Wikipedia Red Nucleus Revision

Cross references:   Red Nucleus    Red Nucleus Iron    
Red Nucleus Cerebellum        Red Nucleus Evolution     
Heme       Globin      Myoglobin      Myoglobin Evolution       

Up until 11-28-13, the Wikipedia page for the red nucleus said:  "It is pale pink in color; the color is believed to be due to a form of lipofuscin ."  But this didn't make sense.  Lipofuscin is yellow-brown.     


Lipofuscin (Wiki)                 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipofuscin    
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Micrograph showing lipofuscin, in brown/yellow, in a liver biopsy with ground glass hepatocytes ; H&E stain


Lipofuscin is the name given to finely granular yellow-brown pigment granules [1] composed of lipid -containing residues of lysosomal digestion. It is considered to be one of the aging or "wear-and-tear" pigments, found in the liver , kidney , heart muscle, retina, adrenals , nerve cells, and ganglion cells. It is specifically arranged around the nucleus, and is a type of lipochrome .

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My comments
1.  The above micrograph is NOT of a red nucleus.  It is a micrograph of a LIVER biopsy.
2.  The micrograph has been stained, so the pink color is not natural.  It is from the stain.        





So.  What colors the red nucleus red? 

The answer seems to be iron, which is present in the red nucleus in at least two different forms; hemoglobin and ferritin.  Abstracting from  Red Nucleus Iron :   

hemoglobin
   
    Although none of the articles I've seen so far mention hemoglobin by name, many refer to the red nucleus' high vascularity.  This suggests hemoglobin. 

Hemoglobin (Wiki)     
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemoglobin    
    Hemoblobin " is the iron -containing oxygen -transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates [1] "  


ferritin:   

        Although not referred to as frequently as high vascularity, high iron content is sometimes also mentioned as a characteristic of the red nucleus.  "Brain iron is stored in the protein ferritin ( Hallgren and Sourander, 1958 ; Griffiths et al., 1999 ), which is present at a high concentration within some of the subcortical nuclei, specifically the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and red nucleus."   

Ferritin (Wiki) 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferritin    
    "Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion."  

    Wikipedia does not specify ferritin's color, but the Sigma Aldrich catalog  says: 

Ferritin from equine spleen Type I, saline solution   
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/f4503?lang=en®ion=US    
    "color  -  red to brown"      


THE REVISION: 

I've replaced:

    "a form of lipofuscin ."  

with   

    " iron, which is present in the red nucleus in at least two different forms; hemoglobin and ferritin."

   








Wikipedia Red Nucleus Revision
131203 - 1623

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