Cook County Electrical Trauma Study Group


About Our Group and Our Studies 

 

If you are interested in our paper published in the Journal of Trauma, December, 2008 see below or click HERE.

The Importance of Electrical Phenomena to Living Organisms

 

Electricity and electrical charge are of fundamental biological importance.  In particular, a sentinel physicochemical property of water and of most biomolecules placed into water is the propensity to dissociate into charged ions......[more] 

 

For more information about our basic science studies on electrical field effects and electrical injury see...[Basic Science Studies]

 

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As part of our interest in electrical phenomena and electrical injuries, we have been studying stun devices and their effects since January 2005.

These studies include: 

  • detailed characterization of the physiological effects of MK63 stun baton discharges in swine
 
  • detailed characterization of the physiological effects of TASER X26 discharges in swine with emphasis on real-time cardiac effects

  • observation and clinical testing of individuals exposed to TASER discharges in the course of restraint by law enforcement officers (Chicago Police Department)
 
  • characterization of the electrical output of TASER X26 devices that are in active use by law enforcement 

 

We have given a variety of invited presentations as well as poster and platform presentations at national and international professional meetings.  We have also written and published a number of abstracts and full research papers in prominent, refereed biomedical journals.  These presentations and publications are listed below.  Links to abstracts, PowerPoint presentations, poster displays, full publications, and video clips are included for most of these:

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Invited Presentations (presenter highlighted)

1.      Walter, R.J., M.M. Loor, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, K. Joseph, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  "Physiological effects of EMI discharge (MK63)".  Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS) Satellite Meeting, Dublin, Ireland.  June 15, 2005.  

 

2.   Walter, R.J., D. Valentino, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, and D. Wiley.  "Physiological effects of EMI discharge (MK63)".  Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS) Winter Workshop, Phoenix, AZ.  Feb 3, 2006.  

 

3.      Walter, R.J., D. Valentino, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, and D. Wiley.  "Pulsed electrical devices as non-lethal control weapons".  American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Electric Forces in Biology and Medicine, St. Louis, MO.  February 18, 2006.  [ABSTRACT] [PROGRAM]

 

4.      Walter, R.J., D. Valentino, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  "EMI studies in animal models (MK63)".  Aegis Workshop on Stun Device Injury and Lethality, Boston, MA.  March 23, 2006.  [PROGRAM]

 

5.      Walter, R.J., D. Valentino, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  "Physiological effects of MK63 discharges in swine".  Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS) MiniSymposium, Scientific Issues in Nonlethal Interventions, Cancun, Mexico.  June 11, 2006.  [ANNOUNCEMENT] [PROGRAM]

 

6.      Valentino, D., R.J. Walter, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  Repeated thoracic discharges from a stun device (MK63).  Chicago Committee on Trauma, Annual Resident Research Competition,  Chicago, IL.  July 8, 2006.  First Place, Basic Research  [EXTENDED ABSTRACT]

 

7.      Valentino, D., R.J. Walter, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  Repeated thoracic discharges from a stun device (MK63).  14th Annual Trauma Surg. Care Symp., Indianapolis, IN.  November 3, 2006.  [EXTENDED ABSTRACT]

 

8.      Valentino, D.J., A.J. Dennis, R.J. Walter, K.K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, and R.R. Roberts. Acute effects of TASER® discharges. Soc. Black Acad. Surg., Chicago, IL.  April, 2007.  [PROGRAM] [ABSTRACT]

 

9.    Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, A.J. Dennis, A.J., K.K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, and R.R. Roberts. Acute effects of TASER® discharges. Illinois Surgical Society,  Chicago, IL.  May 8, 2007.  [SLIDE PRESENTATION]

 

10.   Dennis, A.J.  "Less Lethal Weapons, What Every Medical Provider Should Know", Enlightening Trends in Trauma Symposium, St. Frances Hospital and Northern Illinois Public Safety Training Academy, June 2, 2005.

 

11.  Dennis, A.J.  "Emerging Research in Stun Devices and Less Lethal Munitions", Grand Rounds, Midwestern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, St. James Hospital, Olympia Fields, IL, July 2005. 

 

12.  Dennis, A.J.  "Less Lethal Weapons, Lessons for the Medical Providers", Trauma Symposium at Alexian Brothers Hospital.  Elk Grove Village, IL, March 4, 2006.

 

13.  Dennis, A.J.  "Tactical Medicine for Pre-Hospital and Hospital Providers, Understanding Risks of Less Lethal Munitions and Stun Devices", Advocate Trauma Symposium, Oak Brook, IL, May 2006. 

 

14.  Dennis, A.J.  "Less Lethal Munitions, Lessons for Medical Providers", Trauma Symposium of St. James Medical Center, Olympia Fields, IL, April 2006. 

 

15.  Dennis, A.J.  "TASER X26 Research Update", Illinois Tactical Officers Association, Tactical EMS Conference, Tinley Park IL, May 2006 and 2007. 

 

16.  Dennis, A.J.  "TASER X26 Risks and Utility", Northern Illinois Police Alarm System Emergency Service Team Updates, Buffalo Grove Police Department, March 2007. 

 

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Published Abstracts and Presentations (presenters highlighted)

1.      Valentino, D., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, K. Nagy, M.M. Loor, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, A. Merchant, A. Mehta, and R. Roberts.  2007.  Acute Effects of Stun Device Discharges.  Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Annual Meeting, Sanibel, FL, J. Trauma 56:1570.  [ABSTRACT] [POSTER] (MK63 stun baton)

 

2.      Dennis, A.J., D.J. Valentino, R.J. Walter, K.K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, and R.R. Roberts.  2007.  Acute effects of TASER® discharges. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Annual Meeting, Sanibel, FL, J. Trauma 56:1566.  [ABSTRACT]

 

3.      Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, K.K. Nagy, M.M. Loor, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, A. Merchant, and R.R. Roberts.  Neuromuscular effects of stun device discharges.  Assoc. Acad. Surg., Phoenix, AZ.  February 6-9, 2007.  J. Surg. Res.  137:344. [ABSTRACT] [POSTER] (MK63 stun baton)

 

4.     Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, B. Margeta, K.K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, K. Joseph, and R.R. Roberts.  2007.  TASER® discharges capture cardiac rhythm in a swine model.  Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.  May 15-19, 2007.  Acad. Emerg. Med.  14:S104.   [ABSTRACT] [SUMMARY] [POSTER PDF]

 

5.     Valentino,D., R.J. Walter, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2007.  Repeated thoracic discharges from a stun device.  Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.  May 15-19, 2007.  Acad. Emerg. Med.  14:S140.  [ABSTRACT] [SUMMARY] [POSTER PDF] (MK63 stun baton)

 

6.   Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, B. Margeta, F. Starr, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R.R. Roberts.  TASER® X26 discharges in swine:  Cardiac rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector.  Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST), Annual Meeting, Amelia Island, FL, January 18, 2008; Journal of Trauma  63:1427, 2007.  [ABSTRACT]

 

7.     Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, A.J. Dennis, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K. Joseph, A. Merchant, and R. Roberts.  2008.  Effects of MK63 stun device discharges on neuromuscular structure and function.  Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.  May 29-June 1, 2008.  Acad. Emerg. Med.  15:S157-S223.  [ABSTRACT] [SUMMARY] [SAEM 2008 Poster]

 

8.  Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, B. Margeta, F. Starr, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2008.  TASER X26 discharges in swine:  Cardiac rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector.  Eastern Assoc. for Trauma (EAST) Annual Meeting, Amelia Island, FL.  January 15-19, 2008.  Journal of Trauma 63:1427.  [Link to J Trauma abstracts]  [ABSTRACT]

 


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Full Papers - Published and in Press

1.      Valentino, D., R.J. Walter, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2007.  Repeated thoracic discharges from a stun device.  J. Trauma 62:1134-1142.  [ABSTRACT & PDF] (MK63 stun baton)


2.      Dennis, A.J., D.J. Valentino, R.J. Walter, K.K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R.R. Roberts.  2007.  Acute effects of TASER® X26 discharges in a swine model.  J. Trauma 63:581-590. [Taser open chest video]  [Taser video description] [ABSTRACT & PDF] [Taser Open Heart YouTube video] TASER THORACOTOMY VIDEO CLIP

 

3.      Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, K.K. Nagy, M.M. Loor, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, A. Merchant, and R.R. Roberts. 2007.  Neuromuscular effects of stun device discharges.  J. Surg. Res. 143:78-87. [PDF] [PUBMED] (MK63 stun baton)

 

4.     Valentino, D., R.J. Walter, A. Dennis, K. Nagy, M.M. Loor, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, A. Merchant, K. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2008.  Acute effects of stun device discharges in miniature swine.  Milit. Med. 173:167-173.  [PUBMED]  [PDF(MK63 stun baton)      


5.     Walter, R.J., Dennis, A.J., D.J. Valentino, B. Margeta, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R.R. Roberts.  2008.  TASER® X26 discharges in swine produce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.  Acad. Emerg. Med. 15:66-73.  [ONLINE EARLY] [ECHO VIDEO CLIP] [ECHO DESCRIPTION] [ABST&PDF]


6.    Walter, R.J. and A.J. Dennis.  Correspondence Reply to:  Sensitive swine and TASER electronic control devices by M.W. Kroll, H. Calkins, R.M. Luceri, M.A. Graham, and W.G. Heegaard.  Acad. Emerg. Med. OnLineEarly, doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00143.x  [OnLineEarly] [TASER letter re:AEM article] [Author reply to TASER letter] 

 

 

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Other Reports Related to our Studies

1.      Savard, P., A.J. Dennis, and R.J. Walter.  Analysis of the quality and safety of the TASER X26 devices test for Radio-Canada/ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation by National Technical Systems, Test Report 41196-08.SRC.  [PDF]

[CBC documentary aired Dec 5, 2008 - YouTube

[Other CBC related links on YouTube]

[CBC documentary part 1 of 3]

[CBC documentary part 2 of 3]


 

 

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TASER studies (phases I, II, III)

 

Ventricular Capture and Fibrillation Summary

 


 

Published

Presented

Total N

Exptl N

Weight

Mass

Cardiac Capture

VF

Shocks

 

 

Ctrl + Exptl animals

Number of exptl animals

 

 

During Shock

 

Post-Shock

Delay

 

TASER

 I

JOT Sept

2007

11

6

48-101 lbs

22-46 kg

Seen in all animals

1 fatal

(29 kg)

VT

2-3 min,

then VF

40 sec X2

 

EAST

Jan 2007

 

2 CTs used for thoracotomy

68 lbs

101 lbs

31 kg

 46 kg

Y

Y

1 fatal

1 non-fatal

Immediate

40 sec X2

TASER

 II

AEM Jan

2008

8

6

48-156 lbs

22-71 kg

Seen in all animals

1 fatal

(28 kg)

Immediate

40 sec X2

 

SAEM

May

2007

 

2 re-used for thoracotomy

128 lbs

156 lbs

58 kg

71 kg

Y

Y

No VF

 

40 sec X2

TASER III

JOT, Dec 2008

4

4

55-79 lbs

25-36 kg

Seen with

2

 

67 total

 

EAST

Jan08

 

 

 

 

Trans-cardiac vectors

1 fatal VF

1 defib VF

 

10 sec each

 

 

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Full Papers - In Preparation

1.      Walter, R.J., D.J. Valentino, R. C. Lee, A.J. Dennis, J. Winners, K. Nagy, A. Dennis, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, and R. Roberts.  Reversal of defibrillator injury by poloxamer in swine (in preparation).

 

2.      Walter, R.J., Dennis, A.J., D.J. Valentino, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D.E. Wiley, K.T. Joseph, and R.R. Roberts.  Physiological effects of stun device discharges:  A review.  (in preparation).

 

3.  Savard, P., A.J. Dennis, and R.J. Walter.  Analysis of the quality and safety of active-duty police TASER X26 devices.  (in preparation).

 

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 If you would like copies of any of the articles or abstracts listed above, please contact us.


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Current Projects and Funding 

 

Chicago Regional TASER® Exposure Study

       -- Internally funded by the Cook County Trauma Unit

       -- National Institute of Justice

 

TASER® effects in the presence of cocaine or methamphetamine in swine

        -- Internally funded by the Cook County Trauma Unit

 

 

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Our Research Group

Robert J. Walter, PhD [CV2008] is the consulting Research Director for the Cook County Trauma Unit at Stroger Hospital of Cook County and is on the faculty at Rush University Medical Center.  His general field of expertise is traumatic injury and burns with emphasis on the physiology and cell biology of wound healing and electric field effects.  He leads laboratory-based and animal-related studies of stun devices. 

Andrew J. Dennis, DO is an Attending Surgeon in the Cook County Trauma Unit at Stroger Hospital of Cook County and is on the faculty at Rush University Medical Center.  He has worked as a paramedic, firefighter, and police officer and is currently Team Surgeon for the Northern Illinois Police Alarm System, Emergency Service Team (NIPAS EST) with the Des Plaines IL Police Department.  He also serves as a consultant to the Chicago Police Department and other local and federal law enforcement agencies.  He has extensive experience in trauma, burns, and critical care and leads clinical studies of stun device effects.

 

Daniel J. Valentino, MD is a Resident in the General Surgery Residency Program at Rush University and Stroger Cook County Hospital.  He has completed a two year research Fellowship in the Cook County Trauma Unit during which time his work focused on stun device effects.

 

Kimberly Nagy, MD is the the Chief of Research and Education and the Vice-Chairman of the Department of Trauma.  She is also Professor of General Surgery at Rush University and a practicing full-time trauma surgeon.

 

Faran Bokhari, MD is the Chief of Pre-Hospital care and Resuscitation in the Dept of Trauma. He is a full-time practicing trauma surgeon and intensivist with a strong interest in the development of scientifically based trauma/critical care clinical management guidelines and in the establishment and maintenance of Trauma systems.


Dorion Wiley, MD, Kimberly Joseph, MD, Roxanne Roberts, MD, and Frederic Starr, MD are Attending Physicians in the Department of Trauma at the John Stroger Hospital of Cook County and Professors at Rush University.


Bosko Margeta, MD is a Staff Physician in the Department of Medicine at the John Stroger Hospital of Cook County and Assistant Professor at Rush University.  He is a full-time practicing Cardiologist with quadruple board certification.

 
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DISCLOSURES

 

FOR MK63 STUN BATON PROJECTS

 

We thank Avocet Polymer Technologies for sponsoring the MK63 stun baton projects.

 

 

FOR ALL TASER® X26 ANIMAL PROJECTS

 

We thank the Des Plaines, IL Police Department and the Northern Illinois Police Alarm

 

System Emergency Services team (NIPAS EST) for logistic support of these projects.  

 

No outside funds were used to support these projects.

 

 

FOR TASER® X26 OUTPUT STUDY


We thank the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for their support of this study and


National Technical Systems for expert assistance.

 

 

None of the CCH Trauma Unit investigators have any financial interest in any stun device manufacturer. 

 

 

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Questions or comments?  Contact:  cookcountytrauma AT gmail.com
 

  counter create hit

 

 A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.  So is a lot.  ---Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

  

7.   Valentino, D.J., R.J. Walter, A.J. Dennis, B. Margeta, F. Starr, K.K. Nagy, F. Bokhari, D. Wiley, K. Joseph, and R. Roberts.  2008.  TASER® X26 discharges in swine:  Ventricular rhythm capture is dependent on discharge vector.  Journal of Trauma 65:1478-1487.  [ABSTRACT@ J Trauma]  [Supplemental video @ J Trauma]  [Echo video WMV format, 7MB]  [Echo video MPG format, 6MB]  [Video description, PDF]  [Table1detailed.pdf]