The impactites are metamorphic rocks found on impact sites, they are formed during the cosmogenic process. Therefore, they have varied appearances, depending on types of rocks from the impact or airbusts sites by high temperature and pressure of ionized gases from shock wave on target, some impatites could be identified on surface among common rocks in impact sites.
Basically, the impactites are subdivided into three principal groups:
- shocked rocks
– impact melt rocks
– impact breccias.
Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIX (2008) show that low-altitude meteor airburst process can form impactites. This evidence can be found in known small terrestrial craters.
Airbursts in the lower atmosphere from hypervelocity impacts have been called upon to explain the nature of Tunguska event and existence of unusual impact-related silicate melts such as the Muong-Nong tektites and Libyan Desert Glass of western Egypt. Impact melts associated with impact craters, however, have been traditionally attributed to shock melting of the target material that experiences strong shock compression and heating.
The characteristics of impact melts from small terrestrial craters (< 4 km diameter) leads to the possibility that airburst phenomena (not classic impact) may have been responsible for these melts. This conclusion is supported by numerical modeling of the airburst phenomena using super computer class facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.
The excavation (2011) on German small ponds structures gave evidence of very high temperatures in the form of intense melting an glass formation: matrix-rich breccia - multicolored small rock fragments in a sandy, silty black matrix.
Some crateriform small structures from ten meters in diameter found in young sediments in Southeast Germany have raised increased interest in the last decade, although they have been known since longtime. Its possible anthropogenic origin or simple sink holes origin were excluded, detailed rock-magnetic studies point to new ideas focusing on a formation of at least part of the craters are meteorite craters originating from the recently proposed large Holocene so-called Chiemgau impact event.
CRATER RESEARCH CRITERIA
The basic set of parameters available in the database for each EDEIS structure includes your name, location (latitude, longitude), diameter and depth of crater, an estimated age, type of structure, presence of extraterrestrial material, references bibliographic catalogs or other original publications. Almost all entries are provided with satellite images showing the appearance of the structure seen from space.
The main difference between EDEIS other databases on impact structures, such as well-known Earth Impact Database maintained by Planetary and Space Science Centre University of New Brunswick (Canada), is that the EDEIS contains data not only on the validated craters, whose impact origin was confirmed by whole set of criteria, but also data on structures likely or apparent that cosmogenic genesis of these structures has not been confirmed.
However, the EDEIS presents some typical characteristics of impact and therefore are promising for future studies. Depending on the number of set criteria:
The EDEIS criteria which are filled for a particular structure in favor of its cosmogenic origin, the degree of confidence for the origin of the impact of a structure is characterized by its 'content validity' (V) ranging from zero (0) rejected to four (4) for structures fully confirmed:
1- proposed for further study
From the EDEIS i- morpholocal criteria, from satellites images, most impactites found in impact craters is a type of "breccia" the iii- mineralogical criteria, and ii- structural for Panela crater.
The (4) fields under investigation revealed possible impactites, possible shocked quartz, brecciated, fused and molten rocks on impact structures proposed for our research below. These structures are in cosmogenic perspective, or probable impact craters.
The silliceous rocks clasts found (2009) on palaeolagoons smaller than 0.6 km are possible impactites. The molten impact rock can be found in these palaeolagoons. Most of them can be < 12,900 years old.
These elliptical aligned estructures are not dolines, are not wind-carved or from some erosion water process, the lagoons are not sink holes, nor tectonic and nor vulcanic, even less from glacial ice oringin.
Stone Age comet destroys North America
Study Jointly Led by UCSB Researcher Finds (2012)
New Evidence Supporting Theory of Extraterrestrial Impact about 13,000 years ago
In a dry region far away from my wet and warm home town Recife, during my first impactite identification mission on cosmogenic palaeolagoons hypothesis in June of 2009, the shallow ponds identified by Google Earth were still supplying water to livestock and wildlife in this semiarid region on São Raimundo Nonato, in Piauí (PI), Brazil. But eventually many of these structures will be water empty on drougth season. The paleolagoons are seasonal, intermittent.
The Capivara Palaeolagoons (2009)
The Capivara 001 palaeolagoon, internal panoramic view of the structure (2009). Melted silliceos rocks clasts, possible impactites were found in Capivara 001 Capivara 004 structures.
On picture below the coin is 25 mm wide, fused quartz and molten rocks.
In this region there are no volcanoes, but molten rocks, molten impact rocks, impactites can be found in these palaeolagoons.
Impactites are created under high pressure and heat during the shock of the explosion of large meteorites. Most of molten and fused rock clasts into an impact crater are breccia.
More about the impactites: http://www.liada.net/Pierson%20Barretto-IMPACTITOS.pdf
On the same region of São Raimundo Nonato (PI), at 2004 during a scientific mission, Italian and Bazilian scientists investigated the Quarí palaeolagoon and conducted a sediment lagoon profile.
They identified five (5) units of sediments (U.S.). Below in the modified graph it is possible to infer (blue ellipses) dating to the layers. The bones of megafauna were washed away from edge into the pond.
The pollen study identifies landscape vegetation such as Arecaceae, species of humid savanna environment palm tree, that represents about 35% of arborial vegetation, and between 30% of grasses at (ranging between 5,425 B.P. to) 8,770 BP, but these vegetations are no longer visible on surroundings of these palaeolagoons at present environment of drougth Caatinga forest domain.
The five (5) units of sediments (U.S.) found in Quarí palaeolagoon are:
The US-1: The pollen research dated the sediments with age 8,770 B.P., no megafauna found.
The US-2: The layer were the megafauna fossils are found (> 12,000 BP).
The US-3: This unit is a Silliceous clasts rocks layer (< 12,900 BP ?). Not vulcanic, possible impactites (?).
The US-4: (sand ?)
The US-5: Basic cristalline rock.
Could the age of the US-3 Silliceous clasts layer be 12,900 BP old ?
Why no megafauna rich sediments are found older than End-Pleistocene?
The Quari palaelagoon in Sao Raimundo Nonato near south town, where (2004) a layer of sillicious clasts rocks (possible impactites) were found on the boton layer of the lake at about 12,900 BP old sediment over a cristalline base rock possible points to its End-Pleistocene genesis. Cosmic?
The Panela crater in Pernambuco
After the report of geologist Dr. Bernd-Dietrich Erdtmann (TU-Berlin/2006) and cooperation of the CIRT, the Chiemgau Impact Research Team and geologist Andreas Neumair (2009), both from Germany, the arguments in favor of a cosmogenic origin for Panela crater was accepted by EDEIS, Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (Russia), the Web Encyclopedia on Natural Hazards and others.
Dr. Erdtmann Panela crater comments (2006)
Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology
Berlin University of Technology
The Panela crater entered at 2009 in the ranks of the craters with Brazilian probable (V3) cosmic origin (EDEIS, 2009) validation. Now it can be found on some websites, as probable or suspected impact structure (Rajmon/2009), and it is promising for future studies:
The Panela crater was found at 1995 on Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde, Pernambuco (PE), it is on drought region of shallow and stony soil, the subsoil is composed by crystalline rocks related to syenite, covered by an arrow mantle of weathering gneiss.
Panela crater external north view (2011)
Panela crater field probably related palaeolagoons structures.
The Lunardo (Pan002) palaeolagoon, a new crater identified on Google Earth at 2010 as probable Panela (PE) crater related field, on Manaíra, Paraíba. Both structures have the same alignment.
The inner partial view (2011) of Lunardo palaeolagoon (PB), a silted up and intermittent pond, detail of its south edge.
The Santa Luzia (2011) pond on Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde (PE) probable Panela crater related field.
Partial inner view of Santa Luzia palaeolagoon (PE) detail to the edge.
The Panela prehistoric cosmic event (3,200 BP) is related to the geological and historical neocatastrophism and Near Earth Objecs - NEO research, the hazards to civilization and environment due by meteoroids streams.
As a Tunguska event (1908), the Panela crater could be related to some others Holocene or Pleistocene worldwide events. Perhaps from the same south meteor shower. Ancient ponds were formed from atomic power airblast of a prehistoric meteoroids stream, fragments from a defunct comet.
The Cajueiro crater near Recife
Another possible new crater identified by Google Earth (2011), the Cajueiro crater (350 m) on Paudalho, Pernambuco, on Zona da Mata, is on the wet Atlantic Rain Forest region of deep soil, it is on crystalline rocks related to granite subsoil.
Cajueiro crater view.
Others ponds on this region could be Cajueiro crater related.
On the pictures below the coin is 27mm in diameter, the impactites were collected during the "Study of Pernambuco Palaeolagoons Origin" workshop (2011), and belongs to Louis Jacques Brunet Natural History Museum collection in Recife, Brazil.
The impactites found at 2011
Brecciated quartz. Brecciated partial fused quartz. Brecciated melted gneiss.
Cajueiro Crater (PE) Lagoon of Lunardo-Pan002 (PB) Lagoon of Cruz-Pan002b (PB), cut and glazed.
Melted soil and fused brecciated gneiss. Brecciated fused soil.
Lagoon of Cruz-Pan002b (PB), cut. Lagoon of Sta. Luzia (PE), cut and the outside.
Partial melted soil. Brecciated melted gneiss and melted soil.
Lagoo of Sta. Luzia (PE). Lagoon of Lunardo-Pan002 (PB)
Brecciated melted gneiss and melted soil. Brecciated fused gneiss.
Panela crater (PE), cut and the outside.
2012-NEW PALAEOLAGOON FIELD!
On the new field of palaeolagoons research in Alagoas (AL) state, on Palmeira dos Índios and Estrela de Alagoas, some impactites were found (3-6/feb/2012).
The palaeolagoons are relatively shallow and intermittent, its water level varies with annual rainfall. In many ponds there are mud sediments deposition rich in organic matter. These ponds are rich in macrophytes, lilies, insects, birds and fish, fresh water. But others ponds have a high salt content, they are low in organic matter deposition and their waters are not intended for human or animal consumption, they can exude smelly.
In this semiarid region of soft wavy flat terrain, there are very few rocks exposed on the surface, some quartz, quartzite, gneiss. There are rarely granite base rocks outcrops. The soil is alluvial sandy (coarse grains) and deep.
Some exposed rocks on Palmeira dos Índios (005) small (<100m) palaeolagoon.
Some impactites found are breccia and molten impact rocks. The impactites found support the cosmogenic hypothesis for these (twin) small elliptical (<100 m)palaeolagoons in Palmeira dos Índios, AL.
Melted sand and gneiss
Palmeira dos Índios (005) crater (AL), cut and the outside.
The impactites (shocked quartz, breccia, molten impact rocks and impact rock glass) found on (4) possible impact fields under investigation since 2009, in São Raimundo Nonato (PI): Capivara 001 and Capivara 004 and at 2011 in Santa Cruz da Baixa Verde (PE): Panela crater (1995), Santa Luzia pond, in Manaíra (PB): Lunardo and Cruz ponds, also for Paudalho (PE): Cajueiro crater, at 2012 in Palmeira dos Índios palaeolagoons (AL) support the cosmogenic hypothesis for these (8) elliptical structures.
Petrolina/Juazeiro/Casa Nova next expedition - 2013
Palaeolagoons field on Juazeiro and Casa Nova, Bahia, and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil, there are samples of elliptical structures, the image also shows its ecological and economical potencial on this semiarid region.
Could the Casa Nova (BA) tiny scar < 0.05 km deposite remains of chondrite meteorite?
On small size scars < 0.05 km and medium size > 0.5 km likely impactites can be found!
MORE ABOUT IMPACTITES SOON!!!!
NEW - 2013
A COMET DID WIPE OUT PREHISTORIC HUMANS
A cosmic impact 12,900 years ago could have led to the demise of the ‘Clovis’ people
of North America, researchers claim.
EVIDENCE FOR DEPOSITION OF 10 MILLION TONNES OF IMPACT SPHERULES
ACROSS FOUR CONTINENTS 12,800 Y AGO
Detailed geochemical and morphological analyses of nearly 700 spherules from 18 sites in support of a major cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas episode (12.8 ka). The impact distributed ∼10 million tonnes of melted spherules over 50 million square kilometers on four continents. Origins of the spherules by volcanism, anthropogenesis, authigenesis, lightning, and meteoritic ablation are rejected on geochemical and morphological grounds. The spherules closely resemble known impact materials derived from surficial sediments melted at temperatures >2,200 °C. The spherules correlate with abundances of associated melt-glass, nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, aciniform carbon, charcoal, and iridium.
NEW - 2012
Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago
IMPACT CRATER SCARS AND PALAEOLAGOONS
The Palaeolagoon Cosmogenic Hypothesis
SOME IMPACTITES IN THE WORLD
The thousand faces of impactites
New publication on the cosmogenic palaeolagoons
Agrupación Astronómica de La Safor
Boletin Huygens n. 94 - Enero/Febrero - 2012
See also THE PREHISTORIC REPRESENTATIONS OF THE TUPANA EVENT IN NORTHEASTERN OF BRAZIL.
2009 - IFRAO2009 -
Session 6 - The non-Cartesian axes of rock art research -
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