunteering and donating, memberships in non-profit and charitable community groups, voting rates, frequency of following the news and current affairs, and rates and methods of informal giving. Although not particularly concerned with the arts, this report identifies barriers of access for immigrants to participate in social and civic activities, which are very similar to the visiting barriers identified in Robertson and Migliorino’s study on cultural institutions. This study has a particular focus on a higher level of engagement, to recruit immigrant as volunteers and members, not just as visitors.


Smyth, Morton. (2004). Not for the likes of you: How to reach a broader audience. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.takingpartinthearts.com/content.php?content=943

Morton Smyth Ltd researched cultural organisations that have changed their overall positioning and have achieved broader audiences as a result. They analysed the key criteria that enabled their success. This report is for organisations that want to attract a broad public, and are willing to go through a process of change to achieve it. Although with the end goal of raising more audiences, similar to Khan’s study in The Shared Space, this is a step-by-step guideline on refining all aspects of organizational practices, both internal and external to the organization, to achieve greater pluralism. Internally, organizations are encouraged to rethink the role and responsibilities of leadership, build multi-disciplinary teams with diverse employees, program with audiences in mind, and bring education to the centre of management. Externally, it is suggested that organizations proactively engage with diverse communities, establish strong new relationships, and articulate the benefit of their programming in a comprehensible language. The report also critically analysis the challenges organizations may face in real life when implementing changes, and concludes that barriers of cost, human resource, and institutional resistance can be overcame as long as organizations focus on the rewards of a pluralist practice. 


Trepanier, France. (2008). Aboriginal Arts Research Initiative. Ottawa: Canada Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.canadacouncil.ca/publications_e/research/art_abo/uy128716664297918944.htm

“This document is a report on a series of consultations that were held in 2007 with Aboriginal artists, arts administrators, elders, youth and other community members. It is part of the Aboriginal Arts Research Initiative (AARI) which has been established in order to plan and undertake research which will support and inform the Canada Council’s Aboriginal Arts Action Plan (AAAP). It aims to measure the impact of the arts on Aboriginal communities and the broader impact of Aboriginal arts in Canada and internationally” (3).  The study makes recommendation on organizational infrastructure that supports community engagement and professional development opportunities for Aboriginal artists. Furthermore, through discussion of the various practices of Aboriginal art, in the contemporary society and at different time in history, the report seeks to raise interest and understanding in Aboriginal arts, provincially, nationally, and internationally.


Young, Nancy. (2001). Beat a different drum: A handbook for marketing cultural diversity in the arts.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/arts_marketing/audience_development/beat_a_different_drum_a_handbook_for_marketing_cultural_diversity_in_the_arts

A key outcome of Arts Queensland's Marketing Cultural Diversity Research Study, "Beat a Different Drum" is a step-by-step guide to marketing to culturally diverse audiences, and gives insight into strategies that have already been implemented by others. This guidebook is not only beneficial to arts organizations, but also individual artists who wish to market themselves (case study on a Chinese Australian performing artist who successfully promoted her own work).