Evidences to Support the Model

"All great truths begin as blasphemies."

 

George Bernard Shaw

Several pieces of evidence support validity of the model and below a few are discussed.

A. Polyploids

  • A polyploidy organism has more than two copies of each of its chromosomes. More than half of all land plants species are polyploids, including wheat, corn, and cotton. It is estimated that up to 85-95% ferns and many other plant species were generated by polyploids (Grant 1994; White 1978). Speciation via polyploidy is instantaneous, and only takes just one generation. Moreover, the new species are not spatially separated from its ancestors. Speciation through polyploidy occurs less often in animals, but it still exists (Gallardo 1999). Polyploidy animals may occur in a number of insect species including walking sticks, grasshoppers, blackflies, and beetles (Gregory 2005). Even there are several model to explain the mechanism of polyploids, nobody has proposed the twin mutation model, which would explain all speciation in bisexual plants and animals, including polyploids. Instantaneous speciation in both plants and animals are excellent sources to validate the GMCMI model, which holds that all species arise promptly in the same location as their ancestors.

This African clawed frog is an example of polyploids.

B. Virgin birth

  • Parthenogenesis or virgin birth, which has been seen in at least 70 species, including snakes and lizards, is a process in which eggs become embryos without male fertilization, Many annoying insects such as ants, bees, wasps, aphids as well as some fleas and ticks create progeny in this manner. Many of these species are believed to be descended from sexually reproducing ancestors (Schlupp 2005; Simon and Rispe, Claude & Sunnucks, Paul 2002).
  • A female white spotted bamboo shark at the Belle Isle Aquarium in Detroit surprised zookeepers in July by giving birth to two babies. It was a virgin birth or parthenogenesis as she had not been near a male shark for six years (Mayell 2002). Many of animals generated by virgin birth are self-reproductive, which are different species from their direct sexual ancestors, they are asexual animals, and the same principle is applicable, i.e. instantaneous speciation.

A virgin Komodo dragon named Flora gave birth at Chester Zoo, UK.

C. Correlation between number of species and litter size

  • The animals are moving subjects. If there are only one male and one female “hopeful monsters”, it is very easily for them to move away and mate with members of parental specie, resulting in non-reproduction with healthy offspring, and disappearance with little chance to be traced in fossils. But if there are thousands male and thousands female “hopeful monsters” from  same birth, even they still move away, likelihood for them to meet among themselves would be much higher than one in the previous case. This is what exactly we see in real world.
  • It is estimated that 20 to 30 million species of insects inhabit the earth, but only over 1 million of them are named and described. Only about 4,000 of the animal species are mammals but there are almost 3,500 species of cockroaches.
  • It is found that some termite queens can lay 6,000-7,000 eggs a day, and some termite queens can lay an eggs every two seconds. Certain parasitic wasps have eggs that keep on dividing, resulting in as many as 1,500 to 2,500 young from a single egg (Chauvin 1967; Grimaldi and Engel 2005).
  • Majority of mammals has litter sizes ranging from one to a few dozens and many large mammals have single birth. This limitation makes it very unlikely for them to branch into a future new species. In the model, the new animals are generated by mixed polyembryony, larger litter size in parental species, more speciation occur from the species. The model accurately predicts that there will be much more insect species than mammal species.

There are too many species of insects for biologists to count.

D. New species are found within decades

  • By the classical evolution theory, speciation should be a very slow process. As Mayr stated:

“Speciation, except for polyploidy and some other chromosomal process, is too slow to be observed directly. …… Owing to the slowness of the speciation process, it is not possible to study the same individual or population “just before” and just “after” speciation (Mayr 199).

  • However, new species were constantly discovered and they did not require thousands of generations, but only a few decades.
  • For instance, Fishelson in Eilat in 1975 looked at the morphology of 80 Pterois volitans. None of the specimens had a spotted, feather-like tentacle, although five specimens did have wider tentacles than normal. A follow-up study on the same reefs in Eilat found two new forms of lionfish among the 35 specimens examined. These fish had the eyespot on just a single tentacle. Subsequently, the feather-like tentacle form has been found outside the Red Sea in the Pacific Ocean (Fishelson 2006).

                                Old Pterois volitans does not have feather-like tentacle.

New type of Pterois volitans was generated in 40 years with feather-like tentacle.

  • The rates of speciation in cichlids has be astonishingly fast since the discovery of five endemics in Lake Nabugabo, a small lake that is less than 4000 years old and separated from Lake Victoria. These five species are believed to have close relatives in Lake Victoria and they chiefly differ in the male’s breeding coloration (Greenwood 1965). Even faster rates of speciation were suggested by the finding that the southern end of Lake Malawi was arid only two centuries ago and it is now inhabited by numerous endemic species and ‘color morphs’. These are believed to have originated during the last 200 years! (Meyer 1993).

Cichlid fishes have diversified in East African lakes into more than 600 species.

  • One observation relates to the description of a new Mexican cichlid, a new species, which is named Paratheraps breidohri by the authors, would be formed in less than 30 years old (Werner, U. & Stawlkowski, R. 1988). Salmon in a United States lake split into two separate populations in just 13 generations, or about 60-70 years (Hendry, Andrew P. and Wenburg, John K 2000).

  • Madeira is a rugged volcanic island with sharp black cliffs that block all but a few isolated rocky shores. The Portuguese first inhabited the island in the 15th century and they inadvertently dropped small groups of mice at each stop. Janice Britton-Davidian, a France evolutionary biologist, caught hundreds of small brown mice that appeared alike but were genetically distinct. The common brown house mouse of Europe, presumably the ancestor of the Madeira mice has 40 chromosomes. Britton-Davidian found six distinct populations that had from 22 to 30 chromosomes (Britton-Davidian and others 2000).

    Madeira Island

  • It is very difficult to visualize how this kind of speciation occurs by changes of allele frequencies or geographical isolation within such a short time. However, they are all consistent with the model that all speciation occurs in one generation.

E. Numerous biologists support mechanism of instantaneous speciation

  • Many well-known biologists and geneticists support the idea of instantaneous speciation. In 1889, Hugo de Vries, a Dutch botanist had hypothesized the existence of "pangenes" (now called "genes") and argued for a saltationist mechanism of evolution, with selection only operating to produce local varieties. Bateson recognized minor differences among each individual, but the change for new species is discontinuous in the sense that new features arise rapidly. For Morgan, a new feature could arise because of a single mutation, and a novel characteristic could arise by way of a single mutation, and, therefore, a new species could also does (Schwartz 1999).

T. H. Morgan

“Species and the higher categories originate in single macroevolutionary steps as completely new genetic systems(Goldschmidt 1940) "

“Is it realistic to think that an entire population may stem, via sexual reproduction, from a single fertilized female individual? The necessity of sibling mating the progeny of the founder individual poses no impenetrable genetic or other biological barrier to survival and reproduction. The extreme, naturally occurring case, wherein a population is founded by a single such propagule, is not only biological feasible but also provides a degree of operational simplicity for theoretical purposes (Carson 1984) “.

“Mutation accumulation does not lead to new species or even to new organs or new tissues. Rather the important transmitted variation that leads to evolutionary novelty comes from the acquisition of genomes. Entire sets of genes, indeed whole organisms each with its own genome, are acquired and (Margulis 2003)".

  • The idea of gross mutation and instantaneous speciation are consistent with the insights of these distinguished scientists. The biggest challenge is how to ensure that more than one “hopeful monster,” of each sex at the same time and place. This is a necessity because, for sexually reproducing organisms, at least one male and one female of a new species are required for the species to become established. The model is just filling a gap in knowledge.

References

Britton-Davidian J, Catalan J, da Graca Ramalhinho, M., Ganem G, Auffray JC, Capela R, Biscoito M, Searle JB, da Luz Mathias, M. 2000. Rapid chromosomal evolution in island mice. Nature 403(676):158.

Carson HL.1984. Genetic revolution in relation to speciation phenomena: The founding of new populations. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. (15):97-131.

Chauvin R. 1967. The world of an insect. New York: McGraw-Hill. Fishelson L. 2006. Evolution in action-peacock-feather-like supraocular tentacles of the lionfish, - the distribution of a new signal. Environmental Biology of Fishes 75:343-8.

Gallardo MM. 1999. Discovery of tetraploidy in a mammal. Nature 401:341.

Gregory TR. 2005. The evolution of the genome. Burlington: Elsevier Academic.

Hendry, Andrew P. and Wenburg, John K. 2000. Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: Evidence from introduced salmon. Science 290(5491):516-8.

Margulis L. 2003. DARWIN'S DILEMMA. In: Acquiring genomes: A theory of the origins of species. Book Books. 25 p.

Mayr E. 1988. Is biology an autonomous science?. In: Toward a new philosophy of biology: Observations of an evolutionist. Mass.: Belknap Press of University Press. 8 p.

Simon J and Rispe, Claude & Sunnucks, Paul. 2002. Ecology and evolution of sex in aphids. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:34-9.

Schlupp I. 2005. The evolutionary ecology of gynogenesis. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:399-417.

Schwartz J. 1999. Sudden origins: Fossils, genes, and the emergence of species. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Werner, U. & Stawlkowski, R. 1988. Ein neuer buntbarsch aus sudmexico: Paratheraps breidohri gen. Nov Spec Nov DATZ 41(1):20-3.

White MJD. 1978. Species and speciation. In: Modes of speciation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. 1 p.

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