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Matthew 7:7

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The first automaton chess player


The Turk, also known as the Mechanical Turk or Automaton Chess Player (GermanSchachtürke, "chess Turk"' HungarianA Török), was a fake chess-playing machine constructed in the late 18th century. From 1770 until its destruction by fire in 1854, it was exhibited by various owners as an automaton, though it was exposed in the early 1820s as an elaborate hoax.[1] Constructed and unveiled in 1770 by Wolfgang von Kempelen (1734–1804) to impress the Empress Maria Theresa, the mechanism appeared to be able to play a strong game of chess against a human opponent, as well as perform the knight's tour, a puzzle that requires the player to move a knight to occupy every square of a chessboard exactly once.

An engraving of the Turk from Karl Gottlieb von Windisch's 1784 bookInanimate Reason

Turk reconstruction


The Turk was in fact a mechanical illusion that allowed a human chess master hiding inside to operate the machine. With a skilled operator, the Turk won most of the games played during its demonstrations around Europe and the Americas for nearly 84 years, playing and defeating many challengers including statesmen such as Napoleon Bonaparte and Benjamin Franklin. Although many had suspected the hidden human operator, the hoax was initially revealed only in the 1820s by the Londoner Robert Willis.[2] The operator(s) within the mechanism during Kempelen's original tour remains a mystery. When the device was later purchased in 1804 and exhibited by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, the chess masters who secretly operated it included Johann AllgaierBoncourtAaron AlexandreWilliam LewisJacques Mouret, and William Schlumberger.

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CCRL 40/40 Rating List — All engines (Quote)June 28, 2014

Ponder off, General book (up to 12 moves), 3-4-5 piece EGTB
Time control: Equivalent to 40 moves in 40 minutes on Athlon 64 X2 4600+ (2.4 GHz)
Computed on June 28, 2014 with Bayeselo based on 522'540 games

Color legend: CommercialFreeOpen sourcePrivate.
Bold font - tested with 200 games or more. Normal font - less than 200 games


Cronología de las computadoras

Fuente: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_chess

1769, Wolfgang von Kempelen construye el autómata Ajedrez-Jugador , en qué se convierte en una de las mentiras más grandes de su período. 
1868, Hooper de Charles presentó el autómata de Ajeeb - que también tenía un jugador de ajedrez humano ocultado dentro. 
1912, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, español,  construye una máquina que podría jugar el rey y torre contra rey. 
1948, libro de Norbert Wiener que describe cómo un programa del ajedrez se podría desarrollar usando una búsqueda profundidad-limitada del minimax con una función de la evaluación. 
1950, Claude Shannon publica la “programación de una computadora para jugar a ajedrez”, uno de los primeros escritos del problema del ajedrez de computadoras. 
1951, Alan Turing desarrolla en el papel el primer programa capaz de jugar una partida completa de ajedrez. 
1952, Dietrich Prinz desarrolla un programa que solucione problemas de ajedrez. 
1956, primer programa de juego ajedrez, ajedrez de Los Alamos , fue desarrollado por Paul Stein y Marks Well para MANIACO I. 
1956, invención del algoritmo alfa-beta de búsqueda de Juan McCarthy 
1958, NSS se convierte en el primer programa del ajedrez en utilizar la búsqueda alfa-beta. 
1958, los primeros programas que podrían jugar un juego completo del ajedrez fueron desarrollados, uno por Alex Bernstein y otro por los programadores rusos que usaban un BESM. 
1967, “Mac Hac seises”, por Greenblatt y otros, se introduce tablas de transposición
1967, primeros enfrentamientos de computadoras  de ajedrez entre el programa de Kotok-McCarthy y el programa de ITEP desarrollados en el instituto de Moscú para la física teórica y experimental 
1970, primer año de los campeonatos norteamericanos del computadora de ajedrez  de ACM
1974, primer campeonato de computadoras de ajedrez del mundo 
1977, primer ajedrez comercial dedicado que jugaba al ajedrez, Chess Challenger
1977, establecimiento de la asociación internacional del ajedrez de computadora 
1980 ajedrez 4.6 desarrollado en la universidad de Northwesten que funciona en una computadora y se convierte en la primera computadora del ajedrez que gana un torneo importante del ajedrez. 
1980, establecimiento del premio de Fredkin. 
1981 Cray Blitz gana el campeonato del estado de Mississipi con una cuenta perfecta 5-0 y un ratio de elo de 2258. En 4 rondas derrotó a Joe Sentef (2262) para convertirse en la primera computadora con rango de maestro en un torneo de maestros. 
1982, Ken Thompson's, su maquina consigue el titulo de maestro USA.
1986, Chessmaster 2000, la primera versión de Chessmaster, el software más popular del ajedrez de computadora del mundo. 
1988, HiTech desarrollada por Hans Berliner y Carl Ebeling gana un encuentro contra el Gran Maestro Arnold Denker 3.5 - 0.5. 
1988, Pensamiento Profundo comparte el primer lugar con Tony Miles en el campeonato de Toolworks, delante del campeón del mundo Mikhail Tal  y de varios Grandes Maestros, incluyendo Samuel Reshevsky, Walter Browne, Ernst Gruenfeld y Mikhail Gurevich. También derrota a Larsen, siendola primera computadora para batir un GM en un torneo. Su Elo  en este torneo de 2745 (escala de USCF) era lo más alto posible obtenido por una computadora. 
1989, Pensamiento Profundo pierde dos partidas con Garry Kasparov, el campeón del mundo. 
1992, por primera vez un micro, el Chessmachine Gideon 3.1 por Ed Schroeder, gana el 7º campeonato de ajedrez de computadora del mundo delante hardware especial. 
1997, Profundamente Azul gana un encuentro a 6 partidas contra Garry Kasparov +2-1=3 
2002, Vladimir Kramnik empata un encuentro a 8 partidas contra Deep Fritz. 
2003, Kasparov empata un encuentro a 6 partidas con Deep Junior. 
2003, Kasparov empata un encuentro a 4 partidas con X3D Fritz. 
2005, Hydra derrota a Michael Adams 5.5-0.5. 
2005, un equipo de computadoras (Hydra, Deep Junior y Fritz), gana 8.5-3.5 contra un equipo humano fuerte, formado por Veselin Topalov, Ruslan Ponomariov y Sergey Karjakin,  con ELO medio de 2681.

 


 

1769, Wolfgang von Kempelen builds the Automaton Chess-Player, in what becomes one of the greatest hoaxes of its period. 
1868, Charles Hooper presented the Ajeeb automaton — which also had a human chess player hidden inside. 
1912, Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, spanish man, builds a machine that could play King and Rook versus King endgames. 
1948, Norbert Wiener's book Cybernetics describes how a chess program could be developed using a depth-limited minimax search with an evaluation function. 
1950, Claude Shannon publishes "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess", one of the first papers on the problem of computer chess. 
1951, Alan Turing develops on paper the first program capable of playing a full game of chess. 
1952, Dietrich Prinz develops a program that solves chess problems. 
1956, first program to play chess-like game, Los Alamos chess , was developed by Paul Stein and Mark Wells for MANIAC I. 
1956, invention of alpha-beta search algorithm by John McCarthy 
1958, NSS becomes the first chess program to use alpha-beta searching. 
1958, first programs that could play a full game of chess were developed, one by Alex Bernstein and one by Russian programmers using a BESM. 
1967, "Mac Hac Six", by Greenblatt et al. introduces hash tables 
1967, first computer chess match between the Kotok-McCarthy program and the ITEP program developed at Moscow Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics 
1970, first year of the ACM North American Computer Chess Championships 
1974, first World Computer Chess Championship 
1977, the first microcomputer chess playing machine, CHESS CHALLENGER, was created 
1977, establishment of the International Computer Chess Association 
1980, Chess 4.6 developed at Northwesten University running on a Control Data computer becomes the first chess computer to be a successful at a major chess tournament. 
1980, establishment of the Fredkin Prize. 
1981 Cray Blitz won the Mississipi State Championship with a perfect 5-0 score and a performance rating of 2258. In round 4 it defeated Joe Sentef (2262) to become the first computer to beat a master in tournament play and the first computer to gain a master rating. 
1982, Ken Thompson's hardware chess player Belle earns a US master title. 
1986, Chessmaster 2000, the first version of Chessmaster, the most popular computer chess software in the world, is released. 
1988, HiTech developed by Hans Berliner and Carl Ebeling wins a match against grandmaster Arnold Denker 3.5 - 0.5. 
1988, Deep Thought shares first place with Tony Miles in the Software Toolworks Championship, ahead of a former world champion Mikhail Tal and several grandmasters including Samuel Reshevsky, Walter Browne, Ernst Gruenfeld and Mikhail Gurevich. It also defeats grandmaster Bent Larsen, making it the first computer to beat a GM in a tournament. Its rating for performance in this tournament of 2745 (USCF scale) was the highest obtained by a computer player. 
1989, Deep Thought loses two exhibition games to Garry Kasparov, the reigning world champion. 
1992, first time a micro, the Chessmachine Gideon 3.1 by Ed Schroeder, wins the 7th World Computer Chess Championship in front of mainframes and special hardware. 
1997, Deep Blue wins a six-game match against Garry Kasparov +2-1=3
2002, Vladimir Kramnik draws an eight-game match against Deep Fritz. 
2003, Kasparov draws a six-game match against Deep Junior. 
2003, Kasparov draws a four-game match against X3D Fritz. 
2005, Hydra defeats Michael Adams 5.5-0.5. 
2005, a team of computers (Hydra, Deep Junior and Fritz), win 8.5-3.5 against a rather strong human team formed by Veselin Topalov, Ruslan Ponomariov and Sergey Karjakin, who had an average ELO rating of 2681

    World Computer Chess Championship - 2013

    WCCC 2013

    Played games: wccc2013.pgn
    Report: 20th WCCC.pdf
    Cross Table
    #NameScore123456
    1Junior1111
    2Shredder0001½½11
    3Hiarcs0011½½11
    4Pandix10½½½½11
    5Jonny7½½½½11
    6Merlin00000000000

    Program Overview
    (as given by the programmers)
    ProgramCountryTeamHardware
    JuniorIsraelAmir Ban, Shay BushinskyDual 12 core Intel Xenon I5 2.7 GHz
    JonnyGermanyJohannes Zwanzger2400 core AMD 2.8 GHz
    MerlinHungaryBalazs JakoI7-3740, 2.7 GHz, 16 GB RAM
    PandixHungaryGyuala HorvathI7-3740, 2.7 GHz, 16 GB RAM
    ShredderGermanyStefan Meyer-Kahlen16 core Intel 3.1 GHz
    HiarcsGreat BritainMark Uniacke16 core Intel Xenon E5 3.1 GHz
    (4204 viewers)
    PGN file: PGN

    Links


 Carlsen the new World Chess Champion 2013 -

Chennai, India
The World Chess Championship 2013 was a match between the defending world champion Viswanathan Anand of India and challenger Magnus Carlsen of Norway, winner of the 2013 World Championship Candidates Tournament.
 Anand Carlsen 2013
 Carlsen opening with 1.c4 in critical round five.
The match gathered record-setting TV audiences in Anand's home country of India, and huge interest around the world. It took place from November 7-22 at the Hyatt Regency Chennai. Carlsen won the match 6.5 to 3.5, after ten of the twelve scheduled games.
The match started with on a timid tone, with both players employing extremely solid opening strategies, perhaps to conceal the bulk of their opening preparation. Carlsen opened games 1 and 3 with 1.Nf3, a move that he historically has seldom employed.
Carlsen was the first to draw blood in game 5 as he turned a tiny advantage from a Queen's Gambit into a powerful ending. The pressure continued in game 6 when Anand's Ruy Lopez went wrong and Carlsen again achieved a win. In game 9 Anand finally found what he was seeking: a complex position with good winning chances, but his attack went wrong after 28.Nf1? which lost immediately.
Three games down coming into round 10, the match was all but over for Anand, and a hard fought draw in game 10 finished the match at only 10 games, making Magnus Carlsen the 16th undisputed World Chess Champion. 
click on a game number to replay game12345678910
Anand½½½½00½½0½
Carlsen½½½½11½½1½
FINAL SCORE:  Carlsen 6½;  Anand 3½
Reference: game collection Anand-Carlsen WCC 2013

NOTABLE GAMES   [what is this?]
   · Game #9   Anand vs Carlsen, 2013   0-1
   · Game #6   Anand vs Carlsen, 2013   0-1
   · Game #5   Carlsen vs Anand, 2013   1-0








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