FAQ

"For an idea that does not at first seem insane, there is no hope."

 

Albert Einstein

 Do the model explain all speciation in the world? 

What is your criterion to define a species? 

How is the gross mutation defined? 

What is the rate of the gross mutation? 

What are the premises in the model? 

Why do you propose twins zygotes mutation in the model? 

Does the model require new species with incestuous births over generations and generations?

How is the idea related with Creationism or intelligent design (ID)? 

How is the model related with the idea of common descent? 

How did a species with mechanism of incest prevention develop into a large population from initial a few members? 

Why do you think the proposed model likely to be true? 

What are the major obstacles to the model? 

The model will win in probability tests. 

Do the model explain all speciation in the world? 
  • As there are so many variations in biology, the 4-steps model does not account for all organisms in the world. I use viviparous animals (living young not eggs are produced) to illustrate the principle of the model. As the model is involved with a zygotes formation, the 4-steps process is definitely not applicable to asexual organism. However, the principle should be same, i..e. gross mutation and instantaneous speciation. Many animals from virgin birth have polyploidy genetic  structure.


The model only applies to bisexual species.

What is your criterion to define a species?

  • Basically, I just follow the idea of biological species concept (BSC); species is a group of organism that can mate with reproductive offspring. If an animals with gross mutation do not mate members from parental species with healthy reproductive offspring, by the definition, they are different species as long as they find out partners with similar genetic structure, mate with reproductive babies.

How is the gross mutation defined? 

  • Gross mutation triggers speciation, which is defined by its outcome: any modifications on the DNA structure will be the gross mutation, if it leads to failure of bivalent binding between the ancestral and descended haploid chromosomes. Most, if not all, chromosomal rearrangements, such as deletion, duplication, and translocation, are considered as the gross mutation. The gross mutation does not necessarily lead to gross physical changes of the involved organism. 

What is the rate of the gross mutation? 

  • In human, it is about 1%. The evidence is as follows: Human infertility is the failure of a couple to become pregnant after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. About 10% of couples in reproductive age experience infertility in the world. There are multiple factors leading to infertility, one of them is chromosomal abnormality, which accounts for 15-25% infertility in human, the chromosomal abnormality is the gross mutation. There might be many more chromosomal abnormalities at submicroscopic levels, which are not easily studied with microscopic techniques. Based on data above, the rate of gross mutation should be around 1% (10% x 20% x 1/2). 
  • Not all of the chromosomal abnormalities are caused by gross mutation at zygotes; they could be from gamete mutation. Gross mutation will cause miscarriages or spontaneous abortion, some of individuals with gross mutation do survive without any morphological changes; they are usually detected for their infertility. 

What are the premises in the model? 

  • In terms of viviparous animals, there are only four steps in the model: 1) Formation of fraternal zygotes in these opposite genders. 2) Similar gross mutations on these zygotes. 3) Self-replication of those zygotes. 4) Development of these zygotes and birth of a group of baby in both genders, and mating among the siblings after they mature. Step 1, 3 are natural phenomena, occur every day; step 4 is also a natural phenomenon that can be observed in many animals. Only step 2 is a premise, which suggests fraternal twins zygotes with the similar gross mutation by chance. 

Similar gross mutation at fraternal zyotes is a only premise in the model.

Why do you propose twins zygotes mutation in the model? 

  • Mutation is a random, rare, unpredictable event; it is very, very unlikely for any identical mutation occur. IF they are at totally non-associated situations. The proposed model makes identical mutations on zygotes occur much more likely than one otherwise, as two one-celled zygotes are at very close positions (how far can they be?), or even glued together. Many factors affecting the nature of mutation should be very similar or identical, such as pH, hormone, temperature, surrounding virus, if any, etc. All of these factors are important variables to determine properties of mutation, if they are same, probability for occurrence of the similar kind of gross mutations would be significantly enhanced. 
  • Likewise, if two drivers in car have an accident, the rate of injury for both having injury is much higher than one in which they drive own car separately. The twins zygotes model is to convert two independent random processes into two linking, and non-independence ones, these mutated zygotes have a very good potential to carry the new genetic information to the next generation. 
  • Beside it, the newcomers were born at same time, raised at same location; there should be little or no temporal and geographical reproductive barriers among them.

Does the model require new species with incestuous births over generations and generations? 

  • Absolutely not. First generation is supertwins brother-sister from the same birth, they mate to have the second generation, brother-sister from the same parents (assuming only twins parent); their offspring are brother-sister from different parents. If an organism has a few weeks in the life cycle, it only takes a couple of years for them to have over 20 life cycles. By then, majority of the members in the organism will be remote-related. 

How is the idea related with Creationism or intelligent design (ID)? 

  • The model is neither consistent with Creationism, nor with ID. They argue against evolution or natural speciation, and hold that organisms could not be created with current known biological mechanism; speciation must be through divine force one way or other. The model provides an explanation regarding how species occurs under all-known natural conditions without invoking any divine forces. However, the model cannot rule out the possibility for divine intervention, simply it is not in that position. 

How is the model related with the idea of common descent? 

  • The model only discusses how speciation occurs in viviparous animals, assuming pre-existence of a sexual ancestor. Whether there is a common descent, a few or few dozen common descents is not relevant. 

How did a species with mechanism of incest prevention develop into a large population from initial a few members? 

  • The mechanism of incest prevention in some species can be considered as the outcome of NS. Every sexual species was born with similar genotypes and phenotypes with little variations. With proliferation of the species, they would become different with various characteristics. Some individuals might be inherently resistant to incest behaviors, some not. Offspring from incest act would have survival disadvantage and they were outnumbered by offspring from non-incest ones over the time, eventually, almost all members in the species will be incest resistant. 

Why do you think the proposed model likely to be correct? 

  • The model has three major properties for any truth: It is simple, only one assumption Consistent with many observations and with explanatory power I list a few examples: 1) missing links in fossils 2) mitochondrial "Eve" and Y chromosomes "Adams" 3) instantaneous speciation in plant and animals 5) mosaic of evolution 6) rates of evolutionary changes . 
  • They are all the secondary data, meaning that the data collected for different purpose other than research related with the model, they are objective in the sense there is no motivation whatsoever to manipulate the data to meet any expectation related with the model. Beside those, the model clearly provides the answer to chicken or egg puzzle. It is testable, falsifiable and with predicting powers.

Some debates on The-scientist.com

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