Are you coughing up phlegm and thinking
that you are suffering from common cold? Watch out, for you may be
having something more serious.
What is Phlegm?
The term ‘Phlegm’ comes from the Greek
word ‘phlegma’ meaning inflammation. It actually means the mucus that
gets accumulated in your throat and needs to be coughed out. It is a
watery substance, often viscous, that varies in color and quantity
depending on the sickness you are suffering from. It is produced in the
mucous layer of the trachea (windpipe).
In medical terms, phlegm is known as sputum or expectorated matter, meaning coughed out substance.
Coughing Up Phlegm
When the body suffers from an infection
or disorder, it causes an accumulation of phlegm in the throat. The
mucus irritates the air passage and creates discomfort in the sufferer.
It triggers cough which expels the mucus.
Phlegm is normally white in color. A
person starts coughing up white phlegm during minor ailments. Clear
white phlegm indicates the absence of pus. But the mucus may also be
colored. The color of the phlegm depends on the disease causing it.
Smoking, infection, air pollution or presence of blood gives a rusty or
brown color to the phlegm. Asthmatic patients cough up pink phlegm.
Coughing Up Clear Phlegm
A common cold caused by a general viral infection can lead to
allergic irritation of your respiratory organs and make you cough up
clear phlegm. Other possible causes can be:
- Postnasal Drip
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
- Chronic Bronchitis
The clear mucus is the initial attempt of the body to wash away the
invading virus. Clear phlegm indicates the absence of blood in the
mucus. It can be treated without the use of antibiotics.
Coughing Up Green Phlegm
This happens when there is a bacterial infection in the lungs or the
bronchi, such as Tuberculosis. It can also happen because of a post
nasal drip due to a sinus infection. It can be cured by avoiding dairy
products, starchy foods and excessive meat intake. Drinking plenty of
pure water and herbal teas, eating spicy foods and taking hot bath can
work as effective home treatments.
Coughing Up Yellow Phlegm
Infections, allergies or asthma can lead to an inflammation of
respiratory tract and lead to an accumulation of inflammatory cells or
leukocytes in mucus. This can cause phlegm to turn yellow. Thick yellow
phlegm is a sure sign of a bacterial or viral infection. People
suffering acute or chronic cases of bronchitis or bacterial pneumonia
often cough up thick yellow mucus.
Coughing Up Phlegm with Blood
Blood in mucus appears as red or brown spots. Bloody phlegm can be
caused due to excessive smoking or high air pollution. This can also be
an indication of some severe lung infection. If there is blood in
phlegm, medical attention should be sought immediately.
Causes of Phlegm
There can be a number of factors behind the production of phlegm in the mucus membrane. These can be:
When you breathe in common cold virus,
the body creates mucus as a natural reaction to safeguard your airways.
This irritates the throat and you have to cough up phlegm to keep it
clear. There is constant phlegm ejection through coughing. A person is
generally seen coughing up clear phlegm in this case. If not treated in
time, it can lead to chest congestion.
There is accumulation of phlegm in chest, which can make the patient suffer from breathing difficulties.
This happens when there is an
inflammation of the main airways to the lungs. In patients with chronic
bronchitis, excessive phlegm is produced which needs to be coughed out
repeatedly. It continues for the most part of the month.
Picture 1 – Bronchitis
This breathing disorder makes your lungs
swell. Mucus is produced when the respiratory system is affected by
germs like bacteria, virus or fungi.
Picture 2 – Pneumonia
It makes your air passages swell which
results in wheezing and shortness of breath. Coughing is the main
symptom of this disorder. Coughing leads to the expulsion of the phlegm
from the throat and provides relief.
It mainly infects the lungs and results
in excessive phlegm production. It leads to severe cough. Some patients
are found to be coughing up yellow phlegm. Many are also seen coughing
up green phlegm. In worst cases, the patient ends coughing up phlegm
When bacteria or viruses attack the
body, the immune system makes an automatic response to block the foreign
substances. Mucus production is one of these responses.
This condition is caused by a genetic
disorder. The air passages in the lungs are filled with sticky mucus
that often leads to life-threatening complications.
This rare disorder makes the body vulnerable to bacterial infections and results in mucus accumulation in the throat.
Inhaling nicotine leads to inflammation
of the respiratory organs. It also results in excessive phlegm
production. There is secondary infection of lungs, sinuses and bronchi
due to it.
Badly Ventilated or Toxic Areas
Working in dusty or toxic areas can make
a person develop respiratory disorders. There is increased mucus
production due to this.
In some cases, coughing up phlegm is
associated with abdominal bloating. This happens when a person swallows
the mucus instead of coughing it out. The swallowed phlegm is degraded
by the bacteria in the bowel. This produces gas and results in bloating
of the stomach.
How to Cough Up Phlegm
When the mucus gets thick, it is very
painful to cough it out. Thinned mucus is easier to expel. There are
some home remedies that you can try to thin out the phlegm. Go through
these suggestions and know how to get rid of phlegm at home :
- Boil water in a bowl. Add in eucalyptus, menthol or mint. Inhale the steam deeply into your nostrils.
- Drinking hot beverages like tea can work great. It is better if
you drink teas containing mint or eucalyptus. It serves to make
the mucus thin and also keep chest congestion at bay. You should
also drink hot soup for the same purpose.
- Apply warmth to your chest. Wrap a piece of cloth around a hot
vessel and unwrap it to apply on your chest. Do this for several
times to get immediate relief. If you are already coughing up
phlegm, wrapping a hot towel around your neck can provide some
respite. You can also buy a heating pad for this purpose.
- Eating spicy foods can also help your mucus thin out naturally.
Capsicum is a natural expectorant. Adding it into your diet can
help you cough out phlegm more easily.
- Gargling with salt water and spit it out. The mucus will come out of your upper throat providing temporary relief.
- Taking a hot bath will also prove useful. You should breathe in steam deeply from the water.
Phlegm Treatment by Doctors
If you are suffering from persistent
coughing that expels phlegm, you should consult your doctor. An expert
medical practitioner will perform a thorough physical check-up.
Normally, medical tests like blood and sputum examinations, ECG, CT scan
and chest X-rays are conducted to diagnose the ailment behind the
cough. This also helps the doctor to know if the patient is suffering
from any serious disease like lung cancer or TB.
Curing phlegm accumulation is done by
curing the disease causing it. Once the phlegm inducing disease is
controlled, the mucus in the air passage is also reduced automatically.
Coughing up phlegm is common. But it can
lead to serious complications if not treated in time. If the person
suffers from severe ailments like a lung infection or cystic fibrosis,
early treatment can help diagnose and cure the problem. Even phlegm
accumulation due to common cold can cause chest congestion which can be
harmful in very young children. So it is necessary to treat a patient
coughing out phlegm as early as possible. You never know what may be
causing the problem.