Summary

"First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, and then you win."

 

  Mahatma Gandhi

  • The proposed model has five elements: the twin zygotes, the gross mutation, self-replication, supertwins, and inbreeding. These observable phenomena occur at any time and place. The challenge is not whether speciation happens by the proposed model, but how to detect these new species at the initial stage.
  • Based upon Darwin’s theory, speciation is a two-step process consisting of variation and natural selection, and it is a gradual population phenomenon (Mayr 1991). In the models discussed, speciation is only a one-step process; thus, only mutation itself is required for speciation. Natural selection only works on variants of pre-existing species, and it has no creating power, and only eliminates the unfit. Phyletic speciation through natural selection or geographical isolation never occurs.

Mutations of chromosome would lead to speciation without natural selection.

  • The model has provided sound explanation to numerous mysteries in biology with only one premise in the model. Given the chicken and egg paradox, mosaic of evolution, missing fossils linking, and many others, it would be inconceivable for other evolutionary theories to answers these puzzles with such a simple and plausible idea.
  • Prediction is an essential element for true scientific idea. Several predictions are testable by the model. The predictions have numerous laboratory evidences, and the proposed falsifications are from several perspectives as well as specific and unique without alternative explanations.

Prediction is the most important difference between science and fable.

  • Mutation is a random, rare, unpredictable event; it is extremely unlikely for any similar mutation to occur at same time and place if they are in completely unassociated situations. Occurrence of at least two similar novelties is essential for reproduction of any new bisexual species. The model makes occurrence similar mutations occur much more likely than one otherwise, as the zygotes are at very close or even glued together. Factors affecting the nature of mutation should be very similar or identical. The twin zygotes model is to convert two independent random processes into two linking, and non-independence ones. More than that, the newcomers were born at same time, raised at same location; there should be little or no temporal and geographical reproductive barriers among them. 

Frateral birth would allow newcomers inbreeding without temporal and geographical barriers.

  • It is emphasized that ones should not over-criticize Darwin; genetic studies did not exist 140 years ago, embryology was in its primitive stage and species concept was based on morphology, not on biology. All of these factors prevented illustration of the correct mechanism of evolution

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”.

  • However, this statement only becomes convincing if the true mechanism is known.

Truth will prevail just in a matter of time.

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