Values, morals and ethics

Values, morals and ethics. The Holy Mother -Sri Sarada DeviBhagvad Gita.

What are the differences between values, morals and ethics? They all provide behavioral rules, after all. It may seem like splitting hairs, but the differences can be important when persuading others. 

Values

Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another.

Dictionary.com defines values as:

n : beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something); "he has very conservatives values"

Morals

Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values. We thus judge others more strongly on morals than values. A person can be described as immoral, yet there is no word for them not following values.

Dictionary.com defines morals as:

n : motivation based on ideas of right and wrong

Ethics - You can have professional ethics, but you seldom hear about professional morals. Ethics tend to be codified into a formal system or set of rules which are explicitly adopted by a group of people. Thus you have medical ethics. Ethics are thus internally defined and adopted, whilst morals tend to be externally imposed on other people.

If you accuse someone of being unethical, it is equivalent of calling them unprofessional and may well be taken as a significant insult and perceived more personally than if you called them immoral (which of course they may also not like).

Dictionary.com defines ethics as:

A theory or a system of moral values: “An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain"

The rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession.

Ethics of principled conviction asserts that intent is the most important factor. If you have good principles, then you will act ethically.

Ethics of responsibility challenges this, saying that you must understand the consequences of your decisions and actions and answer to these, not just your high-minded principles. The medical maxim 'do no harm', for example, is based in the outcome-oriented ethics of responsibility.

So what?

Understand the differences between the values, morals and ethics of the other person. If there is conflict between these, then they probably have it hidden from themselves and you may carefully use these as a lever.

Beware of transgressing the other person's morals, as this is particularly how they will judge you.

Talking about professional ethics puts you on a high moral platform and encourages the other person to either join you or look up to you.

Job satisfaction is one of the major interests to the field of organisational behaviour and the practice of HRM. It reflects employees’ attitudes toward their job and commitment to an organisation.

What is job satisfaction? It can be defined as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction is a result of employees’ perception of what organisations provide. The Holy Mother -Sri Sarada DeviBhagvad Gita.

N G Nair, Mining Engineer from Copper Mines in India - Mobile 09425898691
Three dimensions
First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. It cannot be seen, only inferred.

Second, it is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organisational members feel that they are working harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and co-workers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated well and being paid well, they are likely to have a positive attitude towards the job. They will be satisfied.

Third, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Scholars suggest that there are six job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective responses. They are:

• The work itself: The content of the work itself is a major source of satisfaction. This means the extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility. Research made with reference to the job characteristics, and approach to the job design shows that feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two major job-related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingredients of job satisfaction include interesting and challenging work and a job that provides status.

• Compensation: Wages and salaries are significant, but a complex and multidimensional factor in job satisfaction.

Money not only helps people attain their basic needs, but also is instrumental in providing upper level need satisfaction. Employees often consider salary as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organisation. Fringe benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know the benefits they are receiving.

Moreover, most tend to undervalue these benefits because they cannot see their practical value. Research made regarding compensation, indicates that if employees are allowed flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefits plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.

• Career growth: Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take different forms and include a variety of rewards. For example, individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who are promoted based on their performance.

• Supervision: Supervision is another moderately important source of job satisfaction. There are two dimensions of supervisory style that affects job satisfaction. One is employee-centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes personal interest in the welfare of the employees. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. This approach, generally, leads to higher job satisfaction. It is proved that a participative environment created by the supervisor has a more substantial effect on worker’s satisfaction than participation in a specific decision.

• Co-workers: Friendly, co-operative co-workers are a modest source of job satisfaction. The work group serves as a source of support, comfort, advice, and assistance to the individual. A ‘good’ work group makes the job more enjoyable.

On the other hand, if this factor is not considered with care, then it may have reverse effects, meaning thereby, that the people are difficult to get along with. This will have a negative effect on job satisfaction.

• Work environment: Work environment and working conditions are factors that have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If working conditions are good – clean, attractive surroundings- employees find it easier to carry out their job. Most people do not give working conditions a great deal of thought unless they are extremely bad.

But this is crucial because it has a direct effect on job satisfaction. On the contrary, if working conditions are given importance, productivity and accomplishment of objectives are enhanced.In essence, if these six sutras are taken care of then certainly there will be job satisfaction and employees will be more productive and creative. N G Nair Photo November 2009 N G Nair Trivandrum Kerala India  My Photos>Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) cityValues, morals and ethics N G Nair and Yoga Unity in Diversity  About N G Nair from thottakom Vaikom KottayamPooram Photo - Ottapalam Kerala N G Nair from Thottakom Vaikom Old Memories Photo Thottakom Vaikom Ottapalam web links

A Crying Boy. 1955 Photo. N G Nair Kerala travel 2010
Ever since my early childhood days in Vaikom Kottayam Dist. Kerala (where I grew up in a rural village) called thottakom I had been fascinated by the monsoon rains
Born as the son of teacher at Thottakom Vaikom, Kottayam District. Kerala State Mountain ranges in Kerala consisting of the highland area of the Western Ghats‎. हम होगें कामयाब एक दिन (Hum Honge Kamyab Ek Din)
 N G Nair Kerala Travel Thiruvananthapuram. I was born and brought up at the Beautiful Coastal Kerala, but I was fascinated by the mountains of Western Ghats since from my child hooddays. Mountain ranges in Kerala consisting of high land area of Western Ghats. The western Ghats are not true mountains but are the faulted edge of Deccan Plateau. They have believed to have formed about 150 million years ago. The range called Sahyadri Mountains in Maharashtra and Sahya mountains in Kerala. Also see Wayanad District in north east of Kerala. Ponmudi is a hill station in Thiruvananthapuram.N G NairMining Consultant India on Indian Mining Legislation

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