7. Bibliography‎ > ‎

- Background -

Alake, Olu. (2005). And who am I? Cultural diversity, identities and difference.

Retrieved from http://www.culturalrights.net/en/documentos.php?c=19&p=160

An examination of the changes in cultural policy, attitudes and citizenship in multicultural Europe and the concept of identity and multiple identities. The author’s testimonial on dynamic identities is a good background reading for arts managers who wish to better understand diverse audiences.


Ballinger, Pamela. (2004). Authentic hybrids in the Balkan borderlands. Current Anthropology45(1),

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/stable/10.1086/379633

This regional study on hybrid identity in the Balkan area is similar to Deschaumes’s essays on cultural diversity in the same geographic area. It critiques prevalent assumptions about hybridity through the analysis of identity in the western borderlands of the former Yugoslavia. “Cultural fundamentalism” is identified as naturalizing culture and being a feature of contemporary Europe therein proving productive for reconsidering hidden problems of race and hybridity. The essays concludes that problematic  race and hybridity issues exist both in “empirical context of Europe, and on the theoretical terrain of anthropology”, and that these concerns ought to be revaluated in the contemporary cultural sector.


Bernier, Ivan. (2009) Analysis of the UIS international survey on feature film statistics. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Pages/DocumentMorePage.aspx?docIdValue=409&docIdFld=ID

An survey conducted by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics from 2005-2006 that examines 101 countries. It discusses cinema in developing countries like Nollywood, cinema multiplex distribution, worldwide film production, box office statistics, the use of technology in filmmaking worldwide, diversity of languages represented in films, while acknowledging a dearth of information from developing countries which affects the conclusions of the study. UNESCO’s internationally comparable data is designed to assist with studies of diversity and cultural expressions. The study concludes a growing popularity for films in development countries, both in the entertainment and the production industry.


Canada Council for the Arts. (2008). Contemporary Aboriginal art in Canada: Fact sheet. Ottawa: Canada Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.canadacouncil.ca/NR/rdonlyres/E1818F5A-AD2F-4333-B719-BFF290B25146/0/FactSheetAboriginalENG.pdf

This 11-page fact sheet highlights some key statistical findings from a combination of research reports and statistical information from Statistics Canada including information related to: History of Contemporary Aboriginal Arts in Canada, Aboriginal Artists in Canada , Aboriginal Arts Organizations, Public Interest in Aboriginal Arts, Aboriginal Peoples Participation in Arts, Aboriginal Arts and the Government, Aboriginal Arts in Canada Today. It has been pointed out that Aboriginal people commonly work in the arts as artists rather than as administrative professions, and that comparing to all Canadian artists, Aboriginal artists in average make significantly less. The development of Aboriginal art relies on higher exposure to generate greater public awareness and interest, as well as greater cultural participation of both On-Reserve and Off-Reserve Aboriginal communities.


Canada Council for the Arts. (2009). Contemporary Inuit art in Canada: Fact sheet. Ottawa: Canada Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.canadacouncil.ca/publications_e/fact_sheets/zs128945748721381306.htm

Similar to Canada Council for the Arts’ in 2008 publication Contemporary Aboriginal art in Canada: Fact sheet, this 12-page bilingual document highlights some key statistical findings from a combination of research reports and statistical information from Statistics Canada including information related to History of Inuit Arts in Canada, Inuit Artists in Canada , Inuit Arts Organizations , Examples of Canada Council Funding, Young Inuit Children and Their Families, Inuit Arts and the Government, Inuit Arts in Canada Today.


Cocq, Emmanuel, & Levy, Florence. (2006). Audiovisual markets in the developing world. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001461/146192e.pdf

A study on the audiovisual industry and public service broadcasting in eleven developing countries, in light of international trade and its effect on local cultural expression. Patterns of production, consumption and trade are being analyzed. The purpose of this study is said to stimulate re-examination of national audiovisual and broadcasting policies for the expression of local cultures.


Collins, Jock. (2011). Identities and diversity. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Sydney: University of Technologies Sydney.

Retrieved from http://utsescholarship.lib.uts.edu.au/epress/journals/index.php/mcs/issue/view/138

This collection of nine articles seeks to discuss “the notion of identities and diversity from multiple, dynamic, perspectives is central to the cosmopolitan research project, as is the notion of agency”. The majority of the essays explore the issue of identity, specifically the many aspect of Chinese immigration to Australia – the discriminative government policies in Australian history, “The Chinese” as the others, diasporic interdependence within different ethnic Chinese communities, Chinese as non-mainstream both politically and culturally, and Chinese immigrant legal battles (i-iii). These articles may help organizations who seek to engage Chinese communities to better understand the upbringing of Chinese diasporic identity.


Conwill, Kinshasha Holman. (2009) American art still needs support.

Retrieved from: http://www.theartnewspaper.com/articles/African-American-art-still-needs-support/18560

A very brief article acknowledging the Obama’s initiative to diversify White House’s visual art collection, and the potential implication of this action.


Deschaumes, Ghislaine Glasson. (2007/2008). Diversities in perspective. Amsterdam: European Cultural Foundation.

Retrieved from http://www.eurocult.org/sites/www.eurocult.org/files/diversities_in_perspective_en.pdf

These essays examine cultural diversity in the Balkan area, cultural exchange between Russia and the rest of Europe, as well as cultural cooperation in general in the European Union, giving a good case study of regional approaches to diversity.


DHR Communications. (2010). How people live their lives in an intercultural society. Dublin: Irish Committee of the European Cultural Foundation.

Retrieved from http://www.eurocult.org//sites/www.eurocult.org/files/How_People_Liver_their_Lives_in_an_Intercultural_Society.pdf

Examines cultural diversity in Ireland beginning with the history of migration to Ireland and the success of intercultural dialogue in terms of defining cultural identity, impacting education, the delivery of public services, and the impact it has on integration in local communities. This regional study is not particularly concerned with the arts, however the role of leadership in interculturalism may have an implication on organizational level, just as the elimination of barriers to engage communities through educational and public services is applicable to the programming of an organization.


Docker, John. (2006). Cosmopolitan conversations: Settler societies, education and decolonisation.

Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/holy_land_studies/v005/5.1docker.html

This resource focuses on the primary processes of colonisation of indigenous societies. The settler-colonial character of Zionism and Israel is explored comparatively alongside world-wide settler colonialism and ideas of decolonisation. The author argues the broad implication of this study on Zionist-Israeli colonisation of Palestine, in to the cases of the Americas. The article may caution organizations in their programming practice, especially when it is related to indigenous culture, to avoid cultural genocide, ethnic cleansing, or politicide criticized in this study.


Forte, Maximilian C.. (2010). Indigenous cosmopolitans: transnational and transcultural indigeneity in the twenty-first century. New York: Peter Lang Publishing

A collection of essays and case studies on indigenous peoples from the perspective of cosmopolitan theory, and on cosmopolitanism from the perspective of the indigenous world. Analysing ethnography from around the world, the authors demonstrate the universality of the local – indigeneity – and the particularity of the universal – cosmopolitanism. Chapter seven, Transnational Migration and Indigeneity in Canada: A Case Study of Urban Inuit, examines the contemporary urban Inuit space in Canadian cities and its “internal cosmopolitanism” for bringing together different generations of urban Inuit people (11).


Heffelfinger, Elizabeth, & Wright, Laura. (2011). Visual difference: Postcolonial studies and intercultural cinema. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Through case studies of intercultural films and their reception, the authors seeks to “provide analyses in which scholars and teachers can explore the ways that the films examined herein work to further and complicate our understanding of ‘postcolonial’ as a fraught and evolving theoretical stance” (Cover).


Katz, Stanley. (1985) History, cultural policy, and international exchange in the performing arts. Performing Arts Journal 9(2/3),

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org./stable/3245512

This paper explores the notion of a crisis of cultural internationalism in the context of America public policy formulation and that most policies were never specifically intended to impact upon the Arts. Hence, a comparative study is drawn between the American and European model in order to critique upon the notion of a ‘national’ cultural policy which can then bring change to the international cultural exchange in the performing arts.


Khan, Naseem. (2003). Reinventing Britain: Cultural diversity up front and on show. London: Arts council England.

Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/publication_archive/reinventing-britain-cultural-diversity-up-front-and-on-show/

A short joint publication between the Guardian and Decibel project (Arts Council England diversity initiative) that explores the idea of cultural pluralism and details the development of cultural diversity in the performing and visual arts in England. This study outlines the milestones of cultural diversity development in both Visual and Performing Arts, from the 60s to the 90s. Minority artists are being interviewed on their experience on this topic.


Maloney, S. Timothy. Cultural diversity in Canada.

Retrieved from http://www.imc-cim.org/programmes/WFM3/papers/session1/Maloney.pdf

A statistical overview of the diversity in Canada, particularly in the broadcasting, new media and other cultural industries. It gives a brief analysis of how big cultural institutions in Canada such as the Department of Canadian Heritage, Canada Council for the Arts, National Arts Centre, Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, National Film Board of Canada…etc. contributes to creating a diverse Canadian content.


McGonagle, Tarlach. (2008). The promotion of cultural diversity via new media technologies: An introduction to the challenges of operationalism. Strasbourg: European Audiovisual Observatory.

Retrieved from http://www.obs.coe.int/oea_publ/iris/iris_plus/iplus6_2008.pdf.en

The article explores what it means to be committed to cultural diversity, particularly through the lens of new media technologies and how this field can help promote such initiatives: the challenges of operationalising cultural diversity. It discusses the potential of new media technologies in advancing cultural diversity in the public service and European international public institution sector (Council of Europe, European Union).


Motion Live Entertainment & Saada STYLO. (2006). Profiling Hip Hop artistry in Canada. Ottawa: Canada Council for the Arts.

Retrieved from http://www.canadacouncil.ca/publications_e/research/art_disciplines_sect/bd128907733126314108.htm

This research paper presents a state of the art of hip hop. It provides a profile of the hip hop sector and highlights its role a form of cultural expression and community development. It not only introduces different elements of Hip Hop, but also the involvement of this art form in different disciplines such as theatre, visual art, dance, and so forth. Initially commissioned by the Canada Council in 2005 as an internal document, it is now available online to inform broader discussions of hip hop in the arts community. The study also identifies existing as well as new programs and services available at the Canada Council for the Arts, in helping the further development of Hip Hop art in Canada.


Nascimento, Claudia Tatinge. (2009) Crossing cultural borders through the actor’s work: Foreign bodies of knowledge. New York: Taylor & Francis.

As a part of the Routledge Advances in Theatre and Performance Studies, this book examines the notion of intercultural theatre as a theatrical avant-garde movement and the often conflicting interpretations of the rise of such a category in the context of “new realities”. Ethics of intercultural performance is explored in the context of identity politics and definitions of ethical cultural border crossing. It further reassesses intercultural embodiment onstage through focusing the actor at work and all that goes into informing his/her performance.


Obuljen, Nina, & Smiers, Joost. (2006). UNESCO’s convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions: Making it work. Zagreb: Institute for International Relations.

Retrieved from http://www.ifacca.org/publications/2006/01/01/unescos-convention-on-the-protection-and/

In response to UNESCO’s earlier publication Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions, a collection of essays that describe the adoption of the UNESCO convention and recommendations for future initiatives and implementations including legal and economic implications, governing the convention, and the future for cultural diversity in the wake of adopting the convention. The articles offer a throughout discussion on what the Convention means to different level of governments, their rights and obligations both nationally and internationally.


Olsson, Machael & Yerbury, Hilary. (2010). Digital ethnogrpahies.Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Sydney: University of Technologies Sydney.

Retrieved from http://utsescholarship.lib.uts.edu.au/epress/journals/index.php/mcs/issue/view/128

A collection of articles addressing challenges that come out of contextualising the term ethnography, as well as the research methodology that is commonly considered in the context of contemporary scholarship. Last, focus is also placed on the possibilities of electronic publication for the use of ethnographic data recorded in digital forms. This collection is said to be “significant as an acknowledgement of the future of scholarship, where technologies narrow the gap and blur the boundaries between study participant, researcher, and reader.” (ii).


Pavis, Patrice. (1996). The intercultural performance reader. London: Routledge.

This resource explores the possibilities and limitations of intercultural theatre in a Western context, in particular examining interculturalism in contemporary African Theatre. From a non-Western perspective, this reader introduces new vocabularies and performance techniques that both assist with the interpretation and the development of cross-cultural theatrical productions.


Root, Deborah. (1998). Cannibal culture: Art, appropriation, and the commodification of difference. Oxford: Westview Press.

“Root explores and explodes the consumption of the Other as a source of violence, passion, and spirituality (Cover)”. With examples of cases where Western assimilate various minority cultures, this book synthesizes Docker’s discussion on the cultural cleansing of the indigenous people, and Stock’s reading of globalization as a commodifier of diverse cultural practices.


Ross, Mariama. (2004). Art at the crossroads: The contested position of Indigenous arts in Ghana’s Post-Colonial education systems. Studies in Art Education 45(2),

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1321096

This resource explores the conflicting place of indigenous arts in Ghana; the need to protect cultural heritage and the need to adopt a perceived modernity. This paper hence reports an investigation of the presence and absence of indigenous arts in Ghana’s current art educational policies and practices in post-colonial Ghana. This regional study on indigenous culture maybe compared to Forte’s publication Indigenous Cosmopolitans, as well as Chalmers’ Celebrating Pluralism with its focus on visual arts education’s power on raising pluralist awareness.


Stock, Cheryl (2005). The cocacolonisation of difference: Homogenised diversity in 21st century cultural practice. Kuala Lumpur: Cultural Centre University of Malaya and Ministry of culture and Heritage Malaysia.

Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5730/

“Cocacolonisation stands as a metaphor for globalisation, representing economic domination of world markets, cultural perpetuation of exported US values and tastes and the spread of a monoculture, blended with instant gratification and availability.” (Abstract). Globalization has been accused to distort “cultural practices and products which celebrate cultural pluralism, through homogenising and commercialising that pluralism and difference” (ibid.). This pessimistic reading of globalisation not as an opportunity to create easier access to different cultural practices, but as a force that commodifies culture and even identities cautions arts organizations to rethink their programming. It is important to support individual artists to maintain their integrity and independence, despite of the homogenising globalized economy.


UNESCO. (2005). Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=31038&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

A summary of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s 2005 General Conference. The objectives were to promote/protect/encourage/foster/strengthen: diversity of cultural expressions, dialogue amongst cultures, interculturality, development of all countries, distinction of cultural activities, goods and services, states’ role in these areas and international cooperation. This document and its constitutions may serve as background research support for different levels of the government to develop their own diversity plan both nationally and internationally. It clarifies a party’s obligation in promoting and protecting cultural expressions, through raising awareness, maintaining transparency, and initiating international cooperation. It also anchors the definition of many popular terms in the field of cultural pluralism, such as: cultural diversity, cultural expression, cultural industries, interculturality…etc., which maybe more useful on an organizational development level.


UNESCO. (2001). UNESCO universal declaration on cultural diversity. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_lens/UNESCO_Declaration_on_Cultural_Diversity.pdf

The UNESCO declaration makes statements on identity, diversity pluralism, cultural diversity and human rights, international solidarity, and outlines an action plan for the implementation of the declaration. The study suggest a action plan for its members states to conduct national and international investigation on the “standards and practices of cultural diversity”, “exchange of knowledge and practices”, “encouragement of linguistic and cultural diversity in education”…etc. Like most UNESCO publications, this document is more practical for government department rather than individual cultural organizations.


UNESCO. (2010). UNESCO world report 2: Investing in cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue. Paris: UNESCO.

Retrieved from http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=39896&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

This multilingual UNESCO report analyzes cultural diversity and the processes that put it into motion, shows the importance of cultural diversity in the languages, education, community and creativity, and attempts to persuade decision-makers of the importance of investing in cultural diversity. It recognizes the myriad of initiatives that are being undertaken in different countries, their relative success at intercultural dialogue and the challenges of such an undertaking, and identifies cultural diversity as integral to sustainable development and the governance of human rights. Recommendations are given to UNESCO state members on the areas: cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue, languages, education, communication and cultural contents, creativity and the market place, cultural diversity as a key to sustainable development, and cultural diversity, human rights and democratic givernance. This is the umbrella project which the Cultural Diversity Programming Lens originated from. It is an elaborate study on international cultural diversity. Other practical that organizations may find useful to adapt in their daily operations other than the Programming Lens mentioned above are: media toolkits for cultural diversity in broadcasting, and tools and approaches for increasing relevance of cultural diversity to corporate audiences.


UNRISD.(1996). Towards world report on culture and development: Constructing cultural statistics and indicators. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001241/124173eo.pdf

This resource details a report of the Workshop on Cultural Indicators of Development Royaumont Foundation, France, 4-7 January 1996. This basis of a World Culture Report seeks to “open up a new field in analytical and quantitative thinking on the relationship between culture and development while providing scientific and creative inputs that will inform policy makers” (Foreword). The quantitative aspect of this article suggest means of measuring “cultural indicators of development” (11). In the appendices, the study generates a list of indicators with specific target on “area of global ethics”, “area of cultural vitality”, and “area of cultural diversity, cultural globalization and management of pluralism” (25). This is presented as a cultural policy document possibly in justification for the arts. However, certain indicators maybe applicable on organizational level as a tool of diversity planning evaluation.


Valverde, Leonard A. (1978). Strategies for the advancement of cultural pluralism. The Phi Delta Kappa, 60(2),

Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20299236

This study sheds light on the effect of integrating cultural pluralism elements in school curriculums, arguing for the positive effect of cultural pluralism. The seven strategies suggested in improving multicultural programs are specific to public schools, however may have an implication on arts organizations. For example it is suggested that the schools should pay special attention to hiring diverse employees, launch differentiated in-service programs to “upgrade all personnel in the area of cultural pluralism”, and formulate ways of evaluation…etc.


Wiesand, Andreas, & ERICarts team. (2008). Sharing diversity: national approaches to intercultural dialogue in Europe. Bonn: European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research.

Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/culture/archive/sources_info/studies/pdf/exec_summary_en.pdf

The report examines intercultural dialogue and its challenges in areas such as culture, education, sports and youth, and the stakeholders in these fields. It provides several recommendations for implementing intercultural dialogue in European nations and its implications for politics and policy making. Similar to UNESCO’s studies Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, and World Report 2, this study is not particularly concerned with the arts, but demonstrate a trend in international cultural studies and maybe of interest to policy makers and government personnel.


Wong, Adrienne. (2009). PACT: down centre highlight on diversity – British Columbia and Alberta.

Retrieved from http://www.pact.ca/apps/act_GetFile.cfm?pdf=Down%20Centre%20-%20impact!%202009.12.pdf

A profile by the PACT Diversity Committee that details a number of arts companies and organizations in BC and Alberta that are doing important work in equity and cultural pluralism. Includes a description of relevant artistic projects and performances. Each individual company has its on take on diversity, with most of them concern Audience Development and programming. Although this short summary does not propose practical recommendations to organizations pursuing diversity planning, it is a background reading on how other Canadian organizations are currently operating.