Related Links

Related Links, with thanks to Freederick

Colors are listed in this order: East, South, West, North
Apaches Arapaho
  • white, blue, red, and yellow (Here)
Aztec Black Elk (see also Buddhism Cherokee (Red, White, Black, Blue) Chinese (Blue/Green, Red, Black, White, Yellow in center)_ Chinese - Feng Shui Bluegreen, Red Bird, White Tiger, Dark, (Mysterious) Turtle (Here) Cree
Melissa Natasquan: There was. The whole ceremony itself was called un pas vers l'est, a step towards the east, and the east is the door of life because there's the four colours. There's the four doors, black, red, yellow and white. West being black, which is the door you leave out of the earth and east being the door of new life. So when they started the ceremony, everyone was asked to face the west, which is also facing the school, and were told to let it go, you know, just let the past be the past. There were pieces of black fabric given out and there was a sacred fire in the middle and the people were asked, you know, once you feel that you can let go, then let go and drop your piece of fabric in the fire. (Here)
Iowas Hopi, Shoshonean linguistic stock


Kalmyks, West Mongolian people Lakota
  • Yellow, White, Black, Red (Here) "Souix Indian Religion" by Raymond J. DeMallie and Douglas R. Parks says black for the west, red for the north, yellow for the east, white for the south, green for the earth, and blue for the sky."
  • Color is another indicator of the Lakota gods' link to nature which plays a significant role in the vision. In the Lakota creation myth, the four principle gods are assigned colors: yellow, green, red, and blue.24 These colors, in addition to black, white, and brown, are present throughout Black Elk's vision. The horses in the vision represent the colors red(sorrel), white, brown(bay), black, and yellow(buckskin); blue and green are also represented. The colors black, red, yellow, and white--the colors of the primary groups of horses in the vision--are perhaps the most important in Lakota religion, as they are the ones associated with the four directions. Black, the color of the west, is representative of war and confrontation. Red, which represents law and control, is associated with the north. White, the color of renewal and spirit, is linked to the East; and finally, yellow, associated with unity and quiet, is the color of the South.25 (Here)
  • Red, Green, Blue, Yellow (Here)
  • Yet a Lakota man summed it all up at the Eaglebutte meeting reminding all present that we had the four colors which were already sacred to us even before the Whiteman, blackman, and yellowman came in contact with us as "Indian People". (Here)
  • The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) uses the Lakota symbol for the wheel of life within its own society. The colours represented on this version are:
    North: White :Wisdom gained in winter stories
    East : Red :Enlightenment
    South: Yellow :Innocence
    West : Black :Power

Oglala Sioux (Yellow, White, Black Red)


Navaho, (White, Blue, Yellow, Black) Ojibway
  • Ojibwa
  • Ojibway (Red, Yellow, Black and White) (North, South, East, and West) (Here)
Pawnee, Caddoan linguistic stock

Shoshone Sioux
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Medicine Wheel color symbolism:

Revelation, New Jerusalem and the Four Horsemen (Green, White, Black, Red)
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(Blue and White are often interchangeable as are Blue and White)

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Geographic colors:

Turkish colors: The Black Sea (Karadeniz), The Mediterranean (White / Akdeniz) Sea, The Red Sea and (The Caspian??)

The Turkic people may have come from the area of the Kara (Black) Sea and the White Sea near the Arctic Ocean.

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The Mayan Sacbe System Analyzed as an Information Web, Steve Mizrach

"Why is Merida known as the White City? Many people think this honorific arises from its cleanliness or its architecture. But I suspect the ultimate origin of the name may have been pre-Hispanic. It is possible that Merida (T'Ho) might have been one of the key hubs of this 'galaxy' of white roads. There are other towns in the area associated with colors -- Izamal is known as the yellow city, Valladolid the green city, and Ekbalam is of course the city of the black (or maybe shining) jaguar. Since the Maya associated the different colors with the cardinal directions, it's possible that each of these sites were cardinal centres of the sacbe system."
Yucatan: Merida, the White City; Izamal, the Yellow City See also: Merida, "it is the white, green, and blue city,"

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Language groups of indigenous Americans

Native Languages of the Americas Online Resources (Algonquian language)

  • The Algonquian languages include Micmac, Maliseet-Passamoquoddy, Etchemin, Penobscot, Caniba, Aroosagunticook, Sokoki-Pequaket, Western Abnaki, Pennacook, Pentucket, Loup A, Loup B, Massachusett, Wampanoag, Cowesit, Narragansett, Mohegan-Pequot, Montauk-Shinnecock,Quiripi,Unquachog, Mahican, Delaware languages, Munsee, Unami, Unalachtigo, Unami, Virginia Languages, Nanticoke-Conoy, Powhatan, Chickahominy-Appomattox,Pamunkey-Mattapony,Nansemond,Carolina languages, Chowan, Pamlico, Cree Languages, Eastern Cree, Naskapi, Montagnais, East Cree, Western Cree Atikamek, Moose Cree, East Swampy Cree, West Swampy Cree, Woods Cree, Plains Cree, Ojibway languages, Northern Ojibwa, Algonquin, Severn Ojibway, Eastern Ojibway, Ottawa, Central Ojibway, Lac Seul Ojibway, Southwestrn Ojibway, Saulteax, Potawatomi, Menomini, Fox, Sauk, Kickapoo, Mascouten, Miami-Illinois, Shawnee, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Atsina, Blackfoot, Blood, Piegan, Ritwan, Wiyot, Yurok. (Here)
  • The Ojibway have a 3 Fire confederacy composed of the Potawatomi (the fire people; keepers of the Sacred Fire), the Ottawa (the trader people), and the Ojibway (the faith keepers; keepers of the sacred scrolls and the Waterdrum of the Midewiwin (the organized shamanic society for healers). All of the Anishinabe people are the nation of the Three Fires. (Here)
  • Uto-Aztecan Language Family


  • This meeting will be run in a traditional Cheyenne manner, we have respected your Nations protocols and procedures and humbly request that you respect our traditional Cheyenne protocols and procedures, woman will be respected but not allowed in the meeting, these ways were passed down by our forefathers and does not mean we disrespect woman in any way and should not be taken as such. Woman are the strength of our Nations and to them we give our prayers and respects and ask they do the same. We humbly ask that those who disagree not disrupt or ridicule this gathering, but make time for your own meetings and gather your support and we will respect the outcome which we leave in the hands of the "Great Spirit". Ha-ho (Here)
  • For the Lakota, anything which did not behave the same way as other things did was wakan. A heyoka, or sacred-backwards-clown, was wakan because he did things in an ironic, reversed way that was different from everyone else. The planets were wakan because of the way they wandered among the other stars. The pole star was wakan because all the other stars whirled around it while it kept its place in the sky. The spectacular cosmic events recorded in their winter counts are similarly wakan, because they were unexpected and dramatic. (Here)
The Land of Oz
Cardinal directions in world cultures | Back to Chart | Related Links