IMPACT CRATER Scars and Palaeolagoons

Banging Head Graphic  Under Continuous Construction
This site is dedicated to a new approach on the solar system astrophysics, archaeology, paleontology, archaeoastronomy, climate studies, water resources and environmental evolution from End-Pleistocene and Holocene.
Since 2010 this site shares some clues about craters, scars, palaeolagoons and their possible cosmogenic origin, their local interfaces with the ecology of planet Earth.
A widely accepted theory of planet formation, the so-called Planetesimal hypothesis of Viktor Safronov (1969), states that planets form out of dust grains that collide and stick to form larger and larger bodies.
The evidence for such events throughout the solar system is undeniable. We need only look to the surface of our Moon to see a myriad of craters left by impacting objects
But the Moon is not alone. During the past three decades, pictures sent back from space probes demonstrate that nearly every solid body in our Solar System exhibits craters. Planets like Mercury, Venus, and Mars; the moons of the giant outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; and even asteroids like Toutatis and Vesta -- all show the scars left by impacts. Geologically active bodies like Jupiter's moon Io show few craters, while geologically inactive bodies like the Earth's or Mar's moons are covered with craters.

Catastrophism -
For the idea that Earth has been affected in the past by short-lived, violent worldwide events.  This  theory recognizes the uniformitarianism as the main guide that can understand the geological processes, but does not preclude occasional catastrophic phenomena have contributed to any changes on the surface land.
Catastrophist Manifesto
....................a little about new ideas..................

The 2005 Richard Firestone/Allen West breakthrough in impact geology is more far-ranging in its consequences than the 1980 K-T breakthrough, because the damage done to the biosphere in the Late Pleistocene also affected humanity. It brings together the North American school of catastrophism (repeated blows during Earth history) and the British school of Victor Clube and William Napier (repeated blows during human prehistory and history), researchers who situate themselves within the Halley-Whiston tradition that began, like uniformitarianism, around 1700. What was lacking in the Clube-Napier school, based on extrapolation of space-age data, is now provided by the Firestone-West findings, to wit, geological field- and laboratory data.

Today’s breakthrough will also begin making a rapprochement in a schism that exists since the end of Romanticism, about 1860 – the greatest Kultursturz in the West since Christianity brutally suppressed intellectual and religious freedom in the Roman and Hellenistic worlds.

This schism pitted against each other, sometimes violently, academic geology (and biology, archaeology, history, mythology) and the so-called lunatic fringe, marginalised by the uniformitarian establishment – Atlantologists, pole-shifters, Velikovskians, Theosophists, etc. Perhaps the 2005 discoveries will induce the “lunatic fringe” to start thinking more critically. And perhaps they will induce the academic geologists to start thinking. If so, we can look forward to the next breakthrough in rather less than another quarter of a century (Han Kloosterman).

The design seeks to interpret the effects of some catastrophic events, like meteor impacts, based on geological data. The natural catastrophes that shaping the Earth have been supplemented in recent past by the effects of huge meteoroids impact stream on the environmental and humam culture.
Many astronomers believe that there is long-term fifteen or thirty million year cycle to impacts as the result of galactic tides affecting comets in the Oort cloud believed to surround the solar system like a halo.  In 1982, two British astronomers, S. V. M (Victor) Clube and William Napier, published a book entitled The Cosmic Serpent. Clube and Napier suggested that the outer planets occasionally divert giant comets (more than 50 kilometers in diameter) into the inner solar system into short-period orbits. Debris from the resultant disintegration of these giant comets can adversely affect the environment of the Earth. Dusting can block sunlight, resulting in globally cooler conditions. Impact events in the super-Tunguska class may result in not only heavy localized destruction but also the occasional "impact winter" or dust veil with global climatological effects.

The astronomers believe the impact flux varies on an even shorter cycle. They suggest that a giant comet (over fifty kilometers in diameter) arrives in the inner solar system every hundred thousand years on average. As the giant comet disintegrates, its debris may threaten the Earth with a greatly enhanced impact flux for a few years or decades every millenium or two.

Impact events in the Super-Tunguska class may result in not only heavy localized destruction but also the occasional "impact winter" or dust veil with global climatological effects. Clube and Napier identify the progenitor of the Taurid complex as such a giant comet whose injection into a short-period (about 3.3 year) orbit occurred sometime in the last twenty thousand years. The effects of the disintegration of this object in an Earth-crossing orbit should appear in the geological and climatological record as well as in protohistorical and historical records.

The observed thousands of scars and craters calls palaeolagoons (2009) should represent real marcs of these prehistorical cosmic events on Brazil and anywere. when a cosmic massive global event may have last a few hours to some days long. Millions of meteoroids explosions and airblast fired forests and cause tsunami at seas and oceans, incinerating the lands and prehistoric villages, melting glaciers, and poisoning the waters with their hot CN rich plasma jets. The excess of warm in the atmosphere and oceans released large bodies of water frozen during the end of Pleistocene, changing all the ecosystems, initiating a new environmental order, the Holocene.
The most recent  past 50,000 years the temperature has been “flat-lined” since 10,000 years ago (BP). The hypothesis is that the impact sequences began 17,000 years ago, with a second massive event at 13,000 BP, or even more recent, on Holocene.
Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles where continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places. It is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earth's surface was covered by ice. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C.

Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500 to 3,000 metres thick, resulting in temporary sea level drops of 100 metres or more over the entire surface of the Earth.


Possible the temperature stabilization at 10,000 BP as being indicative of a massive series of impacts occurring at that point, 13,000 years algo. At regular intervals of ~2300 years, and an additional series of impacts. The last series is fairly well placed from ~480AD until ~1050AD .

The hypothesis suggest that the startling stabilization of the earth’s climate since 10,000 years ago was driven by significant increase in available free water on the planet, cause the warmth produced by the airblast of billions of meteoroids larger than Tunguska event on the Earth atmosphere, as on seas and oceans, on land, from 16,000 BP to 13,000 BP. 
The forms are both as greater ocean surface area and the presence of millions of new freshwater bodies. The greatest influx is expected to be during the recognized transition into the Holocene, when the sea levels rose by 40 meters in as few as 400 years.
The Earth has been in an Ice House Climate for the last 30 million years.
When the Earth is in its "Ice House" climate mode, there is ice at the poles.  The polar ice sheet expands and contacts because of variations in the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles).  The last expansion of the polar ice sheets took place about 18,000 years ago. 
Climate excursions on a smaller scale have also characterized the latest 6,000 years. This has been shown by decade long, worldwide narrowing of tree rings (Baillie 1995, 1999). Baillie has described atleast 6 well dated episodes: 540 AD, 44 BC, 207 BC, 1159 BC, 1628 BC and 2345 BC. Only the episode 1628 BC can be explained by volcanism: the explosion of Santorini north of  Crete destroying the minoan civilization. The AD 540 event lasting from 536-545 is best described in the historical records; it involved reduced sunlight, mists or  "dry" fogs, crop failures, famines in China and the Mediterranean, and plagues. 
The discussion is limited to the (Holocene and End-Pleistocene) manifestations of damage to above-sea-level terrestrial surfaces and seabeds by meteoroids impact stream. The oceans and seas represent much higher percentage of shock surface area.  An observed thausand palaeolagoons, scars, craters on land representing the manifestations of perhaps bilions of fragmented cometary bodie stream.
It's focused on understanding the social and physical influence of a once highly-visible large-comet, in a short-period Earth-threatening orbit. This object, according to astronomical evidence, has been progressively breaking up since the Holocene time period began. The result of such debris scattering was to increase the likelihood of Earth's climate being affected by periodic interaction with extraterrestrial material during this most recent time period.
The climate had been warming dramatically, then suddenly the climate cooled to an interval of near glacial cold. Known as the Younger Dryas this period lasted for well over a thousand years.
The Younger Dryas Impact Event and the Cycles of Cosmic Catastrophes
Climate Scientists Awakening (2007)
The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis was the hypothesized large air burst or earth impact of an object or objects from outer space that initiated the Younger Dryas cold period about 12,900 BP calibrated (10,900 BP uncalibrated). "The Younger Dryas Impact Event": The deglaciation that followed the last ice age was abruptly and dramatically interrupted ~12,900 years ago by widespread cooling that marks the onset of the Younger Dryas.
The British science journal Nature addressed the theory in a news story on 17 May 2007. On 24 May 2007, a session at the spring 2007 joint assembly of the American Geophysical Union in Acapulco, Mexico was held to discuss this hypothesis and reveal the evidence.
Much evidence shows that the Younger Dryas was marked by abrupt changes in ice sheet configuration, the sudden emptying of proglacial lakes, diversion of North American flood-waters to the northern Atlantic, and the reorganization of thermohaline circulation. Nevertheless, significant questions have recently emerged about timing and direction of major freshwater flows to the oceans, in turn raising questions about the triggering mechanism for the Younger Dryas.

The onset of the Younger Dryas also appears to have coincided with massive, widespread, and punctuated changes in animal biota and Paleolithic cultural development centered in North and South America. This is represented by the most recent of all mass extinctions, the disappearance of the megafauna of the Americas, including mammoths, horses, and ground sloths and the termination of Clovis and other contemporaneous Paleolithic human cultures.

The cause of these changes is highly controversial and much debated, but is likely tied to the severe environmental changes that occurred at the beginning of the Younger Dryas. Another hypothesis attributes the extinctions to overhunting by Clovis people and other Paleolithic hunters or to pandemics associated with human migrations. However, all these hypotheses appear to fall short in satisfactorily explaining much available evidence.
A new hypothesis posits that Younger Dryas cooling was instead triggered by extraterrestrial impacts that caused ice sheet destabilization, flood-water rediversion, and changes in ocean circulation."

 In early March (2007), Russian, European, Japanese and American scientists held a Planetary Defense Conference in Washington to discuss the threats and plot a strategy for dealing with bodies of rock, dust and metal could come crashing down on Earth. Identifying asteroids close to the Earth is the priority right now. A large asteroid could cause what scientists call an "impact winter": a huge volume of dust gets thrown into the atmosphere, completely or partially blocking the sun's light, causing crop loss, disease and possible global starvation. And smaller asteroids could kill hundred of thousands, if not millions of people.
Younger Dryas “black mats” and the Rancholabrean termination in North America (2008)

Stratigraphic sequences on US can reflect climate change in that lacustrine or paludal sediments such as marls or diatomites indicate ponding or emergent water tables and some mollisols or aquolls indicate shallow water tables with capillary fringes approaching or reaching the surface.

Of the 97 geoarchaeological sites of this study that bridge the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (last deglaciation), approximately two thirds have a black organic-rich layer or ‘‘black mat’’ in the form of mollic paleosols, aquolls, diatomites, or algal mats with radiocarbon ages suggesting they are stratigraphic manifestations of the Younger Dryas cooling episode 10,900 B.P. to 9,800 B.P. (radiocarbon years).

This layer or mat covers the Clovis-age landscape or surface on which the last remnants of the terminal Pleistocene megafauna are recorded. Stratigraphically and chronologically the extinction appears to have been catastrophic, seemingly too sudden and extensive for either human predation or climate change to have been the primary cause.
This sudden Rancholabrean termnation at 10,900 +/- 50 B.P. appears to have coincided with the sudden climatic switch from Allerød warming to Younger Dryas cooling.
Recent evidence for extraterrestrial impact, although not yet compelling, needs further testing because a remarkable major perturbation occurred at 10,900 B.P. that needs to be explained (2008).
NEW - 2013



Detailed geochemical and morphological analyses of nearly 700 spherules from 18 sites in support of a major cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas episode (12.8 ka). The impact distributed ∼10 million tonnes of melted spherules over 50 million square kilometers on four continents. Origins of the spherules by volcanism, anthropogenesis, authigenesis, lightning, and meteoritic ablation are rejected on geochemical and morphological grounds. The spherules closely resemble known impact materials derived from surficial sediments melted at temperatures >2,200 °C. The spherules correlate with abundances of associated melt-glass, nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, aciniform carbon, charcoal, and iridium.


New Evidence from a Black Mat Site in the Northern Andes Supporting a Cosmic Impact 12,800 Years Ago

Previous work has ascribed a cosmic impact origin to black, high-temperature, carbon-encrusted beds (2–3 cm thick), associated with the Younger Dryas readvance of ice at 12.8 ka during the Late Glacial in the northern Andes of Venezuela. The site is one of the two southernmost sites (Venezuela and Peru) in South America, thus extending the evidence supporting the YDB impact event into a new hemisphere on a new continent. 


NEW - 2012

Very high-temperature impact melt products as evidence for        cosmic airbursts and impacts 12,900 years ago

Unusual Material in Early Younger Dryas Age Sediments and 
Their Potencial Relevance to the YD Cosmic Impact Hypothesis (2011)
Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling

Discovery of a nanodiamond-rich layer in the Greenland ice sheet (2010).

The Hazard to Civilization from Fireballs and Comets
  Could the prehistoric meteoroid stream still alive as a meteor shower?
IMPACT CRATER Scars and Palaeolagoons
cosmogenic analysis criteria
The Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures - EDEIS is based on the catalog of impact craters produced in the Department of Mathematical Problems of Geophysics, Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Division of Siberia, Russian Academy of Sciences. It contains data from more than 830 structures of the Earth's surface and the seafloor (2009).
The basic set of parameters available in the database for each EDEIS structure includes your name, location (latitude, longitude), the diameter and depth of the crater, an estimated age, type of structure, the presence of extraterrestrial material, references bibliographic catalogs or other original publications. Almost all entries are provided with satellite images showing the appearance of the structure seen from space.
The main difference between EDEIS other databases on the impact structures, such as the well-known Earth Impact Database maintained by the Planetary and Space Science Centre University of New Brunswick (Canada), is that the EDEIS contains data not only on the validated craters, whose impact origin was confirmed by the whole set of criteria, but also data on the structures likely or apparent that the cosmogenic genesis of these structures has not been confirmed.
However, the EDEIS presents some typical characteristics of impact and therefore are promising for future studies. Depending on the number of set criteria
i-   morphological
ii-  structural 
iii- mineralogical
iv- chemicals 
The EDEIS criteria which are filled for a particular structure in favor of its cosmogenic origin, the degree of confidence for the origin of the impact of a structure is characterized by its 'content validity' (V) ranging from zero (0) rejected to four (4) for structures fully confirmed:
0-  rejected
1-  proposed for further study
2-  perspective
3-  probable
4-  confirmed
After the report of Dr. Erdtmann (TU-Berlin/2006) and the cooperation of the CIRT, the Chiemgau Impact Research Team and the geologist Andreas Neumair (2009), also in Germany, the arguments in favor of a cosmogenic origin for Panela crater was accepted by EDEIS, Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures  and others. The crater is in Pernambuco and entered on 2009 in the ranks of the craters with Brazilian probable (V3) cosmic origin (EDEIS, 2009) validation. Now it can be found on some websites, as probable or suspected impact structure (Rajmon/2009), and it is promising for future studies:
  Dr. Erdtmann Panela crater comments (2006)
TU-Berlin Professor of Historical Geology and Paleontology
Berlin University of Technology 

In (2011) EDEIS map below the small and young Panela structure can be identifield among the craters under investigation in the world.
In your backyard or in your garden, somewhere next to you it may exist a new structure waiting for you. There are so many craters around the world, so many elliptical ponds... 

The proposed (2008) Tupana event created some elliptical craters (finding by satellite imaging 2010), the conical Panela crater (1995) in Brazil and its related structures (>15) should have oringin in a cosmic event at 1234 +/- 210 BC. The Panela crater estimated age is based on archaeological (C14) data of prehistorical rock art records relative dating to remains of fire inside archaeological cave
But remember that, if the cave rock arts are not related to prehistoric fire found in the cave, they may be younger, but can be even older. A study of paleolagoons stratigraphies will definitely respond to their age.
The Panela crater age is compatible with the proposal by Baillie dated episodes at 540 AD, 44 BC, 207 BC, 1159 BC, 1628 BC and 2345 BC for a meteoroid stream encounter. Cosmic events of the Holocene.
It is also worth mentioning that, other palaeolagoons also commonly found outside this region are older than >10,000 years (12,900) into them are found fossils of Pleistocene extinct megafauna.
The Panela crater is not alone, there are some possible related aligned elliptical structures, scars, ponds and palaeolagoons field were identified (2010) in the region. These structures are not glaciogenic or volcanogenic, or caustic. The region is a batholith, the subsoil is syenitic rock. 

 Aerial view, elevation and profile of the Panela crater.,-38.158028&spn=0.013562,0.019205&z=16


PANELA'S RELATED PALAEOLAGOON FIELD: possible new crater is under investigation (2011)!


On same Panela crater region, the Lagoon of Lunardo (Pan002) is a 360m long and 200m wide pond structure. It is located about 8.2 km northwest from the (600m long and 500m wide) Panela crater structure.

The  Lunardo elliptical structure and Panela crater may be associated to parallel and low angle trajectory of the bolides that formed them. The pond presents almost the same Panela crater alignment. Possible impactites were found (2011) on Lunardo and others ponds on this region. Breccia impactites are indications for its cosmic origin.
                              Lagoon of Lunardo (PB)          Lagoon of Cruz (PB), cut and glazed.          
Lagoon of Cruz (PB), cut.                          Lagoon of Sta. Luzia (PE), cut and the outside.    
Possible Panela crater field related structures.


The excavation (2011) on German small ponds structures gave evidence of very high temperatures in the form of intense melting an glass formation:  matrix-rich breccia - multicolored small rock fragments in a sandy, silty black matrix.
Some crateriform small structures from ten meters in diameters in young sediments in Southeast Germany have raised increased interest in the last decade, although they have been known since longtime. Its possible anthropogenic origin or simple sink holes origin were excluded, detailed rock-magnetic studies point to new ideas focusing on a formation of at least part of the craters are meteorite craters originating from the recently proposed large Holocene so-called Chiemgau impact event.
More about impactites in the region of Panela crater and others.
Fresh Air Blasts, Scars and Craters on Mars
The Mars Global Surveyor discovered 20 new small impact craters that formed on Mars between May 1999 and March 2006. The impactite mantle of a small air blast scar and a 0.6km elliptical crater can be seen below.
Mars Global Surveyor
Mars Orbiter Camera
Palaeolagoons outreach and teaching activities (2011)
 The Palaeolagoon cosmic hypothesis
for the elliptical scars and craters (2009).
The Quaternary period represents the interval of oscillating climatic extremes (glacial and interglacial periods) beginning about 2.6 million years ago to the present. Based on modeling by the Near Earth Object (NEO) community of planetary scientists, the known and validated record of Quaternary impact on Earth by comets and asteroids is seemingly depauperate in terms of larger impactors >10,000 Mt (roughly equal to or larger than about 500 m in diameter). Modeling suggests that an average of between 2-3 and perhaps as many as 5 globally catastrophic (ca. ?1,000,000 Mt) impacts by asteroids and comets could have occurred on Earth during this period of time, each having catastrophic regional environmental effects and moderate to severe continental and global effects.
One or more Quaternary period globally catastrophic impacts and several events in the 10,000-100,000 Mt range occurred in oceanic settings and have not yet been identified. At issue here is the default position of the NEO community that no large impacts have occurred during the past 15,000 years and that there is little evidence for human death by impacts during the past 5000 years of recorded history. This bias, deriving largely from reliance on stochastic models and by selectively ignoring physical, anthropological, and archaeological evidence in support of such impacts, is apparent in the messages being given to the media and general public, and in the general lack of grant support and other assistance to scientists and scholars wishing to conduct fieldwork on impacts that may date to the past 15,000 years.
The Pleistocene and Holocene lakes are natural water reservoirs which are often found traces of an extinct fauna, the large animals that lived and died in these places. These elliptical shallow structures are quite common around the world. These scars are countless, and at least some EDEIS criteria for clues in their cosmic origin  can be used: (i)- morphological, (ii)-structural, (iii)- mineralogical. These criteria can be applied by non-professional amateur astronomers researchers, independent researchers, in all parts of the world aided by images from Google Earth and field visits, using traditional methods for identifying possible impactites around these structuresThere are millions around the world, these craters may be very close in your backyard. Not let to see.
  On Russia, the Tunguska airblast event (1908) create an elliptcal and conical structure, Lake Cheko on Siberia.
A possible impact crater for the 1908 Tunguska Event - 2007 

 On September 15 of 2007 a big fireball fell in thre interior of Peru, forming a 15 m small crater.

 The Rio Cuarto aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on  Argentina are associated to a stream of meteor airblasts.
Perhaps, the most investigated field of elliptical and aligned craters in the world are the Carolina Bays, on USA. Carolina Bays are circular, typically stretched, elliptical depressions in the ground, oriented along their long axis from the Northwest to the Southeast. 


A brief tour of the Carolina Bays on Google Earth



But many others aligned elliptical structures not properly investigated can be found on USA. 


These aligned elliptical structures palaeolagoons on Ohio and Florida, 1500 km distant from each other, may have its origin related, if cosmic.


Florida (USA) is full of fractal distruted and oriented palaeolagoons. Comogenic?,-82.902746&spn=0.046903,0.076818&t=h&z=14&vpsrc=6,-80.579224&spn=1.550415,2.458191&t=h&z=9&vpsrc=6



 More about Ohio/Florida structures and rock art:


 Cosmic event in Mesopotamia

One of the most important events in human history, the 4.2 kiloyear event, when great civilizations around the world collapsed into anarchy and social chaos. A climate cooling and widespread aridification began, lowering agricultural food production and human living conditions. major impact features as observed by historical Sumerian eyewitnesses. The impact, as a full strike, eradicated the Imperial city of Akkad. The impact damaged all other Sumerian towns to different degrees. Were identified the location of the missing city of Akkad and an onset of global cooling and severe aridification. Footprint analysis of Holocene climate change affirms the occurrence and date of the impact event.

Cosmic event in Brazil and more
The Tupana event (3200 BP) that form the Panela crater on Brazil differ from the (45 degree) Tunguska event (1908) that form the Chencko lake on Russia cause its shallow meteor angle entrance, less than 20 degree. Its meteoroid fell surfing the atmosphere, since the ionosphere (120 km height)  and through the stratosphere until the troposphere atomic power explosion (airblast), from a parabolic south-west trajectory at 12 km/s average speed.  
Ancient Asteroid strike Earth, airblast simulator.
The elliptical shape of palaeolagoons is associated with the low angle of fall and the displacement of the meteor shock wave on the ground, before the final explosion of the impact forming the deepest region of the pond.


In some sites the meteor phenomenon shallow's entrance could have been seen for more than 2 minutes in the sky, throughout its low speed (12km/s) parabolic surfing trajectory. 
The meteor tail of dust, like Sikhote-Alin (1947) on Russia, could be remained visible during some hours after, if in its diurnal passing.
The Tupana event was observed and reported through rockart of the "prehistoric brazilian holocene astronomers". The observations had been carried around the year 1234 +/- 210 B.C.  
But one should pay attention to others low frequency events, millennial cosmic events occurred in the Northeast as well in others regions of Brazil. So others sites and its rock art panels must be related to others astroblemes, anothers cosmic events, perhaps from the last 12,900 years. 
The older rock paint in this region is about 39,000 years, and there are people in the region at last 100,000 years. Prehistoric Rock Arts are important resource for cosmic impact related informations.
More about cosmic rock art related meteor representation
The Tunguska impact event and beyond
The drougth Northeast region of Brazil is largely the environment of bioma Caatinga drought forest. Its original extension cover 734,478 km2. This is a region of low rainfall and high evapotranspiration. The vegetation of this semiarid region are xerophytic and hyper-xerophytic plants.

Another important characteristic on the Brazilian semiarid region is its crystalline rocks basin. In general on this region the soil is shallow, stony, and often present crystalline rocks outcrop.
Palaeolagoons are found everywhere. The ponds are often seasonal, sometimes dry, sometimes flooding, (but presently) they are often shallow. They can be found in valleys, on slopes of hills and on the hills.
Many of these palaeolagoons and craters have been systematically visited.
The palaeolagoons can have a dozem or hundreds of meter, to a few kilometer sice. Many of these aligned ponds are located outside the normal land drainage, and could be found on highest areas, on the hills. The EDEIS criteria: i- morphological, ii-structural and iii- mineralogical were applied to the approach of this research, the clues suggests that the palaeolagoons are at least of (2) perspective or (3) probable cosmic origin.
On picture below, the arrows indicate the terrain lower elevations, the natural drainage, in a land with shallow sediment and rocky sub-soil, with shallow ponds randomly distributed observed in the region.
Often is said to the Pleistocene palaeolagoons origin is associated with a "more humid ages". But this do not explain what geological process could formed these palaeolagoons, circulars or elliptical aligned distibution, in " a more humid past" over the hills in a province of impermeable underground crystaline rocks. On Pleistocene (> 13,000 years) the climate on this semi-arid tropical region was cooler and drier, perhaps a savanna with well distributed rainfall.
These elliptical aligned palaeolagoons are not dolines, are not wind-carved or from any other water process, the lagoons are not tectonic and nor vulcanic. The formation process of these Pleistocene and Holocene lagoons can be on itheir possible cosmogenic meteoritic origin.


  Study Jointly Led by UCSB Researcher Finds (2012) 
New Evidence Supporting Theory of Extraterrestrial Impact
The Capivara 0001 is a Pleistocene scar, on picture below the yellow bar is 100 meters long.,-42.626299&spn=0.006759,0.009602&t=h&z=17

In all ponds visited, at Capivara 0001, 0003 and 0004 palaeolagoon, some siliceous clasts rocks, possible impactites were found (2009).
Impactites are metamorphic rocks on the ground at the site of impact, created under high pressure and heat during the shock of the explosion of large meteorites. Most of molten rock clasts into an impact crater are the breccia. More about the impactites:
On picture below the Capivara 0001 can be seen in a panoramic view.
Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIX (2008) show that low-altitude meteor airburst process can form impactites. This evidence can be found in small terrestrial craters.
Airbursts in the lower atmosphere from hypervelocity impacts have been called upon to explain the nature of the Tunguska event and the exis-tence of unusual impact-related silicate melts such as the Muong-Nong tektites and Libyan Desert Glass of western Egypt. Impact melts associated with im-pact craters, however, have been traditionally attributed to shock melting of the target material that experiences strong shock compression and heating.
The characte-ristics of impact melts from small terrestrial craters (< 4 km diameter) leads to the possibility that the airburst phenomena may have been responsible for these melts. This conclusion is supported by numerical modeling of the airburst phenomena using super computer class facilities at Sandia National Laboratories.

Silliceous clasts rocks found on palaeolagoon Capivara 0001and Capivara 0004 smaller than 0.4 km are possible impactites, on Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui (2009), Brazil. On picture below the coin is 25 mm wide.


In this region there are no volcanoes. The molten impact rock can be found in these palaeolagoons.

Capivara - the name adopted for these craters in São Raimundo Nonato, is a reference to the Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil (UNESCO- World Heritage - 2003) where there are many of the numerous rock shelters and caves decorated with paintings, some more than 25,000 years old. They are an outstanding testimony to one of the oldest human communities of South America, and important for investigations of the End-Pleistocene cosmic ecological disaster.
On the Quari palaeolagoon, in Sao Raimundo Nonato south town, where (2004) a layer of silliceous clasts rocks were found in the boton layer of the lake at about a 12,900 BP old sediment over a cristalline base rock, points to its End-Pleistocene genesis.

 The palaeolagoons could have a dozem or hundreds of meters, from few to many kilometers size.
The Quarí palaeolagoon is the result of range of low density meteoroid impacts around the year 12,900 BP. Many others ponds in this semiarid region could have a more recent (or older) origin, from a low millennial frequency events, but as well probable cosmic, which are frequently found fossils of megafauna.
These thousands of ponds, if meteoritic, which are found throughout the world may indicate they could be originated from the fragments of a big (> 100 km diameter) comet, or perhaps, from a stray Kuiper planetoid, from a commom size (> 100km) body belt.
Comets are small "potato-shaped" objects a few hundred meters to about 20 kilometers across. Comets nuclei are almost smaller than < 100 km. The largest comets that have come inside the orbit of Saturn are Hale–Bopp (~60km), 29P (~30.8km), 109P/Swift–Tuttle (~26km), and 28P/Neujmin (~21.4km).
It is widely believed that the Kuiper Belt is the source of the short-period comets. It acts as a reservoir for these bodies in the same way that the Oort Cloud acts as a reservoir for the long-period comets.

  More about the Kuiper belt
The  nearest cosmic suspected field of scars and lagoon structures (BRPePaudalho001) is on deforest land less than 40km from Recife on Paudalho town, on Penambuco wet Atlantic cost, Brazil. It will be the next (2011) site to be investigated: just a farm pond? More coming soon!!!
See the 3D tour view below.
Possible impactites were found in Cajueiro structure. 
   Cajueiro Crater (PE)      
 More about impactites
On Texas and New Mexico, USA, 400 km distant from each other, aligned elliptical palaeolagoons fields' distribution are consistent for a meteoritic event. 
On New Mexico (US), in Santa Fe "some porous, white, foamy rocks, often associated with every size of shallow craters, which are variously round, oval, and irregular, with a fractal distribution of sizes in many fields" were identified by Rich Murray <>
As in Santa Fe palaeolagoons in San Miguel, Mora, and Colfax border there are elliptical palaeolagoons coherent for a multiple meteoroid arblast or impact stream in USA.


Petrolina/Juazeiro/Casa Nova next expedition - 2013

Palaeolagoons field on Juazeiro and Casa Nova, Bahia, and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil, there are samples of elliptical structures, the image also shows its ecological and economical potencial on this semiarid region. 
Could the Casa Nova (BA) tiny scar < 0.05 km deposite remains of chondrite meteorite?,-40.77969&spn=0.001656,0.002401&t=h&ecpose=-9.43056716,-40.77970268,446.81,0,55.183,0&z=19

On small size scars < 0.05 km and medium size > 0.5 km likely impactites can be found!

In the same region Palaeolagoons field on Remanso, Sobradinho dan border, the scar structures are used for fish farming, many structures are underwater, Bahia, Brazil.,-42.017298&spn=0.0135,0.019205&z=16,-42.264233&spn=0.026986,0.038409&z=15


 More south-west  from Remanso on Campo Alegre de Lourdes, Bahia, Brazil, also some ponds field presents similar fractal shape to footprint-like aligned structures, the structures  may have a same origin from multiple cosmic impacts, impactites should be found.,-42.965555&spn=0.027001,0.038409&z=15,-42.931716&spn=0.006515,0.009602&z=17 
On Xique-Xique, on semiarid region of Bahia, Brazil, the Itaparica Lagoon is an APA (Environmental Protection Area), it is a seasonal pond which structure is about 6km long. The Itaparica palaeolagoon has the same orientation as that Campo Alegre ones. 
"The Itaparica (cosmic crater) palaeolagoon could be the bigger of Brazil. The São Francisco River basin has an area of 640,000 km square where more than 12,300 lagoons were identifyied, they ranging from 50 meters to 1 kilometer. The south erosion-like region of the Itaparica Lagoon is not from human action, the rocks are exposed and seem to be smelted", said the specialist in remote sensing Ricardo Cantarelli. He works for the Ministry of National Integration (MI) and frequently conducts field visits.  <>.
From: CD Brasil visto do espaço.                                    
The Itaparica Palaelagoon, on Xique-Xique, BA, has a fractal twin smaller sister, an aligned elliptical structure near south.
 Multiple aligned palaeolagoons field on Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil.
 Aligned palaeolagoons field on Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil.
On Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil, in the middle of town there is an elliptical structure with the same orientation and similar to others in the same region.
City parcial view
 Some exposed rocks on Palmeira dos Índios (005) small (<100m) palaeolagoon.
 Porous melted sand and gneiss
Boca da Mata structure on Alagoas.
The elliptical structures field on Itabaiana, Sergipe, thin and of very small (30 m) craters can be peek through Google Earth high definition images. Craters as small dams or just farmers made dams?
Aligned palaeolagoons field on Urucuia river basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
 Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Sete Lagoas,  more than just Seven Lakes, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, possible cosmic origin.
Brasilia, the Federal Capital of Brazil have its own elliptical structure samples.
 On Paudalho town, near Recife, in Pernambuco, Brazil, there are others possible samples of elliptical structures.
The Olho D'água (Eye of water ) lagoon an elliptical structure on Jaboatão dos Guararapes city, on Recife's metropolitan region, could have a cosmic oringin.
The field of elliptical palaeolagoons in the north of Espirito Santo state, Brazil.  
The shallow, elliptical and aligned scars are possibly associated with the cyclical impact of meteoroids originating from a prehistoric fragmented comet. These elliptical craters can be found anywhere. Field studies and geological surveys are key in finding the first clues!
Volcanic areas, estuaries, karst, doline, morin, marshes ... these areas are ungrateful for crater hunters.  

In the middle of the Atlantic, on vulcanic Ascension Island an elliptical scar and its possible impactite mantle, white ejecta to NE. Its parent meteoroid came from a low south/west trajectory.,-14.379129&spn=0.026181,0.038409&z=15

Pyroclastic deposits, mafic and silicic pyroclastic deposits are distributed across much of Ascension Island. Most of Green Mountain is composed of pyroclastic deposits, both scoria and pumice, and many of the lava flows in the western part of the island have a thin pyroclastic veneer. There have clearly been some very violent explosive silicic eruptions on Ascension. Darwin recognized that the pyroclastic deposits which fill the central depression in Devil's Riding School were deposited in a lake
Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons structures on Angola,13.597641&spn=0.41724,0.614548&z=11

Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Zambia.
Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Botsuana.
 Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons fractal size distribution structures on South Africa.

  Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons structures on Bolivia.


Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Argentina.

 Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons fractal distribution on Falkland Island.
Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Russia and Afaganistan border.
Hundreds aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Russia  and fractal size distribution.

 Aligned elliptical palaeolagoons on Nocvosibirsk, Russia.,82.947807&spn=0.004107,0.009602&z=17


 Fractal aligned elliptical stream of palaeolagoons on SouthWest Australia. A (geo)picture of the meteoroids stream filamentar distribution on space (?).
Elliptical (aligned) craters are not so rare in the solar system. On Mars, between the Sinai Planum and the edge of Sinai Dorsa, there are two aligned elliptical structures, the largest of craters is 22 km and the lowest is 4 km long. Another structure about 4 km long, older and lonely, is at Bosporos Planum. The most impressive should be the misterious Orcus Patera, 380 km by 140 km, an enigmatic elliptical depression near Mars’s equator.

As the Earth elliptical craters, the Martian elliptical structures may originate from airblast explosions of low density objects, shock of comet fragments falling on low angle on the thin red planet atmosphere.

New publication on the cosmogenic palaeolagoons

Boletim Informativo da Sociedade Paraibana de Arqueologia - Nº 89 - 2013
Paleolagoas Cósmicas e o Fim do Pleistoceno

Agrupación Astronómica de La Safor
Boletin Huygens n. 94 - Enero/Febrero - 2012
2010 - Some further catastrophic web sites

Society for Interdisciplinary Studies

The oldest and most up to date society for catastrophist information and research
2010 - COSMOPIER discussed on COSMIC TUSK
 New palaeolagoons areas
proposed by Ravindra Vasudeo Godbole for impactite site research
in India
 More about Ravindra Vasudeo Godbole hypothesis.
 The Godbole Meaning of Vedas
Review, contact:
Pierson Barretto
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Since 2010
Pierson Barretto,
8 Feb 2011, 03:46
Pierson Barretto,
3 Nov 2010, 12:52