7. Bibliography‎ > ‎

I. Organizational Commitment

Achilles, Vanessa , Majella RIO, Maria, & Capello, Alexandra. (2008) The cultural diversity programming lens toolkit. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_lens/CDPL_Toolkit_January_2008.pdf

Developed by UNESCO, the document describes their Cultural Diversity Programming framework which is used to analyze and evaluate whether policies, programs, and practices promote cultural diversity and lays out the framework for implementing such a lens in national cultural policies and programming, its cycles, and gives examples of lenses that can be used. This is a much more detailed version of Cultural Diversity Programming Lens: General Framework of Analysis. It promotes the same lens that is said to be “an interdisciplinary tool to systematically analyze and evaluate whether policies, programs, and practices promote the concept and principles of cultural diversity.” UNESCO envisions this to be applicable for all levels of government, universities and NGOs, in project proposals, on-going projects, programmes and strategies, policy/law/regulations etc. The report also offers different thematic use of the lens at different organizational functions that concerns not only with programming, but also strategic planning and staff training.


Arts Council England. (2005). Respond: A practical resource for developing a race equality action plan. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/respond-a-practical-resource-for-developing-a-race-equality-action-plan/

Respond is a resource to help regularly funded organisations develop a race equality action plan (for inclusive and permanent change). While primarily designed for regularly funded organisations, the publication may help other arts organisations look at how they approach race equality” (2). The study focuses on race equality, but at the same time claims to be applicable to other areas of equity, such as disability. It is a practical tool demonstrating how to develop a race equality plan step-by-step, through auditing, monitoring, and evaluating an organization. Arts Council England encourages all its regularly funded organizations to follow a particular seasonal timetable for implementing their equity action plan, and offers support as well as governance to these organizations. In executing a race equality plan, the story offers cases of good and bad examples in particular practices of Governance, Employment, Programming, Audience development, Education, and Organizational Development.


Australia Council for the Arts, & British Council. (2008). Making creative cities: the value of cultural diversity in the arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/making_creative_citiies

“In March 2008, the British Council joined with the Australia Council for the Arts to present a one-day forum in Melbourne, Making Creative Cities: The value of cultural diversity in the arts. The forum was envisaged as a platform in which arts practitioners, policy makers and commentators from around the East Asia region could interface with their UK counterparts to address key issues around interculturalism in creative and urban contexts. Combining panel discussions with facilitated roundtable workshops amongst small groups of participants, the forum stimulated debate around three core areas: the intersection of interculturalism with creative leadership and with creative expression, and the role of interculturalism in the production of creative cities. The main section of this paper attempts to summarise the day’s wide-ranging discussions. The final outcomes page maps a number of areas that both the Australia Council for the Arts and the British Council are interested in investigating further.” (3)


Australia Council for the Arts. (2011) Arts research in progress and planned across Australia.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research_hub/arts_rippa/all

An Australia Council for the Arts initiative that brings together approximately 94 projects conducted by different cultural organizations and policy makers, ranging from January 2006 to December 2015 (projected completion date for the ones in progress). The purpose of this initiative is to “research into the arts as social, cultural or economic practice, with an emphasis on investigating contemporary policy issues and trends in the cultural sector, providing information, analysis and insight to help drive policy and planning. It includes qualitative and quantitative research into arts audiences and participants, as well as analytical research into creative industry development, arts impacts, infrastructure support for artists and regulatory and policy instruments” (2006). These 94 projects on file have mixed focuses, covering many aspects of cultural pluralism.


Australia Council for the Arts. (2003-2006) Diversity.Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/diversity

Newsletter of the Australia Council for the Arts containing information about arts in a multicultural Australia. It ceased publication with the March 2006 issue. Issues: February 2003, April 2004, October 2004, March 2006. Back issues which explore topics of young artists, identity, new media initiatives, cultural brokerage, cultural diversity and sustainable development, multicultural arts marketing, and diversity in the performing and visual arts. Diversity discusses achievements of the Australia Council’s Arts in a Multicultural Australia policy. It’s five-year strategic plan seeks to address “skilling, promotion and integration”, for “action and advocacy in the arts” (web).


Bertone, Santina, Keating, Clare, & Mullaly, Jenny. (2000). The Taxidriver, the Cook and the Greengrocer: The representation of non-English speaking background people in theatre, film and television. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/the_taxidriver,_the_cook_and_the_greengrocer_the_representation_of_non-english_speaking_background_people_in_theatre,_film_and_television

“The findings of this report prompt some fundamental questions about how well and how fully the arts community draws upon the extraordinary diversity in our community. It asks how we react to and what we experience on our stages and screens and ultimately how we then present ourselves on the world stage. The taxidriver, the cook and the greengrocer is the result of a national study conducted by a collaborative research team consisting of researchers from the Workplace Studies Centre and the Communications Law Centre, Victoria University of Technology, together with consultants Effective Change.” (web). The study identifies many problematic trends of non-English background people’s employment and representation (under-representation) in theatre, film and television. Having a close cultural tie to English theatre traditions, mainstream Australian performing art organizations often employ the same people with Anglo-Celtic values and fail to present positive and accurate image of NESB people. Examples of community-based work, and culturally diverse organizations are being analyzed as success cases. The study also contains interviews of academics, artists, presenters, and other professionals in the identified fields, on their understanding of this study and its implications.


Brown,Stuart, Hawson, Isobel, Graves, Tony, & Barot, Mukesh. (2001). Eclipse: Developing strategies to combat racism in theatre. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/eclipse-developing-strategies-to-combat-racism-in-theatre/

Report from a conference looking at how the theatre industry can develop strategies to combat institutional racism in theatre, as well as developing understanding of AfricanCaribbean and Asian theatre. A well-rounded and concise report covering all aspects of organizational planning - from leadership to staffing, and from programming to marketing and outreach. The study proposes over twenty recommendations for participants at the conference.


DHR Communications. (2010). How people live their lives in an intercultural society. Dublin: Irish Committee of the European Cultural Foundation.

Retrieved from http://www.eurocult.org//sites/www.eurocult.org/files/How_People_Liver_their_Lives_in_an_Intercultural_Society.pdf

Examines cultural diversity in Ireland beginning with the history of migration to Ireland and the success of intercultural dialogue in terms of defining cultural identity, impacting education, the delivery of public services, and the impact it has on integration in local communities. This regional study is not particularly concerned with the arts, however the role of leadership in interculturalism may have an implication on organizational level, just as the elimination of barriers to engage communities through educational and public services is applicable to the programming of an organization.


Cliché, Danielle, & Wiesand, Andreas. (2009). Achieving intercultural dialogue through the arts and culture? Concepts, policies, programmes, practices. Sydney: International Federation of Arts Councils and Cultural Agencies.

Retrieved from http://media.ifacca.org/files/D'Art39Final.pdf

A study done to map views and collect cases of good practice of IFACCA members, researchers, arts practitioners and NGOs, on the role of intercultural dialogue in the arts and arts policies. It suggests that there is no single arts strategy or cultural policy to address intercultural dialogue, stressing the need to focus on local efforts before thinking of international strategies. The report sets up the boundaries of intercultural dialogue in the arts, and the impetus behind programs and policies that support this conversation. This dialogue is important because of its function in respecting human rights, promoting cultural diversity in the arts, promoting dialogue between/among Aboriginal and ethno-racial groups, and between countries. It surveys arts and cultural organizations on what they are doing to promote intercultural dialogues, summarizes prominent methods, and examines the challenges that such initiatives must negotiate (33-34). This resource is also available in French and Spanish.


Glow, Hilary, & Johanson, Katya (2008). Australian indigenous performing arts and cultural policy.

Retrieved fromhttp://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:2S-OfTMRmxkJ:www.deakin.edu.au/dro/eserv/DU:30019128/glow-australianindigenous-2008.pdf+cultural+pluralism+in+the+performing+arts+report&hl=en&gl=ca&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShTve51L9_huje6N7EuJN3IWxXPT5OR60z-7GBWHknYr4tVRl6VCjd4S5iWVQjWEDlPgNP757gNwnkmPk9sJWzSqUSjQd4MzqIq-e_ECHzN4AGNUiOU88qNgCDeotLPCIkS8aat&sig=AHIEtbQ6n2Cmjnryn2trz9EDodYYf73mOw

“This paper examines how Australian Indigenous cultural policies have contributed to the development of Aboriginal theatre since the early 1990s. In many respects, the flourishing of Indigenous performing arts exemplify the priorities of national cultural policy more broadly” (1). This study maybe looked at next to Howland and Williams’ 2010 report Song Cycles, where various barriers for Indigenous artists to reach wider audiences is made clear, and the suggested ways of combating these barriers maybe found here in the development of Australian Indigenous cultural policies.


Jakubowicz, Andrew. (2001). Professional development for multicultural arts workers: Critical issues for action. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/professional_development_for_multicultural_arts_workers_critical_issues_for_action

“Reports on professional development experiences and needs of multicultural arts workers in Australia, leading to the development of MAPD (Multicultural Arts Professional Development)” (web). A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis was conducted in order to determine “content and delivery strategies for professional development” (2). This report suggests many aspects in which an organization may choose to commit to cultural inclusiveness.


Kapetopoulos, Fotis. (2009). Adjust your view, a toolkit: Developing multicultural audiences for the arts. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.kape.com.au/adjustyrview.html

A toolkit of ideas and steps intended to provide a framework for the development of multicultural marketing strategies for the arts and cultural products. It also provides local and overseas case studies which may be inspirational in building audiences that mirror Australia’s culturally and linguistically diverse population. These case studies are not definitive but are indicative of best practice in multicultural audience development. Discussion of some of the most evident missed opportunities in the area of diverse arts marketing is included, because it helps in understanding obstacles and pitfalls which can be avoided. Dr. Richard Galdwell’s notion of “cultural brokerage” discussed in Australia Council’s Diversity newsletter is brought up again. This study provides a step-by-step guideline for diverse audience development, starting from the generation of a organizational vision to maintaining a multicultural long-term marketing strategy. Interestingly, Jakubowicz’s use of a SWOT analysis in Employment Development is seen here with a different purpose of analyzing markets. Being similar to Migliorino’s work on NESB audience, this is more general to a greater audience and more contemporary.


Maitland, Heather. (2005). Navigating difference: Cultural diversity and audience development. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.takingpartinthearts.com/content.php?content=1203

Arts managers, policy makers, practicing artists, academics, audience members, and commentators explore the relevance of cultural diversity in the arts, and implications for policy makers, management, programming, marketing and audience development. This is done through examining the imbalance of power and inequality, complexities of representation, how we use language, internal dynamics of an organization, and creativity and innovation in programming. A large project which details many case studies and best practice stories from arts organizations. From an economical and demographic perspective, the study begins by pointing out the necessity for cultural organizations to “stay relevant” to the population changes (16). Chapter two identifies challenges against organizational changes. Chapter three examines British arts organizations’ progression towards diversity. Chapter four draws examples from UK’s engagement with diversity in the sports and business sector. In the end, the article suggests “practical guidance on the implications of cultural identity and diversity for management, programming, marketing, and audience development” (98).


Migliorino, Pino, & Cultural Perspectives. (1998). The world is your audience: Case studies in audience development and cultural diversity. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/the_world_is_your_audience_case_studies_in_audience_development_and_cultural_diversity

“Focussing specifically on the development of audiences of a culturally diverse nature and of non-English speaking background, The world is your audience follows the path from planning through to development, marketing and presentation so the reader can refer to specific topics or use it as a step-by-step guide. Commissioned by the Australia Council for the Arts from Pino Migliorino and Cultural Perspectives, the development of The world is your audience: case studies in audience development and cultural diversity is premised on the fact that people from non-English speaking backgrounds are not attending mainstream cultural venues and arts activities in the same proportion as those from an English speaking background” (web). The commissioning of this report demonstrates Australia Council for the Arts’ commitment to audience development. It is a practical tool on auditing an organization’s existing audiences and identifying new target groups. A comprehensive step-by-step guideline on non-English speaking audience development is well backed up with the use of 23 case studies. Interestingly, the study also provides cases and guideline on the reverse situation of mainstream audience development for NESB productions.


Robertson, Hamish, & Migliorino, Pino. (1996). Open up! Guidelines for cultural diversity visitor studies. Sydney: Australia Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.australiacouncil.gov.au/research/culturally_diverse_arts/reports_and_publications/open_up!_guidelines_for_cultural_diversityvisitor_studies

“A result of research into the views, motivations and experiences of museums by people from non-English speaking and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds. The project reported in this document arose from a strongly held view at the Powerhouse Museum and in the Australia Council for the Arts, that public institutions have a responsibility to ensure that all sectors of society have access to Australia's cultural heritage. The purpose of the research is to provide Australian museum professionals with practical information and assistance so their institutions can successfully reflect, serve and promote themselves to Australia's culturally diverse society.” Case studies investigating the interests and non-interests of diverse audiences are conducted. The report suggests specific organizations evaluation models on target audiences and barriers of access, particular marketing strategies, and visitor/non-visitor survey samples.


Smith, Charles. (2009). Plowing the Road: Enhancing opportunities for pluralism in performing arts in Ontario.

Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/cppamo/reports0and0resources-1/workshop-3

A report on The Community Cultural Impresarios (CCI)’s development since formation, and its work in cultural pluralism both within the Ontario province and nationally in Canada. With the given demographic changes in Ontario, the report discusses opportunities and threats that CCI faces in its practice. In the end, recommendations are made in helping CCI and its constituent projects move forward in its cultural pluralism engagement. This is an example of how an organization can refine itself and accommodate changes in the community that it has committed to.


Smyth, Morton. (2004). Not for the likes of you: How to reach a broader audience. London: Arts Council England.

Retrieved from http://www.takingpartinthearts.com/content.php?content=943

Morton Smyth Ltd researched cultural organisations that have changed their overall positioning and have achieved broader audiences as a result. They analysed the key criteria that enabled their success. This report is for organisations that want to attract a broad public, and are willing to go through a process of change to achieve it. Although with the end goal of raising more audiences, similar to Khan’s study in The Shared Space, this is a step-by-step guideline on refining all aspects of organizational practices, both internal and external to the organization, to achieve greater pluralism. Internally, organizations are encouraged to rethink the role and responsibilities of leadership, build multi-disciplinary teams with diverse employees, program with audiences in mind, and bring education to the centre of management. Externally, it is suggested that organizations proactively engage with diverse communities, establish strong new relationships, and articulate the benefit of their programming in a comprehensible language. The report also critically analysis the challenges organizations may face in real life when implementing changes, and concludes that barriers of cost, human resource, and institutional resistance can be overcame as long as organizations focus on the rewards of a pluralist practice. 


The Power of Culture. (1998). Recasting cultural policies: Intergovernmental conference on cultural policies for development.

Retrieved from http://www.powerofculture.nl/uk/archive/report/background.html

As a cultural policy study, it points out ever-evolving issues that not only challenge policy makers but also have implications in different aspects of diversity planning (from organizational commitment, youth program development, media relation, adaption of new technologies…etc.). This report of the World Commission on Culture and Development lists a series of challenges to policy-makers in the effort to give culture a permanent place in development thinking. These identified issues may no longer be updated to contemporary cultural circumstances (as this study was conducted over a decade ago), but organizations should remind themselves to keep up with the development of these challenges.