Pictures  Bibliography

Deanna Cerlanek and Meghan Macri

Christain Brothers Academy
Hair, Makeup, & Jewelry:
Hair: Women often braided or curled their hair. The hair styles and ways of dressing were often copies of what the emperor was wearing. An ornantrix was a slave that was a hairdresser or specialized in cosmetics. Up to 117C.E. men were cleanly shaven while up to the 4th century beards were popular. Beards were popular after the reign of Hadrian. Head coverings were sometimes worn by men while headdresses were worn by women. Sometimes veils were worn to cover a woman's face. A very rich woman would sometimes put gold dust in her hair for special occasions. Emperors were the first to wear different hairstyles like sideburns and curls. Bear fat was often used to help the hair grow.
Makeup: Bean broth and snails were often mixed together to create a cream for the face. Chalk or white lead were used for foundation. Eyeliner, also called kohl, was often made from soot while antiwrinkle lotion was often made from flour and water. Mascara and black eyeliner were often used by women. For a form of lipstick a woman would often use wine dregs to redden their lips. People would use perfume because they rarely bathed. The ideal lady in Rome would have pale skin, red lips, and dark eyelashes and eyebrows. Mulberry juice or red ochre were used to make rouge for rich women. 
Jewelry: Poor people often wore ceramic and bronze jewelry while rich people wore jewelry made of gold and silver. A neck chain and round pouch called a bulla was worn by boys until they became a man. Only one piece of jewelry could be worn my adult men which was a signet ring used for authorizing documents. First the rings were made of iron and then gold. The rings were used for stamping and had the owner's name written backwards. India often imported pearls, rubies, and emeralds. A married woman would wear a ring that had two hands holding eachother. A woman would be buried with their most precious jewelry.     

    Togas were circular shaped and can measure up to 20 feet by 10 feet. They were very heavy and hard to adjust. The toga was very hard to drape properly. The toga was draped over the left shoulder, while the other end went underneath the right arm, and then over the left shoulder. Often, slaves assisted in putting the toga on their master. A dark toga, called a toga pulla was worn in times of mourning while a white toga, or a toga candida was worn by men campaigning for office. The purple toga was only worn by high-ranking officials and the emperor. Mainly men wore togas, but some poor women and girls wore them too. A red bordered toga was often worn by young boys and girls because it was seen as a protection charm. The toga was placed over the tunic, but it was not sewn or pinned. For religious ceremonies, part of the toga was worn on the head. Men were seen to be honored while wearing the toga, while for women it was a disgrace.
    Tunics were often made of linen or wool, and they were held in place with a belt. The tunic was not only used for work, but also for sleep. Farmers wore short tunics while a simple loincloth and tunic was worn by a poorer man. Women would sometimes wear a piece of cloth pinned to their waist. Tunics were draped so that the back was longer than the front. Men's tunics were shorther than women's, and civilian's tunics were longer than that of the military. Shawls and cloaks were sometimes worn over the tunic, while people of the rich upper class wore a tunic with a purple stripe that ran down the shoulder.  


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