Basic Science Studies 

Cook County Electrical Trauma Study Group


Basic Science Studies 

Basic Science Studies

 

An understanding of the effects of electric and magnetic fields on cells and tissues is of fundamental importance.  

We have examined the effects of electric fields of different strengths on the expression of certain parts of the intracellular signaling (protein kinase C and MAPKs) cascade and on the expression of certain gene products (MDR1 mRNA).

More recently, we have developed a large animal model for studying electrical injury as produced by a unipolar defibrillator.  We have used this model to perform pilot studies examining the potential for poloxamer to reverse these injuries.

 

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Our electric field studies were performed in the late 1990s and were published at that time.

Our electrical injury model and injury reversal studies are in progress and have been reported in preliminary form as posters at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) meeting in Washington, DC in late May 2008.

As part of these studies, we:

  • performed detailed characterization of the physiological and structural effects of repeated defibrillator discharges on the hindlimb of anesthetized swine and
  • started to evaluate the possible reparative effects of poloxamer (P188) on the injuries produced using this model

 

We have given several invited presentations on these studies as well as poster and platform presentations at national and international professional meetings and have published a number of abstracts and full research papers.  These presentations and publications are listed below.  Links to abstracts, PowerPoint presentations, poster displays, full publications, and video clips are included:

 

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Published Abstracts and Presentations (presenters highlighted)

 

1.      Holian, O., R.D. Astumian, R.C. Lee, H.M. Reyes, B.M. Attar, and R.J. Walter1994.  Effects of weak 60 Hz electric fields on signal transduction kinases.  Molec. Biol. Cell (supplement) 5:152a.  

 

2.    Walter, R.J., R.D. Astumian, R.C. Lee, H.M. Reyes, B.M. Attar, and O. Holian1994.  Weak 60 Hz AC fields alter protein kinase activities.  Trans. Soc. Phys. Regul. Biol. Med.  15:9.

 

3.    Walter, R.J. and O. Holian1995.  Cell surface signalling through protein kinase C and the ras cascade.  Trans. Soc. Phys. Regul. Biol. Med.  15:6.

 

4.    Walter, R.J. and O. Holian1996.  60 Hz electric fields inhibit protein kinase C activity and multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) up-regulation.  Trans. Soc. Phys. Regul. Biol. Med.  16:19.

 

5.    Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, R. C. Lee, K. Nagy, A.J. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2008.  Electrical injury and defibrillation in swine.  Soc. Acad. Emerg. Med. (SAEM), Washington, DC, Acad. Emerg. Med.  15:S160-S161.  [POSTER]


6.    Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, R. C. Lee, K. Nagy, A.J. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2008.  Reversal of defibrillator injury by poloxamer.  Soc. Acad. Emerg. Med. (SAEM), Washington, DC, Acad. Emerg. Med.  15:S157.  [POSTER]

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Full Papers - Published and in Press

1.      Holian, O., R.D. Astumian, R.C. Lee, H.M. Reyes, B.M. Attar, and R.J. Walter1996.  Protein kinase C activity is altered in HL60 cells exposed to 60 Hz electric fields.  Bioelectromagnetics 17:504-509.  [PDF]

 

2.    Walter, R.J., A.A. Shtil, I.B. Roninson, and O. Holian1997.  60 Hz fields inhibit protein kinase C activity and multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) up-regulation.  Radiation Res.  147:369-375.

 

3.   Walter, R.J., A.A. Shtil, I.B. Roninson, H.M. Reyes, and O. Holian1997.  Effects of 60 Hz fields on protein kinase C activity and multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) expression.  Current Surg.  54:366-370.



 

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Full Papers - In Preparation

1.      Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, R. C. Lee, A.J. Dennis, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  Reversal of defibrillator injury by poloxamer in swine (in preparation).     

 

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 If you would like copies of any of the articles or abstracts listed above, please contact us.


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Our Research Group

Robert J. Walter, PhD [CV2008] is the Research Director for the Cook County Trauma Unit at Stroger Hospital of Cook County and is on the faculty at Rush University Medical Center.  His general field of expertise is traumatic injury and burns with emphasis on the physiology and cell biology of wound healing and electric field effects.  He leads laboratory-based and animal-related studies of stun devices. 

Andrew J. Dennis, DO is an Attending Surgeon in the Cook County Trauma Unit at Stroger Hospital of Cook County and is on the faculty at Rush University Medical Center.  He has worked as a paramedic, firefighter, and police officer and is currently Team Surgeon for the Northern Illinois Police Alarm System, Emergency Service Team (NIPAS EST) with the Des Plaines IL Police Department.  He also serves as a consultant to the Chicago Police Department and other local and federal law enforcement agencies.  He has extensive experience in trauma, burns, and critical care and leads clinical studies of stun device effects.

 

Daniel J. Valentino, MD is a Resident in the General Surgery Residency Program at Rush University and Stroger Cook County Hospital.  He has completed a two year research Fellowship in the Cook County Trauma Unit during which time his work focused on stun device effects.

 

Kimberly Nagy, MD is the the Chief of Research and Education and the Vice-Chairman of the Department of Trauma.  She is also Professor of General Surgery at Rush University and a practicing full-time trauma surgeon.

 

Faran Bokhari, MD is the Chief of Pre-Hospital care and Resuscitation in the Dept of Trauma. He is a full-time practicing trauma surgeon and intensivist with a strong interest in the development of scientifically based trauma/critical care clinical management guidelines and in the establishment and maintenance of Trauma systems.

 

Dorion Wiley, MD   

Kimberly Joseph, MD   

Roxanne Roberts, MD

Frederic Starr, MD 

Bosko Margeta, MD   

 
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DISCLOSURES

 

FOR Defibrillator PROJECTS:

 

We thank Avocet Polymer Technologies for their support.

 

 

FOR Poloxamer PROJECTS:

 

We thank Maroon Biotechnologies, Chicago, IL for their support.

 

 

None of the investigators have any financial interest in any of the products mentioned or used in these studies. 

 

 

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Questions or comments?  Contact:  cookcountytrauma AT gmail.com
 

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The one who says it cannot be done should never interrupt the one who is doing.

---Anonymous