- The history of computing hardware is the record of the constant drive to
make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and store more data.
- A file format that provides an electronic image of text or text and graphics
that looks like a printed document and can be viewed, printed, and
- Portable Document Format (PDF) is an open standard for document exchange.
The file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 is used for representing
two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software,
hardware, and operating system.Adobe Systems Incorporated, , p. 33.
- Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by
the PDF gene.
- Portable Document Format (uncountable) A standard for representing
electronic documents, allowing them to be transmitted and reproduced accurately.
history pdf - Computer: A
Computer: A History Of The Information Machine, Second Edition (Sloan
Computer: A History of the Information Machine,
Second Edition traces the story of the computer, and shows how business and
government were the first to explore its unlimited, information-processing
potential. Old-fashioned entrepreneurship combined with scientific know-how
inspired now famous computer engineers to create the technology that became IBM.
Wartime needs drove the giant ENIAC, the first fully electronic computer. Later,
the PC enabled modes of computing that liberated people from room-sized,
mainframe computers. This second edition now extends beyond the development of
Microsoft Windows and the Internet, to include open source operating systems
like Linux, and the rise again and fall and potential rise of the dot.com
This history of the computer explores the roots of the
industry's phenomenal development, tracing not only the development of the
machine itself--beginning with Charles Babbage's well-known 1883 mechanical
prototype--but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales
innovations by such companies as Remington and National Cash Register that made
the boom possible. The authors recount the transition from slow mechanical
computers to the vacuum-tubed electronic computers, ENIAC and EDVAC, pioneered
by a team led by mathematician John von Neumann during World War II. Later
innovations made the computer a mass-market item, and now, the authors suggest,
freedom of access to the technology is constrained only by the imperative of
computer companies to make money.
Thos. J. Stowers
Thos. J. Stowers Dec. 3, 1848 July 25, 1933
Enlisted Sept 3, 1864 Private Co. D 199 Regiment Served in 7th Cavalry after
Civil War. Was sole survivor of Gen. Custers Massacre June 25, 1876
———————————————————————————————————————— The Truth about Thomas J. Stowers –
or Part of It By Jill Thomas, Herald-Citizen Newspaper, Cookeville, TN
November 7, 2004 Was Thomas J. Stowers of Baxter really the 'only survivor' of
the Battle of the Little Bighorn — 'Custer's Last Stand'? According to the
notation on his tombstone in the Odd Fellows' Cemetery off Buffalo Valley Road,
just east of Baxter, he is. But the old soldier's great-great-nephew, Ron
Whitehead of Baxter, laughs and says: "Well, Uncle Tom wasn't above stretching
the truth." A 30-year-old newspaper article from the Herald-Citizen quotes
Stowers' niece, Emily Watts, as saying that each year at Christmas time Stowers
would retell the story. A more recent article in the H-C, published this past
Sept. 5th, recounts the Stowers legend which some apparently accept as fact. The
tombstone, placed in Odd Fellows Cemetery at the time of Stowers' death in 1933,
briefly reports that story and has apparently been the basis of most of the
mythology surrounding the man who did in fact serve in both the Civil War and
the Sioux Wars later in the 19th century. But Ron Whitehead has been digging
into the story, researching his great-great-uncle's history — and indeed finding
some surprises. "The true story about Uncle Tom is better than the ones that
were made up," he said. Thomas James Stowers and his older brother, John Turner
Stowers, were born in Baxter or that area in the 1840s. When the Civil War
started, John joined the Confederate Army but Tom was only 13. In 1864, though,
Tom couldn't wait any more and the 15-year-old went to join his brother. But
according to Whitehead, northern soldiers captured Stowers and inducted him into
the Union Army. "The records say he enlisted in Morristown, Penn. "Pennsylvania!
There's no way he was ever in Pennsylvania when he was that young," Whitehead
said. "I think the story of forced conscription is still one to be written. You
might say it has been a 140-year government cover up," he said. At any rate, the
younger Stowers as a Union soldier found himself between a rock and a very hard
place because his brother was somewhere fighting as a soldier on the Southern
side. "My great-grandmother said that Uncle Tom said he never fired at the enemy
during the war because he was afraid he'd be firing on his brother. He'd shoot
above their heads or into the earth," Whitehead said. Apparently this ploy
didn't impress Tom's brother who had lost a leg at the Battle of Atlanta. And
the fact that Thomas Stowers was present at Appomattox as part of the Union Army
when Lee surrendered did nothing to close the rift between the two brothers.
According to family members, the two never made up, and records indicate that
big brother John moved to Nashville after the war. Little brother Tom is reputed
to have stayed with his sister in Baxter for a while, but was apparently
'encouraged' to leave Putnam County by Southern sympathizers displeased that he
had fought with the Yankees. "According to Mary Jean DeLozier, author of the
history, Putnam County, Tennessee — 1850-1870, the hostility of neighbors
and family caused Uncle Tom to reenlist in the United States Army," Whitehead
said. But where he spent his time between 1865 and 1874, when he wasn't being
thrown out of Baxter, is one of the continuing mysteries about Thomas Stowers'
life. "There's an ongoing thread through my uncle's life relating to
Pennsylvania. He fought in the Civil War as a private with Company D in the
199th Pennsylvania Regiment. It may be that the men he fought with became his
friends and he went up north to see them when he had to leave Baxter," Whitehead
said. But records show that Stowers was in Chicago when he reenlisted using a
new name, James Thomas, and giving his place of birth as Bucks County, Pa. "A
lot of men changed their names when they enlisted," Whitehead said. "Usually it
was to get away from family members or creditors." Custer's Last Stand
So, in 1874, Thomas Stowers, aka: James Thomas, rode out to Ft. Lincoln,
Nebraska, to serve under the authority of Gen. George Armstrong Custer who had
been making his reputation as an Indian fighter. On June 25, 1876, with Capt.
Frederick W. Benteen and Major Marcus A. Reno and their troops, Custer headed
into the plains of Montana to round up some Sioux and Cheyenne to put them on
reservations. Depending on which source you read, before the battle Stowers: *
Was drunk, was tossed in a wagon to dry out and was still there when the
soldiers left the next day for the Little Big Horn; * Hid under a big iron
cooking pot and was overlooked by the Indians; * Pulled his horse out of lin
see History in its true colours
Every day, we use our computers to perform
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