Computer History Pdf

    computer history
  • The history of computing hardware is the record of the constant drive to make computer hardware faster, cheaper, and store more data.
  • A file format that provides an electronic image of text or text and graphics that looks like a printed document and can be viewed, printed, and electronically transmitted
  • Portable Document Format (PDF) is an open standard for document exchange. The file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system.Adobe Systems Incorporated, , p. 33.
  • Peptide deformylase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDF gene.
  • Portable Document Format (uncountable) A standard for representing electronic documents, allowing them to be transmitted and reproduced accurately.
computer history pdf
computer history pdf - Computer: A
Computer: A History Of The Information Machine, Second Edition (Sloan Technology)
Computer: A History Of The Information Machine, Second Edition (Sloan Technology)
Computer: A History of the Information Machine, Second Edition traces the story of the computer, and shows how business and government were the first to explore its unlimited, information-processing potential. Old-fashioned entrepreneurship combined with scientific know-how inspired now famous computer engineers to create the technology that became IBM. Wartime needs drove the giant ENIAC, the first fully electronic computer. Later, the PC enabled modes of computing that liberated people from room-sized, mainframe computers. This second edition now extends beyond the development of Microsoft Windows and the Internet, to include open source operating systems like Linux, and the rise again and fall and potential rise of the industries.

This history of the computer explores the roots of the industry's phenomenal development, tracing not only the development of the machine itself--beginning with Charles Babbage's well-known 1883 mechanical prototype--but also chronicling the effects of manufacturing and sales innovations by such companies as Remington and National Cash Register that made the boom possible. The authors recount the transition from slow mechanical computers to the vacuum-tubed electronic computers, ENIAC and EDVAC, pioneered by a team led by mathematician John von Neumann during World War II. Later innovations made the computer a mass-market item, and now, the authors suggest, freedom of access to the technology is constrained only by the imperative of computer companies to make money.

Thos. J. Stowers
Thos. J. Stowers
Thos. J. Stowers Dec. 3, 1848 July 25, 1933 Enlisted Sept 3, 1864 Private Co. D 199 Regiment Served in 7th Cavalry after Civil War. Was sole survivor of Gen. Custers Massacre June 25, 1876 ———————————————————————————————————————— The Truth about Thomas J. Stowers – or Part of It By Jill Thomas, Herald-Citizen Newspaper, Cookeville, TN November 7, 2004 Was Thomas J. Stowers of Baxter really the 'only survivor' of the Battle of the Little Bighorn — 'Custer's Last Stand'? According to the notation on his tombstone in the Odd Fellows' Cemetery off Buffalo Valley Road, just east of Baxter, he is. But the old soldier's great-great-nephew, Ron Whitehead of Baxter, laughs and says: "Well, Uncle Tom wasn't above stretching the truth." A 30-year-old newspaper article from the Herald-Citizen quotes Stowers' niece, Emily Watts, as saying that each year at Christmas time Stowers would retell the story. A more recent article in the H-C, published this past Sept. 5th, recounts the Stowers legend which some apparently accept as fact. The tombstone, placed in Odd Fellows Cemetery at the time of Stowers' death in 1933, briefly reports that story and has apparently been the basis of most of the mythology surrounding the man who did in fact serve in both the Civil War and the Sioux Wars later in the 19th century. But Ron Whitehead has been digging into the story, researching his great-great-uncle's history — and indeed finding some surprises. "The true story about Uncle Tom is better than the ones that were made up," he said. Thomas James Stowers and his older brother, John Turner Stowers, were born in Baxter or that area in the 1840s. When the Civil War started, John joined the Confederate Army but Tom was only 13. In 1864, though, Tom couldn't wait any more and the 15-year-old went to join his brother. But according to Whitehead, northern soldiers captured Stowers and inducted him into the Union Army. "The records say he enlisted in Morristown, Penn. "Pennsylvania! There's no way he was ever in Pennsylvania when he was that young," Whitehead said. "I think the story of forced conscription is still one to be written. You might say it has been a 140-year government cover up," he said. At any rate, the younger Stowers as a Union soldier found himself between a rock and a very hard place because his brother was somewhere fighting as a soldier on the Southern side. "My great-grandmother said that Uncle Tom said he never fired at the enemy during the war because he was afraid he'd be firing on his brother. He'd shoot above their heads or into the earth," Whitehead said. Apparently this ploy didn't impress Tom's brother who had lost a leg at the Battle of Atlanta. And the fact that Thomas Stowers was present at Appomattox as part of the Union Army when Lee surrendered did nothing to close the rift between the two brothers. According to family members, the two never made up, and records indicate that big brother John moved to Nashville after the war. Little brother Tom is reputed to have stayed with his sister in Baxter for a while, but was apparently 'encouraged' to leave Putnam County by Southern sympathizers displeased that he had fought with the Yankees. "According to Mary Jean DeLozier, author of the history, Putnam County, Tennessee — 1850-1870, the hostility of neighbors and family caused Uncle Tom to reenlist in the United States Army," Whitehead said. But where he spent his time between 1865 and 1874, when he wasn't being thrown out of Baxter, is one of the continuing mysteries about Thomas Stowers' life. "There's an ongoing thread through my uncle's life relating to Pennsylvania. He fought in the Civil War as a private with Company D in the 199th Pennsylvania Regiment. It may be that the men he fought with became his friends and he went up north to see them when he had to leave Baxter," Whitehead said. But records show that Stowers was in Chicago when he reenlisted using a new name, James Thomas, and giving his place of birth as Bucks County, Pa. "A lot of men changed their names when they enlisted," Whitehead said. "Usually it was to get away from family members or creditors." Custer's Last Stand So, in 1874, Thomas Stowers, aka: James Thomas, rode out to Ft. Lincoln, Nebraska, to serve under the authority of Gen. George Armstrong Custer who had been making his reputation as an Indian fighter. On June 25, 1876, with Capt. Frederick W. Benteen and Major Marcus A. Reno and their troops, Custer headed into the plains of Montana to round up some Sioux and Cheyenne to put them on reservations. Depending on which source you read, before the battle Stowers: * Was drunk, was tossed in a wagon to dry out and was still there when the soldiers left the next day for the Little Big Horn; * Hid under a big iron cooking pot and was overlooked by the Indians; * Pulled his horse out of lin
see History in its true colours
computer history pdf
computer history pdf
Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today's Computers
Every day, we use our computers to perform remarkable feats. A simple web search picks out a handful of relevant needles from the world's biggest haystack: the billions of pages on the World Wide Web. Uploading a photo to Facebook transmits millions of pieces of information over numerous error-prone network links, yet somehow a perfect copy of the photo arrives intact. Without even knowing it, we use public-key cryptography to transmit secret information like credit card numbers; and we use digital signatures to verify the identity of the websites we visit. How do our computers perform these tasks with such ease?
This is the first book to answer that question in language anyone can understand, revealing the extraordinary ideas that power our PCs, laptops, and smartphones. Using vivid examples, John MacCormick explains the fundamental "tricks" behind nine types of computer algorithms, including artificial intelligence (where we learn about the "nearest neighbor trick" and "twenty questions trick"), Google's famous PageRank algorithm (which uses the "random surfer trick"), data compression, error correction, and much more.
These revolutionary algorithms have changed our world: this book unlocks their secrets, and lays bare the incredible ideas that our computers use every day.