The palaeolagoons can have few tens or hundreds of meters, to few kilometer sice. These shallow elipticall aligned palaeolagoons are found everywhere in Brazil, as well as in Argentina, Bolivia, USA, South Africa, Australia... worldwide, and their cosmogenia could be related to an actual south palaeometeor shower.... an old meteoroid stream from a defunct prehistoric comet.... and it may still exist in the form of a meteor shower in the present.
Many astronomers believe that there is long-term fifteen or thirty million year cycle to impacts as the result of galactic tides affecting comets in the Oort cloud believed to surround the solar system like a halo. In 1982, two British astronomers, S. V. M (Victor) Clube and William Napier, published a book entitled The Cosmic Serpent. Clube and Napier suggested that the outer planets occasionally divert giant comets (more than 50 kilometers in diameter) into the inner solar system into short-period orbits. Debris from the resultant disintegration of these giant comets can adversely affect the Earth environment. Dusting can block sunlight, resulting in globally cooler conditions. Impact events in super-Tunguska class event may result in not only heavy localized destruction but also the occasional "impact winter" or dust veil with global climatological effects.
The astronomers believe the impact flux varies on an even shorter cycle. They suggest that a giant comet (over fifty kilometers in diameter) arrives in the inner solar system every hundred thousand years on average. As the giant comet disintegrates, its debris may threaten the Earth with a greatly enhanced impact flux for a few years or decades every millenium or two.
Impact events in the Super-Tunguska class may result in not only heavy localized destruction but also the occasional "impact winter" or dust veil with global climatological effects. Clube and Napier identify the progenitor of the Taurid complex as such a giant comet whose injection into a short-period (about 3.3 year) orbit occurred sometime in the last twenty thousand years. The effects of the disintegration of this object in an Earth-crossing orbit should appear in the geological and climatological record as well as in protohistorical and historical records.
The observed thousands of scars, craters, these shallow palaeolagoons should represent real marcs of these prehistorical cosmic events in Brazil and anywere. A cosmic massive global event may have last a few hours to some days long. Millions of meteoroids explosions and airblast fired forests and cause tsunami at seas and oceans, incinerating lands, prehistoric villages, melting glaciers, and poisoning the waters with their hot CN rich plasma jets. The excess of warm in the atmosphere and oceans released large bodies of water frozen during the end of Pleistocene, changing all the ecosystems, initiating a new environmental order, the Holocene.
Many of these small ponds are located outside the normal land drainage, and could be found on highest areas, on the hills. In images below (2009), a small 200 m elliptical south-north oriented palaeolagoon Capivara 0001 on São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil.
During the first identification mission in June of 2009 the shallows lagoons were still supplying water to livestock and wildlife in this semiarid region. But eventually they will be dry on drougth season.
In this region there are no volcanoes. The molten impact rock can be found in these palaeolagoons.
More about the impactites: http://www.liada.net/Pierson%20Barretto-IMPACTITOS.pdf
The excavation (2011) on German small ponds structures gave evidence of very high temperatures in the form of intense melting an glass formation: matrix-rich breccia - multicolored small rock fragments in a sandy, silty black matrix.
Some crateriform small structures from ten meters in diameters in young sediments in Southeast Germany have raised increased interest in the last decade, although they have been known since longtime. Its possible anthropogenic origin or simple sink holes origin were excluded, detailed rock-magnetic studies point to new ideas focusing on a formation of at least part of the craters are meteorite craters originating from the recently proposed large Holocene so-called Chiemgau impact event.
In 2004 during a scientific mission, Italian and Bazilian scientists investigated the Quarí palaeolagoon on the same region on São Raimundo Nonato and conducted a sediment lagoon profile. They identified five (5) units of sediments (U.S.).
From the location of pollen sample and dated sediment from pond profile, it is possible to infer the age of stratigraphic layers further down. Thus, it is likely that this structure has about 12,900 years of age. There is a higher frequency of the megafauna fossils in sediment immediately above the layer of clasts, possible washed away from the edges into the pond in sediments older than 12,115 years.
The pollen study identifies the landscape vegetation such as Arecaceae, species of humid savanna environment palm tree, that represents about 35% of arborial vegetation, and between 30% of grasses at 8,770 BP, but these vegetations are no longer visible on surroundings of these palaeolagoons at present environment of drougth Caatinga forest domain.
The five (5) units of sediments (U.S.) found in Quarí palaeolagoon are:
The US-1: The pollen research dated the sediments with ages ranging between 5,425 B.P. to 8,770 B.P., no megafauna found.
The US-2: The layer were the megafauna fossils are found (> 12,000 BP).
The US-3: This unit is a Silliceous clasts rocks layer (12,900 BP). Not vulcanic, possible impactites (?).
The US-4: (sand ?)
The US-5: Basic cristalline rock.
Could the age of the US-3 Silliceous clasts layer be 12,900 BP old ?
Why no megafauna rich sediments are found older than End-Pleistocene?
The impactites identified in other ponds in this region corroborate their cosmic origin.
The Quari palaelagoon in Sao Raimundo Nonato near south town, where (2004) a layer of silliceous clasts rocks (possible impactites) were found on the boton layer of the lake at about 12,900 BP old sediment over a cristalline base rock points to its End-Pleistocene genesis.
NEW - 2013
EVIDENCE FOR DEPOSITION OF 10 MILLION TONNES OF IMPACT SPHERULES
ACROSS FOUR CONTINENTS 12,800 Y AGO
Detailed geochemical and morphological analyses of nearly 700 spherules from 18 sites in support of a major cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas episode (12.8 ka). The impact distributed ∼10 million tonnes of melted spherules over 50 million square kilometers on four continents. Origins of the spherules by volcanism, anthropogenesis, authigenesis, lightning, and meteoritic ablation are rejected on geochemical and morphological grounds. The spherules closely resemble known impact materials derived from surficial sediments melted at temperatures >2,200 °C. The spherules correlate with abundances of associated melt-glass, nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, aciniform carbon, charcoal, and iridium.
NEW - 2012
Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago
12,900 years ago megabeasts suddem died
Scientists propose a radical new idea of what killed off mammoths and other large animals at the end of the Ice Age.
Last Extinction (NOVA Documentary)
The climate had been warming dramatically, then suddenly the climate cooled to an interval of near glacial cold. Known as the Younger Dryas this period lasted for well over a thousand years.
End-Pleistocene and Younger Dryas impact hypothesis
The Younger Dryas (YD) impact hypothesis is a recent (2007) theory that suggests that a cometary or meteoritic body or bodies hit and/or exploded over North America 12,900 years ago, causing the YD climate episode, extinction of Pleistocene megafauna, demise of the Clovis archaeological culture, and a range of other effects.
The physical evidence interpreted as signatures of an impact event can be separated into two groups. The first group consists of evidence that has been largely rejected by the scientific community and is no longer in widespread discussion…. The second group consists of evidence that has been active in recent research and discussions:…. Over time, however, these signatures have also seen contrary evidence rather than support.
In summary, none of the original YD impact signatures have been subsequently corroborated by independent tests. Of the 12 original lines of evidence, seven have so far proven to be non-reproducible. The remaining signatures instead seem to represent either (1) non-catastrophic mechanisms, and/or (2) terrestrial rather than extraterrestrial or impact-related sources.
Younger Dryas “black mats” and the Rancholabrean termination in North America
Stratigraphic sequences on US can reflect climate change in the lacustrine or paludal sediments such as marls or diatomites indicate ponding or emergent water tables and some mollisols or aquolls indicate shallow water tables with capillary fringes approaching or reaching the surface.Of the 97 geoarchaeological sites of this study that bridge the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (last deglaciation), approximately two thirds have a black organic-rich layer or ‘‘black mat’’ in the form of mollic paleosols, aquolls, diatomites, or algal mats with radiocarbon ages suggesting they are stratigraphic manifestations of the Younger Dryas cooling episode 10,900 B.P. to 9,800 B.P. (radiocarbon years).
This layer or mat covers the Clovis-age landscape or surface on which the last remnants of the terminal Pleistocene megafauna are recorded. Stratigraphically and chronologically the extinction appears to have been catastrophic, seemingly too sudden and extensive for either human predation or climate change to have been the primary cause.
Black mat full text: http://www.pnas.org/content/105/18/6520.full.pdf+html
The palaeo-lake Suguta and its importance for understanding lake level fluctuations in the East African Rift System http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51C0765J
The most recent dry-wet-dry cycle in the presently arid Suguta Valley in the Northern Kenya Rift where a 300-m-deep lake has formed during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP, 14.8-5.5 ka BP).
The research focus on abrupt vs. gradual changes, we reconstructed a palaeo-lake level record for the time between 14 and 5 ka BP from up to 40 m thick lake-sediment sequences at three locations in the ~2,500 km2 palaeo-lake Suguta area.
The new chronology of water level fluctuations in the amplifier-lake Suguta indicates a general dry-wet-dry cycle synchronous with other lake chronologies during the AHP and multiple short-term fluctuations with abrupt lake level drops between 100 to 300 m within 100 to 200 years at 12.8-11.6 (during Younger Dryas time), 11.1-10.9; 10.4-10.2; 9.5-9.1; 9.0-8.8; 8.5-8.1 (during the 8.2 ka event) cal ka BP that seem to be linked with changes in the coupling between atmosphere and ocean systems
If these palaeolagoons have a probable cosmic origin
and everything should have exploded outside,
why megafauna bones are found inside these Brazilian ponds?
Perhaps a possible answer could be on post-cratering event:
by megafauna survivor drinking water CN-poisoning!
The Halley comet have been subject to scientific investigation since the 16th century. The 1910 approach was notable for several reasons: it was the first approach of which photographs exist, and the first for which spectctroscopic data were obtained. Furthermore, the comet made a relatively close approach of 0.15AU, making it a spectacular sight. On 18 May the Earth actually passed through the tail of the comet. One of the substances discovered in the tail, by spectroscopic analysis, was the toxic gas cyanogen which chemical compound with the formula CN led astronomer Camille Flammarion to claim that, when Earth passed through the tail, the gas "would impregnate the atmosphere and possibly snuff out all life on the planet." This pronouncement led to panicked buying of gas masks and quack "anti-comet pills" and "anti-comet umbrellas" by the public. In reality, as other astronomers were quick to point out, the gas is so diffuse that the world suffered no ill effects from the passage through the tail.
Comets nucleus, made of dirty ice of low density, would escavate only a very shalow crater. A number of physical and chemical consequences of the comet impact are wortly of investigation. It is interest to discover whether cometary molecular species, such as CO2, CO, and HCN, could survive the explosion. The synthesis of new molecular species in the cooling fireball may be of interest, as well as the production of high-temperature species such as CN, HCN, and nitrogen oxides by passage of the shock front through the Earth´s atmosphere must also be considered.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is an extremely volatile composition, and it is a commun molecule found on comets. Pure it can in such a way be found in how much gaseous the liquid form, have to its low point of boiling (25,7 °C) and the great volatileness. Bubbled it in water, a solution called hydrocyanic acid is produced, is a chemical composition that contains the cyanide anion (CN−1).
The most common are potassium (KCN) and of sodium (NaCN) cyanides. They are extremely poisonous to some beings livings creature. Cyanide ions interfere with iron-containing respiratory enzymes, due to ability of the ion in combining with the iron of the hemoglobine, blocking the reception of the oxygen for the blood, killing the animal by suffocating.
Cyanides has a fort smell of bitter almonds, and meets in certain plants, as Manihot, and in seeds of certain fruits (apples, peaches).
After the atomic power airblast and ground explosion of billions of meteors, in this semiarid region of Brazil with shallow, stony, and often crystalline rocks outcrop soil, thousands of depressions were formed on the ground. These structures were water filled after the subsequents heavy rains, forming lagoons where none existed before but, filled of mortal cyanits acid poisoned water. Thus, the surviving megafauna from the explosions and fires may have died by drinking contaminated water on the shores of these ponds, and their bones were slowly carried to the bottom of the pond, sedimented and fossilized.
Cometary Poison Gas
Tunguska Meteor Fall of 1908: Effects on Stratospheric OzoneThe photochemicala ftereffects of the event have been simulated using a comprehensive model of atmospheric trace composition. Calculations indicate that up to 45 percent of the ozone in the Northern Hemisphere may have been depleted by Tunguska's nitric oxide cloud early in 1909 and large ozone reductions may have persisted until 1912. Measurements of atmospheric transparency by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for the years 1909 to 1911 show evidence of a steady ozone recovery from unusually low levels in early 1909, implyinga totalo zone deficito f 30 t 15 percent. The coincidence in time between the observed ozone recovery and the Tunguska meteor fall indicates that the event may provide a test of current ozone depletion theories.
Pleistocene Palaeontological deposit in São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí, Brazil.
The survived animals from the ground and airblast meteoroids explosions, and from the large forest fires, were killed by the cometary molecular species, such as CO2, CO, HCN, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocyanic acid that contains the cyanide anion (CN−1) dissolved in the water of the (fresh crater) palaeolagoons.
The suvivor magafauna were attracted by the mortal sweet smell of the hydrocyanic acid dissolved on ponds water. This is, perhaps, why so many (survived) begafauna (bones) are found concentraded in palaeolagoons after the atomic power airblast explosion that formed the craters. The megafauna bones were not washed away by rain. Though the scars and craters (palaeolagoons) are outside the main drainage of the land, and megafauna rich sedimentes could be found in ponds on hills.
At that time, many people could died globaly, by the effects of the explosions, poisoned or burned by wild fires from meteor airblasts. Unluckily the suvivor people at that time spent years without being able to use the palaeolagoons as an environmental resource, cause an unprecedented natural cosmic extinction catastrophe.
People and the environment in the entire region has suffered a greater or lesser degree the impacts of the meteor explosions and the poisoning of water resources. The devastation was severe, for the new environmental balance may have been needed decades or more. Many remaining megafauna could be hunted by prehistoric indians to the complete extinction.
ASTEROIDS, METEORS, COMETS - Climate and Mass Extinctions
Discovery of a nanodiamond-rich layer in the Greenland ice sheet
Impactites: Glass, Black Mat and the end of Pleistocene
Stone Age comet destroys North America
Study Jointly Led by UCSB Researcher Finds (2012)
New Evidence Supporting Theory of Extraterrestrial Impact
Pleistocene ponds are natural shallow reservoirs of water that contains traces of an extinct fauna. It is very important to investigate a site like this, because the remains found there will provide subsidies for understanding the paleoenvironment of the region. An excavation carried out in January 2009 by archaeologists and paleontologists identified magafauna fossil on Lagoa Salgada.
More about megafauna
Between the Areial and Montadas on Paraíba there is a shallow palaeolagoons field, about 9 structures. The Lagoa Salgada field is about 250km from Recife... (now under investigation).
The Lagoa Salgada (Salty Lagoon) is a 350 meters structure.
Would impactites or shocked quartz be found around Lagoa Salgada shallow palaeolagoons field (2011)?
The Lagoa Salgada region has a sandy soil, from the decomposition of outcrop gneiss rich in white feldspar, possibly sodium. Panoramic view from the south rim of the lagoon (2013).
Detail of rock on the south rim, weather eroded gneiss (?), intrusion with quartz. These structures are not glaciogenic or volcanogenic, or caustic lagoons.
see MORE about IMPACTITES on PALAEOLAGOONS research
As far as we are concerned the comet broke up in a major way in the 7th millennium BC and was responsible for a series of catastrophic events around the world at that time - craters, trenching, flooding etc. However, as the theory is a hypothesis devised by astronomers we should note that geologists are not onboard - and therefore guesswork is involved on what might have been the effects experienced on the surface of the Earth.
New publication on Cosmogenic Palaeolagoons
Paleolagoas Cósmicas e o Fim do Pleistoceno
Boletim Informativo da Sociedade Paraibana de Arqueologia - Nº 89 - 2013
Agrupación Astronómica de La Safor, Spain.
Boletin Huygens n. 94 - Enero/Febrero - 2012
New palaeolagoons areas
proposed by Ravindra Vasudeo Godbole for impactite site research
More about Ravindra Vasudeo Godbole hypothesis.
The Godbole Meaning of Vedas
MORE related theme: http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=1y_hJrRBdZo&feature=endscreen
See also THE PREHISTORIC REPRESENTATIONS OF THE TUPANA EVENT IN NORTHEASTERN OF BRAZIL
Best viewed 1280x960 pixels.