The Russian Empire: Tsars to Gorbachev

from MANTHAN  January -June 1993

edited and published by Devendra Swarup

for Deendayal Research Institute, New Delhi

c. 855 -885 Cyril and Methodius convert Slavic tribes.

988 -- Chtistianity adopted by Vladimir I.

1015 -- Death of Vladimir I.

c. 1147 -- Founding of Moscow.

1252 -1263 -- Reign of Alexander Nevsky in Muscovy.

1325 -- Moscow becomes metropolitan see.

1408 -- Re-etablishment of Tartar rule over Russia.

1453 -- Fall of Constantinople to the Turks.

1462 - 1505 -- Reign of Ivan III the Great.

1471 - 1494 -- Conquest and destruction of Novgorod.

1480 -- Battle of the Oka River: end of Tartar rule.

1485 -- Incorporation of Tver.

1505 - 1553 -- Reign of Basil III.

1510 -- Conquest of Poskov.

1514 -- Conquest of Somlensk.

1533 - 1584 -- Reign of Ivan IV the Terrible.

1558 -- Beginning of Livonian War.

1581 -- Yermark's first expedition into Siberia.

1584 - 1598 -- Reign of Feodor I, last tsar of Rurik family.

1589 -- M oscow becomes a patriarchate.

1598 - 1605 Reign of Boris Godunov.

1605 - 1606 -- Dimitrias Tsar.

1606 - 1610 -- Reign of Basil IV Shuisky.

1611 - 1612 -- The Poles in Moscow.

1613 -- Election of Romanov family to the throne.

1613 - 1645 -- Reign of Michael I. First Tsar of Romanov Dynasty.

1618 -- Russians reach Upper Yenisei River in Siberia.

1632 -- Russians reach Lena River in Siberia.

1637 -- A "Siberian Department" established in Moscow.

1645 -- Russians reach Pacific Coast of Siberia.

 1645 - 1676 -- Reign of Alexis I.

1676 - 1682 -- Reign of Feodor II.

1682 -1725 -- Reign of Peter I the Great.

1662 - 1689 -- Regency of Sophia.

1689 -- Russo-Chinese Treaty of Treaty of Nerchinsk.

1689 -- Peter seizes government.

1696 -- Capture of Azov.

1697 -- Kamchatka reached by Russian explorers.

1703 -- Founding of St Petersburg.

1710 - 1711 -- Russo Turkish War: loss of Azov.

1713 -- St. Petersburg becomes capital of Russia.

1722 - 1723 -- War against Persia.

1725 - 1727 -- Reign of Catherine I.

1727 -- Russo-Chinese Treaty of Kyakhta.

1727 -1730 -- Reign of Peter II

1730 - 1740 -- Reign of Anna I

1737 -- Charting of northern Siberian coast line.

1738 - 1739 -- War with Turkey.

1739 -- Treaty of Belgrade: coast on Black Sea gained.

1741 -- Discovery of Bering Strait.

1743 -- Peace of Abo: Sweden cedes Viborg.

1757 - 1762 -- Russian participation in Seven Years War.

1762 - 1796 -- Reign of Catherine II the Great.

1768 -- Outbreak of War with Turkey.

1774 -- Treaty of Kuchuk Kainardji.

1783 -- Annexation of Crimea.

1787 - 1790 -- Russo-Turkish War: campaigns of Suvorov.

1792 -- Treaty of Jassy.

1796 -- Odessa founded.

1796 - 1801 -- Reign of Paul I.

1801 -- Russian suzerainty formally rocognised by Georgia.

1801 - 1825 -- Reign of Alexander I.

1812 -- Peace with Turkey at Bucharest:acquisition of Bessarabia.

1813 -- Persia cedes Baku: incorporation of Georgia.

1825 - 1855 -- Reign of Nicolas I.

1826 - 1828 -- War against Persia: expansion in Caucasus region.

1828 -- Outbreak of war with Turkey.

1829 -- Peace at Adrianople.

1833 -- Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi.

1853 -- Occupation of Sakhalin and Korea.

1854 - 1856 -- Crimean War.

1855 - 1881 -- Reign of Alexander II.

1856 -- Peace of Paris.

1860 -- Founding of Vladivostok: Treaty of Peking.

1863 - 1864 -- Revolt in Poland.

1865 -- Capture of Tashkent.

1867 -- Sale of Alaska to United States.

1868 -- Capture of Samarkand.

1870 -- Abrogation of Black Sea clauses of Treaty of Paris.

1873 -- Conquest of Khiva.

1875 -- Southern Sakhalin ceded to Japan: western Kurils.

1876 -- Annexation of Kokand.

1881 -1894 -- Reign of Alexander III.

1884 -- Merv taken.

1891 - 1903 -- Trans-Siberian railroad constructed.

1896 -- Treaty with China for Trans-Siberian railroad in Manchuria.

1898 -- Port Arthur leased.

1904 - 1905 -- Russo-Japanese War, and defeat of Russia.

1914 - 1918 -- World War I.

1917 -- Bolshevik October Revolution.

1920 - 1921 -- War against Poland.

1921 -- Peace of Riga: cessation of White Russian to Poland.

1939 -- Non-agression pact with Germany.

------ Outbreak of World War II.

------ Annexation of eastern Poland.

------ Expulsion of USSR from League of Nations.

1939 - 1940 -- War against Finland.

1940 -- Incorporation of three Baltic republics into USSR.

1945 -- Berlin taken, end of the Second World War.

------ Establishment of Communist government in Albania.

1946 -- Establishment of Communist government in Bulgaria.

------ Establishment of Communist government in Poland.

1948 -- Establishment of Communist government in Romania.

------ Establishment of Communist government in Czechoslavakia.

------ Yugoslavia breaks away from Communist block.

1949 -- Partition of Germany.

------ Communists capture power in China.

------ Partition of Korea.

------ Communist regime in North Korea.

------ Soviet Union becomes Nuclear power.

------ Birth of NATO.

1950 -- The Korean War.

1952 -- USA explodes hydrogen bomb.

1953 -- Stalin dies. Khrushchev becomes First Secretary of the CPSU.

1955 -- Birth of Warsaw Pact.

1956 -- Revolt in Hungary against Communism.

------ Twentieth CPSU Congress. Khruschev exposes Stalin.

1964 -- Khrushchev "resigned." Brezhnev at the helm of affairs.

1968 -- Anti Communist popular revolt in Czechoslavakia, invasion by the Soviet army and the revolt crushed.

1977 -- New Constitution adopted in the USSR.

1979 -- Afganistan invaded by the Soviet armed forces, puppet government headed by Noor Mohammad Taraki formed.

1985 -- Gorbachev takes over as the General Secretary of the CPSU, the process of loosening of the empire begins.

1987 -- Downfall of Janos Kadar, Hungary's leader since 1956.

1988 -- Soviet forces withdraw from Afganistan facing total defeat.

1989 -- Berlin wall demolished (9 - 10 Nov).

------ In Poland first non-communist government formed.

------ In Czechoslavakia President Gustav Husak made to resign.

------ In Bulgaria thirty five year old government of Todar Zhivkov ends.

------ East Germany opens up its borders with Hungary, around one hundred thousand people flee to West via Hungary.

------ In Romania Ceausescu's twenty four year old Communist government is overthrown in a mighty revolution killing him and his wife.

------ East German Parliament votes to end the Communist monopoly of power.

1990 -- First all German elections are held after unification.

1991 -- The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disintegrates.

------ The three Baltic Republics declare independence from the USSR.

------ Disintegration of the USSR formalised at Alma Ata (23 December )