Speciation by "Hopeful Monsters" in Supertwins

"Few people are capable of expressing with equanimity opinions which differ from the prejudices of their social environment. 

Most people are even incapable of forming such opinions."


Albert Einstein

The proposed mechanism of speciation only has four major steps.

Formation of two fertilized eggs of the opposite sexes

  • Animal development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg to form a zygote. Fraternal twin’s zygotes are formed when two eggs are each fertilized by a single sperm. Fraternal twins are common natural phenomena across almost all bisexual animals.

Gross mutations on the zygotes

  • In fertilized eggs, DNA synthesis is active and these eggs are extremely sensitive to mutagens. The nature of mutations is determined by the nature of mutants and the microenvironments around the zygotes. The mutation could be minor, thereby causing little harm, or a gross one, which will cause failure of mating with ancestral species.
  • A gross mutation is defined by its outcome: any modifications on the DNA structure will be the gross mutation, if it leads to failure of bivalent binding or synapsis between the ancestral and descended haploid chromosomes. The gross mutation does not necessarily lead to gross physical changes of the involved organism or speciation. Many, if not all, chromosomal rearrangements, such as deletions, duplications, translocation, and karyotypic fission have the potential to be gross mutations, and only gross mutation can lead to speciation. These mutations could occur at one locus or multiple loci.

Some types of gross mutation

Gross mutation would cause failure of synapsis.

Self-replication of fertilized eggs

  • The mutant zygotes can self-replicate to form mixed multiple identical zygotes with gross mutations could develop into mixed identical supertwins with a gross mutation. Mating among the siblings from the same gestation. The majority of the mutants would die during the embryonic stage, leaving a very small number to survive. Of these, even a smaller number would mature to adulthood. The characteristics of the novelties are determined by how the mutations occur. The mutations would be not only demonstrated in the somatic cells of offspring with the novel characteristics, but also inherited, and passed onto their gamete cells.
Mating among adult siblings
  • The newcomers live together, and have the similar anatomical structures. Neither pre-zygotic nor post-zygotic reproductive barriers are present among the fraternal siblings. Inbreeding would be natural among these siblings with the reproductive second generation as the outcome. In the whole process, only step two is an assumption, while the remaining three steps are natural daily phenomena. I named the model gross mutant in cluster and mutants inbreeding (GMCMI).