### Criticism of the Electric Sun Model

A layman's overview of the Electric Sun Model:
• Don Scott's model laid out for the layman here.
• A layman's overview of the model and the reasons behind it can be seen in this 8 minute video by Thornhill and Scott.
• Thornhill further expounds on the electric solar model here.

Electric Sun Models:

Juergens's model:
Electric Discharge as the Source of Solar Radiant Energy (Part I)
Ralph E. Juergens Kronos Vol. VIII No. 1
Part 1

Alfven's model:
Cosmic Plasma

Scott's model:
A Solar Junction Transistor Mechanism
Scott gives a large amount of supporting evidence in favor of his model here.

Thornhill's model:
The Z-Pinch Morphology of Supernova 1987A and Electric Stars

Wu's model:
An electrically powered binary star?

On the Bad Astronomy forums there exists a supposed refutation of the electric sun model posted by Tusenfem, a moderator of those boards. His post can be found here.

Don Scott has posted a rejoinder to these arguments that I feel deserves its own web page.  Before I get into Scott's rejoinder to BAUT, I'll include a few responses by Scott to others who have made arguments against the Electric Star theory:

Don Scott's rejoinder to Tim Thompson

Don Scott's reply to Tom Bridgman

Don Scott's rejoinder to BAUT (formulas not displayed correctly on this page):
A casual reading of this mathematical attempt to falsify the Electric Sun hypothesis reveals several misstatements, and unsupported assumptions.
1. Juergens hypothesized a solar voltage = 10^10 V, not 10^9. The exact value is of course conjectural. But if you are going to claim you are refuting Juergens, you ought to at least quote him correctly.

2. Therefore, the writer’s stated required current value is wrong (too high) by a factor of ten (if he is claiming to refute Juergens). Juergens’ total current value is 4 x 10^16 A. But these exponential magnitudes are just guesses at present.

3. His (the writer’s) assumption that the required current has to be in the form of an equatorial sheet having a thickness equal to the Sun's diameter is pure conjecture and not related to anything Juergens ever suggested. Juergens never claimed the solar electric current was confined to an equatorial sheet.

4. Imposing structural details of Alfvén’s model onto Juergen’s model is unwarranted. But even Alfvén suggested his proposed current sheet was only partially equatorial. Alfvén, of course, never suggested the Sun is fully externally powered. So mixing the two models is completely inappropriate.

Alfvén’s contention was that there is substantial electrical activity near to the Sun that explains several otherwise enigmatic (for gravity-only fusion hypotheses) observed properties. He also postulated that the equatorial current sheet balloons out as it approaches the Sun – becoming unlike a sheet formation and becoming field-aligned:

It seems to be a general rule of cosmic physics that field-aligned currents frequently manifest themselves as luminous filaments. If the current in [the ballooned out flow] is spread over an extended region, we should expect filaments. Equatorial streamers in the solar corona may be explained in this way.1

As a starting point we all agree that the Sun does in fact have a magnetic field. The writer of the (mathematical) proof correctly points out that Maxwell’s equations are dominant in such situations. He cites:

∇ x H = j + ∂D/∂t

where B = µH, j = current density, and D = ε E which demonstrates the requirement of considering electric currents whenever we have magnetic fields. In his book Cosmic Plasma2 Alfvén points out that in order to produce the well-known spiral shaped solar magnetic field, a spiral current is required. Given the value of the observed field strength (~ 2 x 10^-9 T) at a radial distance from the Sun of one astronomical unit (Earth’s orbital radius), he calculates the magnitude of the causative total current as being I0 = 3 x 10^9 Amp.

The writer of the "proof" states that:

The Ulysses spacecraft over the poles of the sun have not shown any signature AFAIK of strong toroidal magnetic fields associated with the out flowing currents.

He should be aware that the maximum solar latitude attained by the Ulysses probe was 80.2 degrees. So to imply Ulysses sought out the electric current (or magnetic field strength) directly over the Sun’s poles is inaccurate. Also such currents may be field-aligned and not produce toroidal magnetic structures. Alfvén stated that the exact location of current paths and structure was yet to be determined.

The model predicts that there should be currents near the [Sun’s] axis strong enough to match the current in the equatorial plane. … They may be distributed over a large region and may in part flow at medium altitudes.3

He (Alfvén) goes on to state that the presence of the electric current (in the polar regions) would produce a force on the solar atmosphere via the Lorentz relation:

Df = I ds x B

that would tend to decelerate the rotation of the Sun in those high latitudes and thus be an explanation of the observed fact that this is indeed the case.

Conclusions:

1. Observed magnetic fields around (and due to) the Sun require the presence of electric currents.

2. The exact locations and paths taken by those currents are not yet clear – but they must exist if the magnetic fields exist (unless we want to deny the validity of Maxwell’s equations).

3. We know now that the aurora displays (plasma glow discharges) that we see both here on Earth and on various other planets are due to electric currents coming from the Sun moving down into the "cusps" (indentations) of the magnetospheres (plasmaspheres) of those bodies. It would not be surprising if the Sun also received electric current from the galaxy via a similar morphology to produce its plasma arc discharges.

4. It has taken establishment astrophysics over a century (after Birkeland first described this mechanism) to recognize its existence. It is premature to deny the possibility of a similar mechanism on the Sun.

5. Juergens’ model implies that the outer surface of the heliosphere is the collector of the necessary current stream from the nearby region of our galaxy. Inside the heliopause (within the "solar wind" plasma) the movement of electrons would consist of a "drift current" moving inward toward the Sun superimposed on a vastly stronger "Brownian (random) motion" and therefore be difficult to measure. For a summary of Juergens’ computation see Appendix C of The Electric Sky.

6. The Electric Sun model is still in its infancy. Whether or not it is correct in each one of its details is not as important as realizing that the phenomena observable at and above the photosphere are indeed highly electrical in nature.

7. Those who demand that ES proponents state exactly how, where, and by what paths electrons get to the Sun seem not to be even more outraged by the claim that invisible "missing matter" exists and is responsible for dozens of otherwise inexplicable observations. Am I the only one to see the irony in that?

1 Alfvén, H. Cosmic Plasma, D. Reidel, 1981, p. 56.

2 Op cit.pp. 53-55.

3 Op cit. p. 56.

Scott goes on to comment about the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Report that further calls the fusion model of stars into question.

More layman's articles on the Electric Stars can be found here:

On The Sun:
 Jul 07, 2009Mar 09, 2005Feb 15, 2008May 26, 2005Oct 13, 2005Sep 23, 2009Oct 09, 2009Jan 27, 2005Oct 31, 2005May 17, 2005Sep 18, 2009Dec 07, 2009 Jun 24, 2009Sep 08, 2009Sep 06, 2005Oct 15, 2004Apr 29, 2009Feb 08, 2008Apr 14, 2006Apr 18, 2006Jul 01, 2009Apr 27, 2005Dec 01, 2005Feb 03, 2010Feb 05, 2010Nov 23, 2005Jan 20, 2006Jan 23, 2006Jan 24, 2006Jan 26, 2006Jun 03, 2009Mar 16, 2010Jan 07, 2005 Adhering to FusionArc Lamp in the SkyA String Theory for the SunComet Neat and CME'sElectric SunspotsHelioPhysicsImpulse ControlMaking Sense of EmptinessPlasma: The other 99.9%Projecting Nuclear Fusion onto the SunRiding the Solar CycleSolar BreezeSolar ElectricitySolar Magnetic Polarity ReversalSolar Power, Internal or External?Solar TornadoesSpace Tornadoes Cause a StirSpicules Complete the CircuitSunspots Still Surprise InvestigatorsSunspot Penumbra Shock AstrophysicistsTales of Brave UlyssesThe Electric Glow of the SunThe Explosion that Shattered Solar TheoryThe Interconnected Sun (1)The Interconnected Sun (2)The Iron SunThe "Iron Sun" Debate (1)The "Iron Sun" Debate (2)The "Iron Sun" Debate (3)The "Iron Sun" Debate (4)The New Solar CycleThe Planck MissionThe Wayward Sun
On Stars:
 Nov 15, 2006Feb 28, 2005Jan 15, 2010Mar 04, 2005Sep 22, 2004Jan 10, 2005Oct 05, 2004Jul 16, 2008Apr 25, 2005Jun 06, 2008Jun 04, 2009Nov 06, 2009Jul 14, 2009Jan 11, 2010Jun 16, 2008Jan 27, 2005Sep 26, 2008Nov 02, 2007Dec 14, 2009Jan 04, 2010May 26, 2008Aug 14, 2009Feb 14, 2008Apr 21, 2008Apr 07, 2008Jul 27, 2004Nov 10, 2006Jul 17, 2009Nov 03, 2004Jan 18, 2010Mar 08, 2005Jun 20, 2005Jun 15, 2005May 27, 2005Sep 20, 2004 A “Doomsday” Stellar FlareA Peek at Star FormationBeetlejuiceElectrical Birthing of StarsElectric StarsElectric Stars in ActionEta CarinaeFrozen in the DarkGetting Serious about SiriusHalf-massed Star"Hot Hot Hot!"How are Stars Born?How Old are the Stars?The Interstellar MediumLittle Star LostMaking Sense of EmptinessMisplaced MavericksNew Stars from Orion's HeadPredictions, Falsifiability and the Standard Model of Stellar EvolutionPresumptive ProplydsSeeing Red GiantsSiriously RedSmall Star with a Large PlanetStar Formation in the Southern PinwheelStellar Dumbbell May Illustrate Electric FissioningStellar NurseriesStellar OuroborosStoking the Star Maker MachinerySupernova RemnantThe Gorgon's HeadThe Smallest StarThe Supernova Nobody SawV838 MonVariable StarsVela Pulsar

NOTICE

Anthony Peratt's site, which hosted many documents, is down for some reason.

If you received an email from me, a copy of that email with working links to Peratt's papers can be found here.

A mirrored archive of Peratt's papers can be found here or here.