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Mozhi - Detailed specification

Basic mapping

MozhiMalayalam
Unicode Name
 Example Example
 in Mozhi
 a അ A അല ala
 aa ആ AA ആല aala
 i ഇ I ഇല ila 
 ii ഈ II ഈറ iirra
 u ഉ U
 ഉമ uma
 uu ഊ UU ഊമ uuma
 R ഋ VOCALIC R
 ഋതു Rthu
 RR ൠ VOCALIC RR ൠന്ന് RRnn

 e എ
 E
 എലി eli
 E
 ഏ EE ഏലം Elam
 ai ഐ AI ഐക്യം aikyam
 o ഒ O ഒരു oru
 O ഓ OO ഓരം Oram
 au ഔ AU
 ഔഷധം aushadham

 H ഃ VISARGA ദുഃഖം duHkham

 ka ക
 KA
 കല kala
 kha
 ഖ KHA നഖം nakham
 ga ഗ GA ഗരം garam
 gha ഘ GHA മേഘം mEgham
 nga ങ NGA ങ്യാവൂ ngyaavuu

 cha ച
 CA
 ചരം charam
 chha
 ഛ CHA ഛായ chhaaya
 ja ജ JA ജലം jalam
 jha ഝ JHA ഝാൻസി jhaansi
 nja ഞ NYA ഞാൻ njaan

 Ta ട
 TTA
 ടിപ്പു Tippu
 Tha
 ഠ
 TTHA പാഠം paaTham
 Da ഡ DDA ഡപ്പി Dappi
 Dha ഢ  DDHA ദൃഢം dRDham
 Na ണ NNA മണം maNam

 tha ത
 TA
 തത്ത thaththa
 thha
 ഥ THA കഥ kathha
 da ദ DA ദയ daya
 dha ധ DHA ധനം dhanam
 na ന NA നന്ന് nann~

 pa പ
 PA
 പല pala
 pha
 ഫ PHA ഫലം phalam
 ba ബ BA ബലം balam
 bha ഭ BHA ഭയം bhayam
 ma മ MA മയം mayam

 ya യ
 YA
 യതി yathi
 ra
 ര RA രണ്ട് raNT
 la ല LA ലത latha
 va വ VA വരം varam

 Sa ശ
 SHA
 ശരം Saram
 sha
 ഷ SSA ഷാരം shaaram
 sa സ SA സാരം saaram
 ha ഹ HA ഹാരം haaram

 La ള
 LLA
 ഇള iLa
 zha
 ഴ LLLA ഇഴ izha
 rra റ RRA പറ parra

 ta റ്റ RRA, VIRAMA, RRA
പാറ്റ  paata

 $
U+20B9
 INDIAN RUPEE SIGN
 $100 ₹100

Semi-vowel signs

Described by examples:

 sya
 സ്യ SA, VIRAMA, YA
 സസ്യം sasyam
 sra
 സ്ര  SA, VIRAMA, RA
 സ്രാവം sraavam
 sla സ്ല SA, VIRAMA, LA സ്ലാവിക് slaavik
 sLa സ്ള SA, VIRAMA, LLA ബ്ളോഗ് bLOg
 sva സ്വ SA, VIRAMA, VA സ്വരം svaram

Separate two words without space

Use '_' (underscore) to start a new word without a preceding space. Unicode output might use (not necessarily always) a ZWNJ(U+200C) to achieve this. This feature is useful for following:
  • Get chillu letter in contexts where it would otherwise form a conjunct with a following consonant.
  • Get a full vowel in-between a word
  • Get visible virama form instead of a conjunct or subscript.
If just '_' alone is typed, then that will appear to the user and will be consumed only when a valid letter is typed after it.

 pon_ പൊൻ_ PA, SIGN O, CHILLU N, _
 pon_naaNyam പൊൻനാണ്യം  PA, SIGN O, CHILLU N, NA, SIGN AA ...
 m_adani മ്അദനി MA, VIRAMA, A, DA, NA, SIGNI 
 in_ka ഇൻക
 I, CHILLU N, KA

Consonant Cluster

Consonant Cluster in a word is the sequence of English letters representing more than one consonant. As an example, the word in Mozhi, 'Sruthi' has the consonant cluster: 'Sr' - for consonants 'Sa' and 'ra'. This definition is used in sections below.

Chillus

The letters N, n, m, r, l or L at the beginning of a word or after a vowel will form a chillu. Even though Anusvara (ം) is considered a chillu, 'm' will not be formed at the word beginning as it is a combining mark as opposed to other chillus.

 svam
 സ്വം
 SA, VIRAMA, VA, ANUSVARA
 avan
 അവൻ A, VA, CHILLU N
 Sr ശ്ര്
 SHA, VIRAMA, RA, VIRAMA
 n ൻ CHILLU N
 m മ് MA, VIRAMA

Chillu or conjunct

A chillu-capable letter in a consonant cluster will not form a chillu if that cluster starts with the following sequence (except for the ending 'a'):
 NTa
 ണ്ട  NNA, VIRAMA, TA
 മണ്ട maNTa
 NTha ണ്ഠ  NNA, VIRAMA, THA കുണ്ഠിതം kuNThitham
 NDa ണ്ഡ  NNA, VIRAMA, DDA പാണ്ഡു paaNDu
 NDha ണ്ഢ  NNA, VIRAMA, DDHA കണ്ഢം kaNDham
 NNa ണ്ണ  NNA, VIRAMA, NNA
 കണ്ണ് kaNN
 Nma
 ണ്മ  NNA, VIRAMA, MA
 വെണ്മ veNma
 Nya ണ്യ  NNA, VIRAMA, YA
 നാണ്യം naNyam
 Nva
 ണ്വ 
 NNA, VIRAMA, VA
 കണ്വൻ kaNvan

 ntha
 ന്ത  NA, VIRAMA, TA തന്ത thantha
 nthha
 ന്ഥ  NA, VIRAMA, THA
 പാന്ഥൻ paanthhan
 nda ന്ദ  NA, VIRAMA, DA
 നന്ദി nandi
 ndha
 ന്ധ  NA, VIRAMA, DHA
 അന്ധൻ andhan
 nna ന്ന  NA, VIRAMA, NA
 പിന്നെ pinne
 nma ന്മ  NA, VIRAMA, MA
 നന്മ nanma
 nya ന്യ  NA, VIRAMA, YA
 അന്യം anyam
 nra ന്ര  NA, VIRAMA, RA
 ന്രസ്ഥി nrasthhi
 nva ന്വ  NA, VIRAMA, VA
 അന്വയം anvayam

 mpa
 മ്പ  MA, VIRAMA, PA
 കമ്പം kampam
 mma
 മ്മ  MA, VIRAMA, MA
 അമ്മ amma
 mya മ്യ  MA, VIRAMA, YA
 രമ്യം ramyam
 mra
 മ്ര
 MA, VIRAMA, RA
 കമ്രം kamram
 mla മ്ല  MA, VIRAMA, LA
 അമ്ലം amlam

 rya
 ര്യ
 RA, VIRAMA, YA ഭാര്യ bhaarya

 lpa ല്പ
 LA, VIRAMA, PA
 അല്പം alpam
 lma ല്മ
 LA, VIRAMA, MA
 കല്മഷം kalmasham
 lya
 ല്യ
 LA, VIRAMA, YA അഹല്യ ahalya
 lva ല്വ  LA, VIRAMA, VA വില്വാദ്രി vilvaadri
 lla ല്ല  LA, VIRAMA, LA ഇല്ല illa

 Lya
 ള്യ
 LLA, VIRAMA, YA ജാള്യം jaaLyam
 LLa ള്ള  LLA, VIRAMA, LLA ഉള്ള uLLa

Following examples are for more than two consonants in a consonant cluster.

 ..NDya
 ണ്ഡ്യ
 NNA, VIRAMA, DDA, VIRAMA, YA പാണ്ഡ്യൻ paaNDyan
 ..nthrya ന്ത്ര്യ
 NA, VIRAMA, TA, VIRAMA, RA, VIRAMA, YA
 സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം svaathanthryam

Exceptions

If a consonant cluster starts as <chill-capable consonant A><consonant B><consonant B> then consonant A will form chillu. Example:

 alppam
 അൽപ്പം
 A, CHILLU L, PA, VIRAMA, PA, ANUSVARA

The 'മ്യ' and 'മ്ര' conjuncts are not formed if they follow 'സം'. Example:

 samyOgam
 സംയോഗം
 SA, ANUSVARA, YA, SIGN OO, ...
 samrambham സംരംഭം SA, ANUSVARA, RA, ANUSVARA, ...

If 'മ്യ' and 'മ്ര' conjunct are required after 'സ', then please use '_' to make it the word initial consonant cluster. Examples:

 sa_myak
 സമ്യക്
 SA, MA, VIRAMA, YA, ...
 sa_mraaTT സമ്രാട്ട് SA, MA, VIRAMA, RA, SIGN AA, ...

While writing 'ൻ്റ' conjunct by 'nt..' sequence, 'n' will produce Chillu-N as follows:

 nta ൻ്റ CHILLU-N, VIRAMA, RRA എൻ്റെ ente
 nrra ൻറ CHILLU N, RRA എൻറോൾ enrrOL

Chandrakkala instead of Chillu

To make sure we get chandrakkala instead of a chillu or after U-sign use '~' (tilda).

 avan~
 അവന്
 ..., NA, VIRAMA
 avanu~ അവനു് ..., NA, SIGN U, VIRAMA
 vaalmeeki വാല്മീകി   ..., LA, VIRAMA, MA, ...  
 vaal_meeki വാൽമീകി  ..., CHILLU L, MA, ...  
 vaal~meeki വാല്മീകി  ..., LA, VIRAMA, MA, ...  
 vaal~_meeki വാല്‌മീകി  ..., LA, VIRAMA, ZWNJ, MA, ...  

Sometimes users type '~' even when it is not required at the word endings. Those '~'s are always consumed.

 ath അത് A, TA, VIRAMA
 ath~
 അത് 
 A, TA, VIRAMA

Stand-alone combining marks

The Chandrakkala character '~' (tilde) can be used to get stand-alone vowel signs.

 ~
 ് VIRAMA
 ~a<empty>  
 ~aa ാ SIGN AA
 ~i
 ി SIGN I
 ~am ം ANUSVARA

Doubling of ഞ

The sequence 'nj' produces 'ഞ്ഞ്', iff it is typed after any of the following:
  1. a vowel
  2. a vowel sign
  3. a consonant
At the same time, 'njnja' also produces 'ഞ്ഞ'.
To produce singular form in those cases, use underscore '_', by forcing it to be at word initial position. 

However, 'nga/ങ' does not show this behavior.

Examples:

 ang
 അങ്
 A, NGA, VIRAMA
 angng അങ്ങ് A, NGA, VIRAMA, NGA, VIRAMA
 njaan ഞാൻ NYA, SIGN AA, CHILLU N
 manj മഞ്ഞ് MA, NYA, VIRAMA, NYA, VIRAMA
 Saarngga ശാർങ്ഗ  SHA, CHILLU RR, NGA, VIRAMA, GA
 pa_nj പഞ്
 PA, NYA, VIRAMA
 jnjaanam ജ്ഞാനം JA, NYA, SIGN AA, NA, ANUSVARA

Shortcuts for conjuncts

 nka
 ങ്ക
 NGA, VIRAMA, KA
 മങ്ക manka
 ncha
 ഞ്ച
 GYA, VIRAMA, CA
 പുഞ്ച puncha
 nchha ഞ്ഛ
 GYA, VIRAMA, CHA വാഞ്ഛ vaanchha
 ccha ച്ച CA, VIRAMA, CA പച്ച paccha
 cchha ച്ഛ
 CA, VIRAMA, CHA പുച്ഛം pucchham
 tta ട്ട
 TTA, VIRAMA, TTA
 പട്ട patta
 ttha ത്ത  TA, VIRAMA, TA തത്ത thattha
 tthha ത്ഥ  TA, VIRAMA, THA അർത്ഥം artthham

Error correction in conjuncts

 Tta ട്ട TTA, VIRAMA, TTA പട്ട paTta
 tTa ട്ട TTA, VIRAMA, TTA പട്ട patTa
 nTa ണ്ട NNA, VIRAMA, TTA പണ്ട് panT
 Nta ണ്ട NNA, VIRAMA, TTA പണ്ട് paNt

Mapping for unmapped keys

 ea ഈ II
 ee ഈ II
 ie ഈ II
 ei ഐ AI
 oo ഊ UU
 ou ഔ AU

 c
 ൿ CHILLU K
 fa
 ഫ  PHA
 qa ഖ  KHA
 wa വ  VA
 xa ക്സ  KA, VIRAMA, SA
 za ശ SHA

 A
 ആ  AA
 Ba
 ബ്ബ  BA, VIRAMA, BA
 Ca ച്ച CA, VIRAMA, CA
 Fa
 ഫ  PHA
 Ga ഗ്ഗ  GA, VIRAMA, GA
 I ഈ  II
 Ja ജ്ജ  JA, VIRAMA, JA

 Ka
 ക്ക  KA, VIRAMA, KA
 Ma
 മ്മ  MA, VIRAMA, MA
 Pa പ്പ  PA, VIRAMA, PA
 Qa
 ഖ  KHA
 U ഊ  UU
 Va വ്വ  VA, VIRAMA, VA
 Wa വ്വ  VA, VIRAMA, VA

 Xa
 ക്സ KA, VIRAMA, SSA
 Ya
 യ്യ
 YA, VIRAMA, YA
 Za
 ഴ LLLA

Extra elongation for vowel signs

('..' denotes that the last letter can be repeated to get last Malayalam vowel sign repeated)

 aaaaa.. ആാാാ.. AA, SIGN AA, SIGN AA, SIGN AA
 kaaa.. കാാ.. KA, SIGN AA, SIGN AA
 iii.. ഈൗ.. II, AU LENGTH MARK
 kiii.. കീീ.. KA, SIGN II, SIGN II
 uuu.. ഊൗ.. UU, AU LENGTH MARK
 kuuu.. കൂൂ.. KA, SIGN UU, SIGN UU
 OO.. ഓാ.. AU, SIGN AA
 auu.. ഔൗ.. AU, AU LENGTH MARK

Not all vowel sign producing letters shown. However, all vowel producing letters have this property. For example:

 eee.. ഈൗ.. II, AU LENGTH MARK
 ooo.. ഊൗ.. UU, AU LENGTH MARK

Archaic letters

To get the archaic form of a letter, please use the symbol '\' following it. Even more archaic form is given out by repeating it - '\\'.

 അ\
 a\ ഽ  AVAGRAHA
 അസോഽസൗ asOa\sau
 ഇ\ ii\  ൟ ARCHAIC II  ൟറ ii\rra
 ക്\ k\ ൿ CHILLU K
 ആമ്പിൿ aampik\
 റ്റ്\
 t\ ഺ് TTTA
 അഺ് at\
 റ്റ\
 ta\ ഺ  TTTA അഺ ata\
 ൻ\ n\ ഩ് NNNA
 അഩ് an\
 ൻ്റെ\ nte\  ൻെറ CHILLU-N, SIGN E, RRA എൻെറ ente\
 ent\e
 ൻ്റെ\\ nte\\ ൻെററ CHILLU-N, SIGN E, RRA, RRA എൻെററ ente\\
 ent\\e
 ൾക\ Lka\ ൾ്ക CHILLU-LL, VIRAMA, KA  
 ന\ na\ ഩ NNNA  അഩ ana\
 നു\ nu\ ൹ DATE MARK
 17-൹ 17-nu\
  ം\ ...m\ U+0D00 ANUSVARA ABOVE  
  ം\\... m\\ U+0D01 CANDRABINDU  
 ർ\ r\ U+0D4E
 DOT REPH ഭാൎയ്യ bhaar\ya
 ₹\
 $\ ₨  RUPEE SIGN ₨10 $\10
 പറ\ parra\ U+0D4F PARA SIGN  

 ൾ\
 L\ ഌ VOCALIC L
 ഌകാരം L\kaaram
 ക്‌ള്\ kL\ കൢ* KA, SIGN VOCALIC L കൢപ്തം kL\ptham
 ള്ള്\
 LL\ ൡ VOCALIC LL ൡതം LL\tham
 ക്ള്ള്\ kLL\ കൣ* KA, SIGN VOCALIC LL കൣതം kLL\tham
 കൗ\ kau\ കൌ*
 KA, SIGN AU
 കൌതുകം kau\thukam
  ~\ U+0D3C CIRCLE ABOVE VIRAMA  
  ~\\ U+0D3B VERTICAL BAR VIRAMA  
* The consonant 'k' is just an example to show the vowel sign.

 1\
 ൧
 ONE
 10\
 U+0D70 TEN
 100\ U+0D71 HUNDRED
 1000\ U+0D72 THOUSAND
 1/4\ U+0D73 ONE QUARTER
 1/2\ U+0D74 ONE HALF
 3/4\ U+0D75 THREE QUARTERS
 ... ... <remaining fractions>

Since some digits does not get displayed in any popular fonts, corresponding Unicode codepoint is shown - for example: U+0D70.

Digits after a Malayalam digit will be a converted to Malayalam digit.

 1\210 ൧൨൧൦ ONE, TWO, ONE, ZERO

Escape by word

Transliteration is not attempted if it is preceded by '='.

 =a  a

Keys after an English letter will be kept as it is. Along with English letters, it is continued for following special characters: . : / @. For the rest, escaping broken and transliteration will be attempted. Examples:

 =abc@example.com enna  abc@example.com എന്ന
 =http://www.9.com-l http://www.9.com-ൽ
 9l 9ൽ


Compatibility mapping

Previous versions of Mozhi had 'Ra' stands for റ. Since vowel (ഋ) and consonant(റ) come at two different contexts this can be honoured. Following examples demonstrate this:

 pR
 പൃ PA, SIGN VOCALIC R
 pRa
 പ്ര PA, VIRAMA, RA
 R ഋ VOCALIC R
 Ra റ RRA
 aR അർ
 A, CHILLU R

Legacy encoding

Chillu sequences mentioned in Unicode standard before version 5.1 are produced by adding '^' on the standard chillu-letter.

 n^
 ൻ^  ന്‍ NA, VIRAMA, ZWJ
 മോഹന്‍ലാല്‍ mohan^_laal^
 l^ ൽ^ ല്‍ LA, VIRAMA, ZWJ മോഹന്‍ലാല്‍ mohan^_laal^

There are multiple legacy encoding for ൻ്റ. The sequence specified in the standard is not fully supported in popular input tools or OSes. Also, the default sequence used by these input tools and Linux community is different from that used by Microsoft products.

 nt^a
 nta^
 nte^ 
 ...
 ൻ്റ്^a
 ൻ്റ^
 ൻ്റെ^
 ന്‍റ NA, VIRAMA, ZWJ, RRA എന്‍റെ

 ent^e 
 ente^
 nt^^a
 nta^^
 nte^^
 ...
 ൻ്റ്^^a
 ൻ്റ^^
 ൻ്റെ^^
 ന്റ NA, VIRAMA, RRA എന്റെ ent^^e
 ente^^

Backspace

On backspace, use the OS's backspace operation. However, next key would use the context of the existing input. Example:

 nna
 ന്ന NA, VIRAMA, NA
 nna<backspace>
 ന് NA, VIRAMA
 nna<backspace>ka ങ്ക NGA, VIRAMA, KA

Convenience Mapping and Emoji

Following mappings does not have anything to do with Malayalam; however, these are useful essentials:

 --
 —
 ->
 →
 :) 😊
 :( ☹
 :D 😄
 :x 😘
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