0today is

Site owners

  • aravinda. de. silva

Page authors

  • aravinda. de. silva
    March 14, 2013

Page authors

  • aravinda. de. silva
    March 14, 2013

Site owners

  • aravinda. de. silva

SRI LANKA SHANE TOURS -PACKAGE

     

** - PLEASE NOTE - TOUR PLANS AND RATES ARE AVAILABLE ON BOTTOM OF THIS PAGE , AND ALSO READ MORE ABOUT SRI LANKA.

   

Weather

Sri Lanka is tropical, with distinct dry and wet seasons. The seasons are slightly complicated by having two monsoons. From May to August the Yala monsoon brings rain to the island’s southwestern half, while the dry season here lasts from December to March. The southwest has the highest rainfall – up to 4000mm a year. The Maha monsoon blows from October to January, bringing rain to the North and East, while the dry season is from May to September. The North and East are comparatively dry, with around 1000mm of rain annually. There is also an inter-monsoonal period in October and November when rain can occur in many parts of the island.

Colombo and the low-lying coastal regions have an average temperature of 27°C. At Kandy (altitude 500m), the average temperature is 20°C, while Nuwara Eliya (at 1889m) has a temperate 16°C average. The sea stays at around 27°C all year.


Sri Lanka seasonal weather map
..
 

PHOTOS - VIDEOS @ SRI LANKA

SRI LANKA SHANE TOURS
 
TEL NO - 0094771314136 / 0771314136
EMAIL - chefaravinda@gmail.com / OR / chefaravinda50@yahoo.com



 

 







HAVE A CUP OF BLACK TEA

RELAX ON SUNNY BEACH



YOUNG AND FUN





 




DEAR SRI LANKA LOVERS........I LIKE TO OFFER YOU ...!!!!!
             SRI LANKA TRIP PACKAGES
LOOKING FOR A WONDERFUL GET A WAY COME VISIT SRI LANKA! YOU WILL BE DELIGHTED BY THE BEAUTY OF THE
country! come and stay in a beautiful LUXURY HOTEL or BEACH FRONT hotel. there is plenty to do. from shopping to visiting some of our beautiful parks. you will be delighted with the kinniya hot water wells are reputed as one of the 7 wonders of sri lanka. this place has seven hot wells. water is in different temperatures. the place is located in kinniya 7 km away from trincomalee. people believe that bathing in these well will refresh themselves. this is one of the historical places of trincomalee district.

or hummanaya, is reputed to as the 2nd largest blowhole in the world. a visit to the hummanaya also gives you an opportunity to take a dip in the sea and a day of leisure at the glorious tangalle beach. the place is 89km.south of colombo is dikwella, a coastal town 22km east. the ocean water flows underneath the shore, and then comes out of this hole due to pressure. water shoots up every minute or so, and it gives a very serene feeling.

you can come and check out parakrama samudra, an inland sea with a spectackular view, if you like wild life come check out randenigala wild life santuary, great place for bird watching, or somawathiya national park where you will be one with nature! visit rekawa, it is among the top 10 eco friendly destinations in the world.

if you art you can visit ambekke devalaya is world famous for it's carved woodern work

this world famous ancient place is dedicated to god kataragama. this temple is famed for its carved wooden pillars with intricate designs. the pillars leap to life with dancers, musicians, wrestlers,
legendary beasts and birds.

nearby are the ruins of an ancient rest house with similar pillars carved in stone. all the above
described monuments belong to the 14th century.

there is so much to do and see while you stay in sri lanka, and if you just want spend a relaxing day soaking up the sun or just playing the water check out our beautiful beaches.  
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
PACKAGE - 01
ROUND TOUR
This tour plan for  14  nights ,
RATES
  include - hotel room or luxury guest house room  <up to the area> break fast  / snack for   
-lunch /     dinner / round tour for  14  nights / tour guide /  vehicle / driver / entrance fee of national park , culture siteS,
BREAK FAST  AND DINNER WESTERN STYLE , IF YOU LIKE SRI LANKAN FOOD , YOU CAN HAVE,
                                   TOUR -1ST - NIGHT -ARI PORT -TO -NEGOMBO BEACH
                                                  2 ND-NIGHT - ANURADHAPURAYA
                                                  3RD -4TH -NIGHTS IN SIGIRIYA  AND  DHAMBULLA
                                                  5TH- NIGHT -KANDY < TOOH TEMPLE / BOTANICAL GARDEN / CULTURE SHOW /
                                                                                               GEMING / JEWELLERY / GEMS / SHOPPING
                                                  6TH - NIGHT - KANDY - ELEPHANT OPHANAGE
                                                  7TH - NIGHT - NUWARA ELIYA  -< CITY TOUR > VIA - BANDARAWELA
                                                                              THIS IS HILLS IN SRI LANKA < TEA PLANTATION < TEA FACTORY >
                                                  8TH - NIGHT -  THISSA / KATARAGAMA
                                                                               NEXT DAY EARLY MORNING  YALA - NATIONAL PARK
                                                   9TH - NIGHT   EBILIPITIYA-HOT WATER SPRING AND VILLEGE  TOUR.                
                                                                              NICE VILLEGE AREA IN SRI LANKA ,ON WAY BACK TO GALLE....          
                                                                               HUMMANAYA /  -WATER BLOW HALL 
                                                  10TH -NIGHT -   GALLE  < DODANDUWA OR HIKKADUWA>
                                                  11-TH- NIGHT - UNAWATUNA  BEACH / DUTCH FORT / GALLE CITY TOUR 
                                                  12 TH -NIGHT -REST ON THE BEACH  /  DODANDUWA LAKE SAFARY
                                                  13 TH NIGHT - COLOMBO ZOO / CITY TOUR WITH SHOPPING
                                                  14 TH NIGHT - COLOMBO - DAY AND NIGHT AS YOU WISH......
                                                                               UNTILL DEPARTURE....

RATES PER-01-PERSON , 3000/-US DOLLERS
                        01-COUPLE , 5600/-US DOLLERS
                        03 -PERSON GROUP -PER PERSON -2500 /-US DOLLERS ,
                                7500/-US DOLLERS FOR 3 PERSON GROUP
                        04- PERSON GROUP-PER PERSON -2300/-US DOLLERS
                                FOR  04 PERSON -9200/-US DOLLERS
                        05-PERSON GROUP- PER PERSON 2100/-
                               FOR 05 PERSONS -10,500/-
                        05 PERSON UP ....RATE IS PER PERSON ....2100/-US DOLLERS

***.................WELCOME... ....THANK YOU .....***
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

PACKAGE -2
THIS PACKAGE INCLUDE BEACH FRONT LUXURY  HOTEL ROOM / FULL BOARD /
UP AND DOWN AIR PORT TAXI / VISITING GUIDE.....ALL THE WAY YOU ARE FREE
ROOMS AVAILABLE IN - DODANDUWA / HIKKADUWA / KOGGALA  / NEGOMBO /
**IF YOU LIKE WE CAN ARRENGE -*VILLAS / *ECO TOURISM GUEST HOUSE  /
 OR - *PRIVET  HOUSE  / FOR THIS RATE......BUT THIS AREAS...INFRONT OF....
LAKE  OR RIVER.
RATES--SINGLE....................7 DAYS......................1300/- US DOLLERS
                DOUBLE..................7 DAYS.......................1650/-US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
                TRIPLE....................7DAYS.........................1850/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
               
                SINGLE....................14 DAYS.....................2000/- US DOLLERS
                DOUBLE...................14 DAYS.....................2400/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
                TRIPLE.....................14 DAYS......................2800/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
*****FOR THIS RATE WE WILL GIVE YOU RIVER SAFARY   AND  AREA CITY TOUR

******.........WELCOME...................THANK YOU...........................**********
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

PACKAGE -3
THIS PACKAGE INCLUDE , BEACH FRONT HOTEL / FULL  BOARD / UP AND DOWN -
AIR PORT TAXI / VISITING GUIDE
ALL THE WAY YOU ARE FREE , ROOMS AVAILABLE IN
DODANDUWA , HIKKADUWA , KOGGALA , NEGOMBO ,
FOR SAME RATE WE CAN GIVE YOU VILLEGE AREA HOTELS IN GALLE
RATES.........SINGLE.............................07 DAYS..........................1100/-US DOLLERS
                        DOUBLE..........................07 DAYS..........................1300/-US DOLLERS   ONE ROOM
                       TRIPLE..............................07 DAYS..........................1500/-US DOLLERS    ONE ROOM
                 
                       SINGLE............................14 DAYS...........................1300/-US DOLLERS
                       DOUBLE...........................14 DAYS...........................1500/- US DOLLERS ONE ROOM
                       TRIPLE..............................14 DAYS........................... 1 700/- US DOLLERS ONE ROOM

*********....FOR THIS RATE WE WILL GIVE AREA CITY TOUR...........*********

**************WELCOME............................THANK YOU...............................................

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


PACKAGE - 4
THIS TOUR PLAN FOR 14 NIGHTS , RATES INCLUDE  HOTEL ROOM OR LUXURY
GUEST HOUSE ROOM
<UP TO THE AREA> BREAK FAST /SNACK FOR LUNCH
/ DINNER / ROUND TOUR FOR 14 NIGHTS / TOUR GUIDE / VEHICLE / DRIVER /
ENTRANCE FEE OF NATIONAL PARK  AND  CULTURE SITES ,
BREAK FAST AND DINNER WESTERN STYLE ,
IF ANY  GUEST LIKE SRI LANKA FOOD , YOU CAN HAVE .

TOUR .............01- ST- NIGHT ..........AIR PORT TO  NEGOMBO
                          02 - ND - AND
                          03 - RD - NIGHTS .........KANDY
                                                           TOOTH TEMPLE / BOTANICAL GARDEN / GEMING /
                                                           JEWELERY / GEMS / SHOPPING /
                         04 - TH - NIGHT - ANURADHAPURAYA
                         05 - TH - NIGHT - AND
                         06 - TH - NIGHTS - SIGIRIYA / DAMBULLA / POLONNARUWA
                         07 - TH - NIGHT - TRINCOMALEE....KINNIYA HOT WATER WELLS AND
                                                          CITY TOUR
                         08 - TH - NIGHT.....VIA - WAKARAI /  WALACHCHENA  / KALKUDA / PASIKUDA
                                                            TO BATICALOW ......CITY TOUR
                        09- TH - NIGHT.....ARUGAMBAY ...... REST ON THE  SURFING BEACH
                        10 - TH - NIGHT.....TISSAMAHARAMAYA / KATARAGAMA
                        11- TH -..................... EARLY IN THE MORNING  TO YALA NATIONAL PARK ,
                                                            ON THE WAY BACK TO - GALLE / HIKKADUWA...,
                                                             visit HUMMANAYA <2-nd largest blow hale in the world>
                        11 - TH - NIGHT -    GALLE  OR  HIKKADUWA  OR  DODANDUWA
                        12 - TH - NIGH -       DUTCH FORT AND  GALLE  CITY  TOUR
                        13 - TH -....................REST ON THE BEACH......OR ..........AS YOU WISH....
                                                            ..OR .................NIGHT LIFE IN HIKKADUWA.........................
                        13 - TH -NITE -         *DODANDUWA / HIKKADUWA
                        14 - TH - NIITE-       COLOMBO - COLOMBO ZOO / CITY TOUR WITH SHOPING..........
                                                           ...................  AS YOU WISH UNTILL DEPARTURE.................

RATES PER - ONE PERSON -............................. 3400/- US DOLLERS
                           0NE COUPLE  -............................. 6400/- US DOLLERS
                           3 PERSON GROUP  ...................9300/- US DOLLERS - , PER PERSON 3100/-
                          4 PERSON GROUP......................11,600/- US DOLLERS-,PER PERSON 2900/-
                          5 PERSON GROUP......................13,750/-US DOLLERS- PERPERSON 2750/-
                          5 PERSON UP ................................RATE IS PER PERSON.....2750/-USD
                           .............WELCOME .................THANK YOU........................
  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////





KANDY TOOTH TEMPLE













 WEALS WATCHING
 


 











YALA NATIONAL PARK









 




When to go

Climatically speaking, the driest (and best) seasons in Sri Lanka are from December to March for the west coast, the south coast and the Hill Country, and from April to September for the ancient cities region and the east coast.

December through March are also the months when most foreign tourists visit, the majority of them escaping the European winter. During the Christmas to New Year holiday season, in particular, accommodation anywhere on the island can be tight due to the huge influx of foreign visitors.

July/August is the time of the Kandy Esala Perahera, the 10-day festival honouring the sacred tooth relic of the Buddha, and also the time for the Kataragama festival in the South. In both towns accommodation just before, during and immediately after the festivals is very difficult to come by, and rates usually double or treble. Be sure to book rooms well in advance.

Sri Lanka’s climate means that it is always the ‘right’ beach season somewhere on the coast. The weather doesn’t follow strict rules, though – it often seems to be raining where it should be sunny, and sunny where it should be raining. Rainfall tends to be emphatic – streets can become flooded in what seems like only minutes.

Out-of-season travel has its advantages – not only do the crowds go away but many air fares and accommodation prices drop right down. Nor does it rain all the time during the low season.


........



Location of Sri Lanka

Situated in the Indian Ocean and located just off the Southern Coast of India, this island paradise has often been considered the pearl of the Indian Ocean.

Though the country has no other immediate neighbors except for India & Maldives, Sri Lanka maintains close ties with Bangladesh, Pakistan, and other Asian countries in the region.

Sri Lanka’s location at the southern tip of India has always made it an important strategic drop off point for ships making long journeys that pass through Asia which allowed the country to prosper.

With a location just above the equator the country enjoys a lovely tropical climate that provides relatively constant weather throughout the year. Despite this, it also features two main monsoons season that bring about heavy periods of rain.

It is because of this location and the associated climate that the country has beautiful landscapes and a diverse array of wildlife.

About Sri Lanka

About Sri Lanka

Nestled in the Indian Ocean, surrounded by bountiful waves and exotic beauty all around, Sri Lanka is known to many as the Pearl of the Indian Ocean and is a true paradise on earth.  With beautiful golden beaches, splendid terrains and jungles, as well as cultural and historical sites, this picturesque island provides an abundant source of attractions and places to visit.

Sri Lanka, which is one of the world’s most loved tourist destinations, offers visitors many recreational activities along with rest and relaxation means such as Ayurveda and meditation centers  Rejuvenate your mind, body and soul as you unravel the mysteries of this resplendent isle.

With culture overflowing in every corner of this beautiful island, events & festivals occurring throughout the year, no matter the time of year, Sri Lanka will provide you with a galore of excitement and fun.

With a world of excitement and people who welcome you with warm friendly smiles, discover the rich historical and cultural attractions that promises a holiday that you will remember for the rest of your life.

......

History of Sri Lanka

Since the time of Prince Vijaya (who was the son of King Sinhabahu and Queen Sinhasivali) set foot in Taprobane, it marked a turning point in history of the 2500 years of civilisation. When the newly arrived prince made relations with the native inhabitants and eventually married the local Queen Kuveni it started off the events that would shape the history of this country. This event has been documented in the Pali chronicles of Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa, Thupavamsa and the Chulavamsa.

With a diverse and colourful history that followed, many battles and kingdoms have risen and fallen, in the dynasties of Kandy, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa and Jaffna. Following the arrival of the Portuguese, an era of colonialism arrived. From the early 16th century to as recent as 1948, when Sri Lanka, then Ceylon attained its independence, the Portuguese, Dutch and British ruled over the land.

After almost five centuries of colonial rule, Sri Lanka was given independence in 1948 of February 4th. Under the guidance of Don Stephen Senenayake, who was appointed as Sri Lanka’s first Prime Minister, ensured that they were free of government by the British Commonwealth.

Following the liberation of Sri Lanka, the population has faced many strife and victory. United as a country, this paradise island hopes to keep its history alive and strong for the future generations to come. 


INTRODUCTION TO AYURVEDA

Ayurveda is an ancient holistic treatment method and its origins in India and Sri Lanka.
Ayurvedic herbal medicine (plant roots, barks, wood, fresh leaves and extracts, gem stones and minerals,) is the old traditional, holistic medical preparation. Its purpose is to prevent illnesses by making use of the endless energies of nature.
Its ultimate goal is maintain good health and comprehensively prevent illness.
According to Ayurvedic science, each one of us has a distinct pattern of energy and this pattern is called “the three Doshas”, defined as Vatha, Pitta and Kapha.
With our ailments these three Doshas become imbalance.


The aim of Panchakarma Ayurveda cure is re-establish the balance of the different energies by elimination of collecting toxins from the body (through herbal medicine, nutritious foods, massages, thermo-therapy, yoga, meditation and the environment.)

..



WATER SPORTS IN SRI LANKA
...
..
..

When blue waters of tropical island of Sri Lanka are ready to give you a feel of dauntless water sport activity then why to think much just let your spirit free and experience thousand delights in this ultimate paradise.

Pear shaped island of Sri Lanka happens to be the mysterious garden of surf holiday and is also looked upon as one of the most trustworthy surf spots in the Indian Ocean. To undertake a spine tickling water exercise, what all is required by an aquatic sport lover that vary from tropical beaches to ancient monuments to euphoric vegetation to the inevitable perfect climatic conditions and diving sport equipment's  this island has it all to revitalize you to the maximum on this aesthetic tropical island. So, we present you the best of aquatic sport forms which are tempting and are readily proposed to everyone.

Fishing 
Often referred to as 'Pearl of Indian Ocean', Sri Lanka is bagged with countless water sport marvels. Out of which, deep sea fishing is the excellent one and the credit goes to its extensive coastline and innumerable lakes and reservoirs. Sri Lanka's deep sea fishing is a seasonal activity, with the east cost at its best from May to September and the western and southern shore easily obtainable from November to April. Choose fishes from the beaches and try troll fishing but don't forget to carry rods, bait and safety jackets to have a safe fishing exploration.

Boating 
The first and foremost name when comes to mind of a common man related to water sport activities is boating. Here in HIKKADUWA you can rent glass-bottomed boats to dive down to the fish occupied reef. Totally romantic and magical along the palm-fringed coast it can be than to paddle at a relaxing isle pace. It really provides one of the country's most lovely images, so must try Banana Boating. It is really up-and-coming water sport around the world. As the name suggests, it is a boat whose shape resembles a banana that is in turn fixed to a motorboat. It can be delightfully enjoyed by a group of six people and may you find it similar to rafting and hence famous amongst young and adventurous crowd.

Rafting & Canoeing 
Rafting can be fantastically done along the rivers such as Kelani River in Kitulgala, southwest of Kandy. Sri Lanka boasts of hundred of small streams and rivers that start from hills that are really superb for providing you handsome water opportunities. Further, go for canoeing that can be best taken place next to the very Kelani Ganga and Kalu Ganga or Black River.

Scuba Diving 
Sri Lanka happens to be the flawless place for water sports, as a result, Scuba diving was discovered. Packed with loads of dive sites such as beautifully shaped coral that abode varied number fish species like the Moorish Idol, the Emperor Angel, Sergeant-Major, Powder Blue Surgeon, Lion, etc. are really gripping. Several other diving whereabouts contain Unawatuna on the south coast, Hikkaduwa and Tangalla on the west coast, and Nilaveli on the east coast are also very seducing. So, come here amid the important months from November to April and consider yourself lucky after getting in touch with number of PADI qualified instructors at Dive schools which make Scuba Diving an easy process for you.

Kayaking 
World class Kayaking environment can be created through verdant settings enclosed by the phenomenal coral reefs during your tour. It is an enthusiastic water sport to attract you and deliberately introduced to give you a memorable underwater experience

.HOPPERS

..
  
.
.

Sri Lanka Foods, Sri Lanka.


Foods in Sri Lanka can be hot or very mild or can be combination being very much a question of individual preference. Sri Lankan food is unique for their Culture. Many Sinhala food items are derived from Chena cultivation. Sri Lankan cuisineplays a vital role in the islanders’ life from the most auspicious Sinhala/ Hindu New Year to normal day-to-day practices. They make milk rice and special sweets with coconut milk, floor and Honey at cultural festivals. It is recognized as one of the sixty- four types of art, "Siu Seta kalawa". The curries come in many verities of colors and flavors blended in Sri Lankan Hot Spiceshas a great ayurvedic value when used in curries.


Most of the Sri Lankans eat vegetables. With a large community of farmers the Rice and curry is the main food in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka curries are known for their fiery hot spicy flavors and coconut milk is very distinct feature of Sri Lankan cuisine that different regions of country specialize in different types of dishes. The specialty in Sri Lankan food is that same food is differently made in different regions. Dishes from the North region of Sri Lanka have distinct south Indian flavors. Dishes from the South region of Sri Lanka can be Spicy, Hot or Mild. The meals of the southern region of Sri Lanka are known for their variety and fishing village though the coastal strip. Ambulthiyal a unique spicy fish preparation with thick gamboges "Goraka" paste. Certain types of fish Balaya , Kelawalla are native to Southern seas. "Lunu dehi" (lime pickle) and jaadi (Pikled fish) are food items made from methods of preserving since they could dry them in sun during rainless days. Western region of Sri Lanka has foreign influence much more than other regions. Many items made using wheat flour always had made Sri Lankan dishes foreign. Since upper western coastal region is dry, fish is dried with salt as a preservative. This is called "Karawala" (dry fish).

Spices such as Cloves, Cardamoms, nutmeg and pepper are found in abundance throughout Kandy and Matale District inCentral region of Sri LankaEastern province constitutes three major ethnic groups. Sinhala, Muslim and Tamil, Chena cultivation, Game meat from nearby forests and dry Weather have influenced many food items. Staple diet of Sri Lanka is 'Rice and curry' the word ‘curry’ convering a multitude of dishes which are made according to different methods of cooking fromSoups, meat, Sea food, Lentils, Vegetables, Sambols, Mallums, Phies to Achcharus. Curd and Treacle and Sweetmeats made from Rice flour and palm treacle, jiggery along with various types of fruits are additions to the meal as the dessert. The Palm, Coconut, Kithul, Palmyra from which the treacle is made will vary accordingly. Sri Lankans also like several juicy sweetmeats like Kavum, kokis, Halape, Thalaguli and Wattalapam etc. Sri Lankans also like to have drinks like tea and coffee.

..


Oyster Grand Tour

Galle-located 116 km to the south of Colombo on the southwest corner of the island-was founded in the 16th century by the Portuguese. It is the best example of a fortified city built by Europeans in South and South-East Asia, showing the interaction between European architectural styles and South Asian traditions. Galle has been declared a World Heritage City by the UNESCO.

Over the years Hikkaduwa has spread south, absorbing several hamlets. The best spot for surfing in Hikkaduwa is a short distance from the Marine Sanctuary, off the beaches of Wewala and Narigama. Here there are no very large waves but instead accommodating breaks that seldom become frightening. That is why beginners, who need to feel safe in order to progress with confidence, get on so well at Hikkaduwa. Nevertheless, always remember the coral and wear booties, as well as having a first aid kit handy for the odd scrape.

Galle Fort (Dutch Fort)
Galle Fort, in the Bay of Galle on the south east coast of Sri Lanka, was built first in 1588 by the Portuguese then extensively fortified by the Dutch during the 17th century from 1649 onwards. The heritage value of the fort has been recognized by the UNESCO and the site has been inscribed as a cultural heritage. The fort, originally built by the Portuguese in the 16th century to defend Galle. 

Dutch Museum
A well-known museum, located within the Galle Fort. It is a historical, archaeological and architectural heritage monument, which even after more than 423 years maintains a polished appearance, due to extensive reconstruction work done by Archaeological Department. Dutch museum exhibits of marine artifacts found in underwater explorations are show cased in the Museum. Ship wrecks in the sea off the Southern coast is where these artifacts were recovered from, some of which are nearly 800 years old.
Koggala
Koggala, is the hometown of a famous writer Martin Wickramasinghe. The museum of Folk, Art & Culture built in his honour at his old residence. They include the costumes of folk dancers, sports items, household items and furniture and vast arena of the folk life of the early 20th century. Take a boat trip in the lagoon and Kogggala Lake to see many of its small islands, which is a popular destination for bird watching. Most importantly do not forget to visit the sea-turtle too.
Dutch Reformed Church
Built by a Dutch Army officer at the site of a previous Portuguese church and completed in 1754 the church is situated close to the new entrance to the fort. The church contains record of marriages since 1748 and baptism from 1678. The major highlight of the building is there are no pillars inside the building and the weight of the roof is supported by the walls.

Ahangama / Midigama
Home to a unique type of fishing technique. Silt fishing is a popular fishing method in the area and a very beautiful scenery to watch especially during sunset. Ahangama is also a popular surfing location.




Madu River
Madu (ganga) River is also a remarkable place to visit. Madu River flows by adding an incomparable beauty to the surrounding. It is unique in its beauty, hundreds of islets, mangroves, indigenous aquatic birds and fish creates a green heaven in front of your eyes. This green heritage is a kind of lab for the researches, local and the foreign college/university students and journalists who are discovering the secrets of this treasure.
Hikkaduwa Beach
Hikkaduwa has been a favourite destination with international surfers for three decades. Because it also attracts non-surfers, this fishing village has a comprehensive and well-developed tourist infrastructure, such as a bewildering number of guesthouses - including many situated on the beachfront - and a cosmopolitan array of rsstaurants and cafes. Being good value for money as well, it is little wonder that Hikkaduwa has been as popular for as long. . 

Gallery...Sinhalese History


Sri Lanka shane tours  (tel 0094771314136 / email -  chefaravinda@gmail.com) 


presents you with the opportunity to visit historical & cultural sites of the Sinhalese. During Sri Lanka shane  tours, while you tour ancient kingdoms with its rainwater reservoirs, temples & stupas it would be of value for you to have a printed copy of this web page titled Sinhalese History.

Pre-history of Sri Lanka , Garden of Eden & Adam's Bridge of Sri Lanka, Recorded History of Sri Lanka, Modern History of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a wondrous land whose history runs into 2550 years & legends runs into Adam' Bridge and Adam's Peak.


In spite of the origin of the Sinhalese & Indian influence on the new born race with respect of Buddhism, culture, art & historical connections adverse as well as favourable, island of Sri Lanka has never been a part of India. Neither historically nor geographically was the Island ever conquered, except in the narration of mythological epicRamayana. The conqueror therein Lord Rama, an avatar of Hindu god Vishnu himself, who secured his abducted consort Sita, returned the kingdom of Lanka (of the tribes "Yaksha", "Deva" & "Naga") to righteousPrince Vibishana, brother of the defeated "Yaksha tribe" king of Lanka, Ravana.


While transiting from mythology to history, it is interesting to note a quote attributed to a Chola Prince who arrived in Sri Lanka. "Hail Prosperity in the year Sanbhu Puspa (i.e One thousand One Hundred & Forty Five) of the Saka Era, when the Sun was in the mansion of Aries, Hasta being the constellation (in conjugation with the moon) & the point of the ecliptic at the horizon (lagna) being Aries, the illustrious Codagama deva having arrived in the unconquerable Lanka, the forehead ornament of earth to the Lord Siva at Gokarnna (Trincomalee)". That is a testimony to the belief in the South Indian kingdoms that despite constant invasions of powerful Dravidian armies Sri Lanka could not be conquered.


Sri Lanka is of unbroken recorded history of over 2550 years. Historical chronicles are found in stone inscriptions (sel lipi), leaf writings (Hela Atuva) & also in great Indian chronicles as Mahabarata and Ramayana. The main historical evidence is the Mahavamsa of Sri Lanka, also including Dipavamsa and Chulavamsa.


In this chapter some of the main events of the history of India are indicated for the purpose of in-depth continuity of history of the island in as well as in an effort to give due credit to "fons et origo" (the source & origin of) for the heritage of Buddhism & influence of Indian art, architecture & culture of Sri Lanka.

 

Pre-history of Sri Lanka in an Indo-Aryan perspective



 

125,000 years ago

Palaeolithic human settlements by 125,000 year old people using quartz tools


 

34,000 years ago

Balangoda people; Mesolithic hunter gatherers lived in caves


 

28,000 years ago

According to some expert archaeologists, humans lived in Lanka. Unexcavated caves belonging to Pahurakanda temple bear evidence to this.


 

20,000 years ago

Prehistoric skeletal remains have been unearthed & there are two sites in Sigiriya, which have continuous sequence for around 20,000 years according to archaeologist Dr. Senaka Banadaranayake.


 

Circa 10,000 BC

The first Stone Age culture emerges in Sri Lanka, & is related to early settlers in Australia, the Nicobar Islands & Malaysia, etc. Stone age factory in Bandarwela, Hill country uses fire to shatter quartz to make tools (microliths).


According to Sir James Emerson Tennant Galle was the "Tarshish" referred to in the Bible as the port where ships trading with King Soloman obtained their Elephants, Peacocks & Gemstones.


Circa 6000 BC

Beginnings of Neolithic settlements-Sumeria, Egypt & Indus Valley Sun dried brick houses, domestication of cattle, agriculture, and Copper known


 

Circa 4000 BC

Invention of the potters' wheel


 

Circa 300O BC

Epic mythological war of India's Prince Rama, an incarnation of Hindu god Vishnu against Lankadipa's demon king Ravana; Ram'a quest to save his abducted wife Sita, from Ravana. Righteous Vibishana, a brother of King Ravana, takes the side of Lord Rama & wage war against his brother. Rama conquers Lanka & returns the throne to Vibhishana & claims no tribute.


 

Circa 2500 BC

Beginnings of the astronomical observations takes place in India.


 

Circa 1500 BC

The emergence of Indian Astrology in India- an Ancient Science


Indian Astrology is considered to be one of the oldest, most accurate and consistent form of astrology all over the world. It is a natural cosmic science based on real astronomy. In India, where Astrology is taken very seriously, it is one of the most important gifts to the Indian culture. Indian Astrology is generally regarded to be very predictive in nature and hence, it can help you to face the future in a better way, evading any misfortunes or obstacles that might be laid down in your path to success.


The ancient Vedas which are said to be the oldest religious literature available has references to this science. "Jyothisha or Astrology" is one of the limbs of the "Vedas" which date back to 1500 B.C. Hindus were the original masters who had the thorough knowledge of astronomy and many rituals and religious rites were related to the position of planets and their motions.


Long before Keppler, Copernicus, Brahe, Galilio and other galaxy of astronomers were born, the Hindu sages had already gained much knowledge on the stellar or planetary universe.


Indian Astrology has been divided into three main branches of study: Siddanta, Samhita & Hora.


Siddantas are those who devote to astronomical study of celestial bodies Samhitas deal with mundane astrology, earth quakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, rainfall, weather conditions economic conditions and effects of sunspots.The next and the very important branch is the Phalitha Jyothisha branch which concentrates on the system of predictions. And this branch has six sub-divisions, namely, Jathaka, Gola, Prasna, Nimitta, Muhurta and Ganitha.


Apart from these schools of planetary interpretations, Indians have what they call Nadi system which gives pen pictures of life and destiny patterns of people born at 12,24,48 seconds intervals. These have been written on palm leaves. Only very few experts can read and understand these, but the results and predictions are found to be amazingly accurate.


Indian Astrology - In a nut-shell


The Indian astrology study consists of 27 constellations, in 12 lunar mansions. The movements of two luminariesSun and Moon, five major planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus and Mercury) and the two nodal points of the Moon i.e., Rahu and Ketu are considered and their positions are marked. The extra Saturnine planets like Pluto, Neptune and Uranus are not recognized by the Indian Astrology Above all, Moon is taken as very important planet for predictions though it is satellite of earth. The Moon, at the time of birth is found in a particular position or in a particular star and it will be taken as the star of the person born. This star will be used for finding out the major and sub-periods of the person in his life.


Indian Astrology - Utility

To predict the future events.

To match the birth-charts of the couple at the time of marriage for a successful married life.

To provide a Life reading containing issues of a person's personal life.

To find out the Muhurath (best time) to start any auspicious ceremony.

To determine which stars are affecting one's life.

To provide a remedy for your problems.

To determine the right Gemstone to be used to become successful in life.


 

Circa 1500 BC

Aryan immigration into India: Indo-Aryans reaches Assyria in the west & the Punjab in the east. Iron arrives, Vedic age in India, composition of the Rig Veda. The bearers of the Vedic civilization, as sometimes called Vedic Aryans or Indo-Aryans were the precursors to modern Hinduism. The term derives from the Sanskrit word "Arya". Sanskrit language is described as "the language of the Gods". Sanskrit has unparalleled depth & unique richness among all languages of the world. Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendants of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranians. It is also argued that prior to Indo-European language Sanskrit, there existed a still older language (Proto-Indo-European) from which all the Indo-European languages descended.


The spread of Indo-Aryan languages has been connected with the spread of the chariot in the first half of the second millennium BC. Most of the languages of the North India belong to a single language family, the indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family of the languages. The languages of South India belong to a different language family, the Dravidian languages.


Dr. Max Muller's Indo-Aryan theory is contested, albeit unconvincingly, by Dr. David Frawley with his"Out of India" theory. It is not claimed that India is the Urheimat (original homeland) of the Indo-Europeans, but rather that "the Aryans could just as well have been native to India for several millennia, deriving their Sanskritic language from earlier Indo-European dialects. According to Frawleys's faulty theory, the history of Sri Lanka runs another couple of millenniums into the past. However the recorded & well substantiated history of Sri Lanka begins in 543 BC.


Present-day Indo Aryans (population: 500 million)

Gujarati people,Jats, Punjabis, Kashmiris, Sindhi people, Marwaris, Marathas, Biharis, Bengalis, Assamese, Oriyas, Roma, Sinhalese, Chhettris, Kalasha.


 

Circa 1000 BC

Aryan expansion, Gangetic plains, composition of the Brahmans


 

Circa 900-800 BC

Epic Age, creation of Ramayana & Mahabharata


 

Circa 877 BC

The twenty third tirthankar (prophet or founder of the path) was born in a royal family at Varanasi. Having renounced the world at an early age, he practices austerities & finally attained the Kaivalya or the supreme knowledge. His teachings in seventy years had tremendous impact on the society & he is often viewed as the real founder of Jainism.


Tirthankars are liberated souls who were once in bondage but became free, perfect, & blissful through their own efforts: they offer salvation by way of three jewels, i.e. right path, right knowledge & right conduct, from the ocean of phenomenal existence & the cycle of rebirths.


 

Circa 599 BC

The twenty-fourth & the last among the tirthankaras of the present age, Mahavira was born in the royal family of Kundalgrama in 599 B.C. He was given the name of Vardhamana because with his birth the prosperity, fame & merit of his family increased. From his childhood, Mahavira was inclined to humanize the society by wiping out the inequality, exploitation, autocracy & injustice. To begin with, he renounced the world subsequent to 30 years of aristocratic living & went through the life of an ascetic. He used to starve his body but his soul feasted through meditation & spiritual advancement, Following 12 years of austerity he attained Kaivalya or the supreme knowledge under a Sal tree on the banks of Rijupallika river in Giridih. Thereafter, he became a Kevatin or the repository of supreme knowledge, capable of propagating the truth he knew.


Besides incorporating the principles laid down by Parsvanath, Mahavira brought in the doctrines of Brahmacharya (total chastity) by preaching self-purification, he gave a new & firm direction to the faith propounded by his predecessors.


Among his well known teachings are Syadvada, the art of appreciating other's point of view, & Karmavada, importance of self in shaping one's destiny. Jainism, in the same tradition as that of Buddhism, dismisses the interference of so called Supreme Being: it recognizes no supreme deity.


Running against the grain to Hinduism, Jainaism upholds the cause of an individual whose status in the society is determined by his labour & not by his birth. It also recognises that efforts & dedication could bring about perfection. Yet like its parent sect, Brahmanism, the Jainism admits in practice the institution of caste & a group of 16 essential rites, called samskaras, prescribed for the first three varna (castes) of Hindus & recognizes some of the minor deities of the Hindu pantheon: nevertheless, Jainism, like Buddhism, is essentially atheistic.


Jainsim teaches fourteen stages in the evolution of the soul from impurity to purity or complete liberation. For Jains, the path towards their goal consists of adhering to three spiritual jewels- right knowledge, right faith & right conduct.


The most notable feature of Jain ethics is its insistence on non-injury to all forms of life. Jainism find that every kind of thing has a soul; therefore strict observance of precept of non-violence (ahmisa) requires extreme caution in all activity to prevent living beings being killed.


 

Circa 563-483

Prince Siddhartha, attained eternal & total enlightenment following a prolonged meditation by means of middle path (golden means), having given up means of austerities which failed to achieve the ultimate objective of end to all suffering. The emergence of Budhism, an essentially atheistic & profound religion that recognizes no supreme deity.


 

Circa 550 BC

Composition of Upanishads in India

 

Garden of Eden & Adam's Bridge of Sri Lanka


1,750,000 years ago

Mythology 30km chain of shoal of limestones between Talaimannar of Sri Lanka & Rameshwaram of India has been called The Adam's Bridge by the British colonial rulers of Ceylon and the name derives from the Christian notion that the biblical Garden of Eden was located in Sri Lanka.


That the bridge is man-made, as some archaeologists of India claim, yet to be proven conclusively. While some argue that the bridge is 1,750,000 years old (Hindu treta yuga), others announce it is only 3,500 years old.


According to the Hindu epic Ramayana of Valmiki, a bridge was constructed at the request of Rama, by an army of non-human tribe called Vanara led by Nala, son of the architect-god Visvakarman, & Lord Hanuaman. The bridge was supported on floating rocks but said to have later anchored the rocks to the sea bed, thus creating the present chain of limestone shoals. It was built for Rama's army to cross the Palk straits between Baratha (India) & Lanka to rescue Sita from King Ravana, who was then the ruler of Lanka. Lord Krsna's incarnation, Rama, appeared as a human being because only a human being could kill ten headed demon king Rawana of Lanka, due to certain benediction that he had been given. Some Hindu groups citing NASA's digital imagery of the bridge claim that the bridge's unique curvature & composition suggests it was man made & that events narrated in the Ramayana epic were not mythology but factual.


NASA has distanced itself from such claims: "The images [...] may be ours, but their interpretation is certainly not ours. [...] Remote sensing images or photographs from orbit cannot provide direct information about the origin or age of a chain of islands, and certainly cannot determine whether humans were involved in producing any of the patterns seen."


To date, the epic Ramayana is associated & identified with geographical & historical locations in India & Sri Lanka. Among these Ritigala Kanda (mountian), Rumassala Rock (Mountain) Ravana Ella (waterfalls) & Sita Eliya.



The Archaeological park of Champaner - Pavagad (2004) - A World heritage site

Champaner, 47 km north-east of Vadodara, is the ancient capital of Gujarat of India that was renamed as Muhammadabad after having been conquered by Sultan Mahmud Begara in 1484. The Jami-Masjid built by him is one of the finest mosques of the country. The Pavagad hill with the ruins of an ancient Hindu fort stands in the vicinity of Champaner. Legend has it that the hill is in fact a one-fourth chunk of an Himalayan mountainside that was brought by Hanuman, a hero of the epic Ramayana; hence the name pava meaning a quarter. Presently a vast field of ruins at the Champaner-Pavagad region is a large treasure-trove of un-excavated archaeological finds, rich with history & cultural heritage strewn all over a highly scenic environment.

 

Recorded History of Sri Lanka

Where must we begin? All would like begin from the beginning. Should we begin with the history of Sinhabahu & Sinhaseevali in Eastern India, their incestuous marriage, patricide by Sinhabahu (man with a hands of shape & strength of the lion, the ripper of the Elephant's rock strong forehead & huge mass of brain) of his father since these two words, incest, patricide rings a bell: King Arthur of England, his incest with his sister, adultery by his queen with his first night Lancelot, patricide by the son of King Arthur? There are more than two words now. Indeed, more than two sins. Their three historical sins & crimes verses our historical two.


Let's begin with the recorded history of arrival of Prince Vijaya & his 700 men from Eastern India. When it comes to historical records, Sri Lanka's is second to none. The rich & vibrant history of 2550 years was faithfully recorded in the chronically called Mahawamsa (Great Chronicle) & other historical chronicles. This is an invaluable contribution to the heritage of the mankind, a national treasure is the single most important work of Sinhalese origin & continuance. It narrates the life & times of the people who forged our nation, from the coming of Vijaya in 543 BC to the final take over by the British in 1815. The Mahawamsa itself is actually comprised of three parts, all written at different times in Sri Lankan history. And it is a history of glorious civilization with unprecedented irrigation engineering & protection of one of the greatest heritage of the mankind: Buddhism.



543 BC

 

Beginning of succession of 168 Kings & 3 queens (543 BC to 1815 AD) in Sri Lanka

Year 1 of the Buddhist era in Lanka (ancient name).

The first entries in the Mahavamsa (Great History) date from now.

Arrival of Prince Viyaya & 700 other Indo-Aryans from Bengal, East India on the very day Buddha gave up his mortal body & ceased to exist achieving Nirvana the perfect annihilation.

About the time that bands of Indo-Aryans were making this island their home, momentous events were taking place in North India. Many centuries of religious developments & metaphysical speculation culminated in the rise of Buddhism, which preached that the man could assure his welfare here & in hereafter, & attain final beatitude by their own efforts, without divine help. The earliest record of cotton weaving (handloom) machine: Mahawamsa narrates that Princess Kuveni of "Yakka" tribe of Lanka was weaving cotton at the time of Prince Vijaya's landing. Classical Sanskrit literature refer the settlers in Lanka as Sinhala. The language of the Sinhalese is linguistically related to Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati & other Indo-aryan tongues of Northern India, all in turn given birth by Sanskrit.


The fact that Sinhala has been the speech of the people of this land for 2550 years is established by the thousands of inscriptions on stone, the earliest of which belong to the 3rd century BC. Sri Lanka goes on & on to be, (for about 2550 years) the southernmost region of the globe where an Aryan language has been spoken by the mass of the people. Historical actualities make the Sinhala language, & the Sinhalese people, an endangered race, who spoke & still speak it, with particular importance in the study of the world's history & civilization.




Contemporary events in India

500 BC

Existence of Mahabharata in the form of popular stories of Gods, kings & seers. The epic was told, retold & improved by priests living in shrines, ascetics living in retreats or wandering about, & by travelling bards, minstrels, dance groups etc.


518 BC

Persian conquests & rule in North Western India.



437- 366 BC

 

Spread of civilization.

Reign of King Pandukabaya. The concept of hospitals emerged & put into practice. In the third century B. C the capital of Sri Lanka was Anuaradhapura. It was Pandukabhaya (437-366 BC) who developed the original Anuradhapura in to a city.. From the time Anuradhapura was raised by Pandukabhaya to the eminence of a city in the latter part of the fourth century B.C it remained as the capital of Sri Lanka for a about twelve centuries.


The Mahavamsa -Tika says that the early Aryans who came to this Island opened up new settlements in areas where water was easily available. Pandukabhaya built a tank to supply

water to the city, although there was already a tank built by Anuradha, his grand uncle.



Contemporary events in India


350 BC

The epic & the epitome of Eastern Literary cannon in India " 

Mahabharata came to be unified, sacred text of 100,000 stanzas written in Sanskrit, distributed throughout India by kings & wealthy patrons, & declaimed from temples.

Even after it became a famous Sanskrit writing it continued to exist in various performance media in many different local genres of dance & theatre throughout India & then Southeast Asia.

 

Finally, it came to exist, in numerous literary & popular transformations in many of the non-Sanskrit vernacular languages of India & Southeast Asia, which (with the exception of Tamil, a language that had developed a classical literature in the first millennium BCE) began developing recorded literatures shortly after 1000 CE.

 

Quite simply, the Mahabharata is a powerful & amazing text that inspires awe & wonder. It presents sweeping visions of the cosmos & humanity & intriguing & frightening glimpses of divinity. The Mahabharata definitely is one of those creations of human language & spirit that has travelled far beyond the place of its original creation & will eventually take its rightful place on the highest shelf of world literature beside Homer's epics, the Greek tragedies, the Bible, Shakespeare, & similarly transcendent works." Dr. James L. Fitzgerald


 

326 BC

Alexander the Great invades India


 

321 BC

Mauryan Dynasty begins in Pataliputra, composition of Arthashastra by Kautilya, treaties on Governance



341 BC

 

King Buddhadasa, a reputed Ayurvedic Physician & veterinary surgeon, establishes Animal Hospitals

300 BC

Irrigation engineering on ascendancy: a brilliant invention called bisokotuwa, a sluice gate was introduced into the manmade rainwater reservoirs carving many square kilometres. Convalescent homes were established.


300 BC

The Greek historian Megasthenes describes pearls & elephants of Lanka. Onescritus, who was an Admiral of the fleet of Alexander the Great describes the tamed & trained elephants of Taprobane (Lanka)


 

274-232 BC

Reign of King Asoka the great, golden period, spread of Buddhism across India, China, Japan, Far East & Lanka, Lanka embraces Buddhism whole heartedly.

 

Early Anuradhapura Period



 

307-267 BC

Reign of Devanam Piya Tissa, a contemporary of Emperor Asoka of India, the one & only Indian emperor to unite whole of India send Buddhist monks to all part of Asia.


Such was the Emperor's love of Lanka (called Tamraparni in King Asoka's Rock Edicts), non other than his son bhiksu (monk) Arhath Mahinda was entrusted with the task of establishing Buddhism in Sri Lanka. The Aryan Sinhalese embraced Buddhism with such fervour, they began to believe Buddha had entrusted the care of pure Buddhism to the little island. Non violent Buddhism & a new born race, Sinhala become inseparable .


Arrival of the slip of the Bo tree in whose shelter Buddha achieved eternal enlightenment.

Foundation of the Mahavihara & Thuparama monuments

Inscriptions in Brahmi characters on cave shelters show first Buddhist communities.


 

259 BC

Death of Arhath Mahinda in Lanka


205-161 BC

Defeat of Tamil invader Elara, who ruled dry central plains. Restoration of Buddhist monuments destroyed by the Elara's Dravidian invaders by King Dutugamunu of Ruhuna. Religious foundations at Mihitale & Anurdhapura. Victorious King Dutugamunu, who was already tormented by the 15 years of bloodshed in his war against the Dravidian invaders, in spite of the newly gained overwhelming strength gives up pursuing them at Elephant pass, slim strip of land leading to Jaffna. The invaders were" allowed to live as they pleased" (ancient scriptures) Buddhist teachings continued to be held supreme over the threat of marauding Dravidian invasions.


The lack of all religious rites in Buddhism was not keenly felt during the lifetime of Buddha. Personal devotion to him took the place of religious fervour. But since his cessation from suffering (eternal relief from bondage of birth & rebirth) this very devotion to him assumed the form of religious worship. His sacred relics, consisting of his bones, teeth, alms-bowl, cremation vessel & ashes from his funeral pyre, were enclosed in dome shaped monuments called Dagobas, or Stupas, & were honoured with offerings of lights, flowers, & incense. Pictures & statues of Buddha were multiplied on every side, & similarly honoured, being carried about in festival days in solemn procession. The places, too, associated with his birth, enlightenment, first preaching, & final extinction were considered especially sacred, & became the objects of veneration & pilgrimage & the occasion of recurring festivals.


 

104-75 BC

First reign of King Vathagamani; interrupted by Tamil invaders from Southern India


 

89-77 BC

Pali scriptures of Budhism were committed to writing.


AD45

Four Lankan envoys visit Rome in the reign of Emperor Claudius Caesar (10BC-54BC); Roman historian & naturalist Pliny chronicles Lanka in his histories. Pliny makes reference to Lanka's relationship with China.


 

175 AD

Greek historian Ptolemy records export of elephants from Lanka to Kalinga


 

214-136 AD

Reign of Voharika Tissa; progress of Mahayana Buddhism


 

276-303 AD

Reign of Mahasena;& the foundation of the Jetavana Dagoba, the largest dagoba or stupa in the world.


 

305-331 AD

Reign of Sirimeghavana; the arrival of the Sacred Tooth relic of Buddha


 

410-482 AD

The reign of King Mahanama. The translation into Pali of the Sinhalese commentaries of the Tripitaka (three books of Buddhism) was undertaken.


 

412-413 AD

The Chinese scholar Fa-hsien visits Anuradhapura


 

428 AD

Embassy to China; nuns sent to Nanking


432-459 AD

South Indian invasion & domination; end of first Anuradhapura period.


500 AD

Buddhist Monk Mahanama commence writing Mahavamsa (Great History) in Pali language (language of Buddhism) on palm-leaf tablets. A chronicle of Sinhalese kings who irrigated, cultivated the island, embraced Buddhism wholeheartedly & protected island & Buddhism from South Indian invasions.

 

Late Anuradhapura Period


459-477 AD

Reign of King Dahtusena; end of brief South Indian domination; end of first Anuradhapura period. Patricide by Prince Kasyapa


 

477-495 AD

Reign of Kasyapa;construction of Sigirya. Suicide of King Kasyapa in the battle against his brother Mogaallan


 

495-512 AD

Reign of Mogallan 1; capital returned to Anuradhaopura; arrival of bikhshunie (Buddhist nun) Sangamiita, daughter of Emporer Asoka of India & arrival of hair relic.


 

524-5378BC

King Silakala decrees the "preservation of life of all creatures" throughout the island


 

575-608 AD

Reign of Aggabodhi1, Irrigation works


 

608-618 AD

Reign of Aggabodhi 11. Rebuilding of the Thuparama


618-684 AD

Internecine struggles; South Indian invasions. A significant collection of ancient ceramic ware from the periods of six Chinese dynasties has been unearthed in Sri Lanka. The earliest ceramics are from the period of Tang Dynasty (618-906 A.D) Ceramics remains from North Sung, South Sung, Ming, Yuan, & Qing dynasties & ancient Chinese coins have been discovered. Chinese inscriptions found in some of the ancient ports of Lanka provide valuable information on ancient Sino-Lanka relationships & archaeological & historical values of Chinese ceramics found in Sri Lanka.


 

684-718 AD

Reign of Manavamma; alliance with the Pallavas.


 

772-777 AD

Reign of Aggabodhi V11, which brought the temporary abandonment of Anuradhapura in favour of Polonnaruwa


 

835-853 AD

Reign of Sena 1. Pandyan conquest


 

840 AD

Anuradhapura plundered


 

853-887 AD

Reign of Sena11;alliance with Pallavas against Pandyas


 

898-914 AD

King Kassappa IV granted safety to all creatures on land & water following the footsteps of the ancient kings.


 

925 AD

Pandyan king asks for aid against the Cholas & takes refuge in Sri Lanka


 

947 AD

Chola (Tamilnadu) invasion;Anuradhapura is plundered, the king flees to Ruhuna (South of Sri Lanka)


 

956-972 AD

Reign of Mahinda 1V. Rebuilding takes place at Anuradhapura.


 

993 AD

Capture & sack of Anuradhapura. Mahinda 1V takes refuge in Ruhuna


 

1017 AD

Mahinda V captured by Cholas. Collapse of irrigation system & destruction of numerious Buddhist foundations


 

Polonnaruwa Period (1073-1215)



 

1055-1110 AD

Defeat of Cholas at the hands of Sinhalse prince Keerthi of Ruhuna. Kingdom was liberated from Cholas.


 

1070 AD

Prince Kirti was crowned at Anuradhapura by the name king Vijayabahu


 

1073 AD

Capital transferred to Polonnaruwa. Religious foundations & irrigation works


 

1153-86 AD

Reign of Parakramabahu the great. Beginning of a period of Buddhist revival & construction of major irrigation networks.


 

1187-96 AD

Reign of Nissanka Malla



Period of ephemeral capitals (1214-1597)


1214 AD

Kalingan invasion


 

1215-36 AD

Destruction & tyranny of Kalinga Maga of Kerala


 

1236-70 AD

Reign of Parakramabahu 11


 

1270-1508 AD

A succession of kings, up to Parakarambahu V111


 

1254-1324 AD

Marco Polo visits Lanka & call it Seilan


1505 AD

Portugese arrive under Lorennco de Almeida; they soon occupy the island's coastal areas The Portuguese found" Kola Amba-thota (harbour with leafy mango trees), (Colombo) a fine bay for the ships. The Muslims, who had been trading peacefully in the island by courtesy of the Sinhalese kings, were expelled by the Portuguese. Portuguese commence to monopolize the spice & cinnamon trade, which soon became of enormous importance to Europe


 

1550-97 AD

Dom Juan Dharmapala set up as puppet king by the Portuguese


 

1554-93 AD

Reign of King Rajasinha 1


 

Kandyan Period


1597 AD

Capital moved to Kandy


1629-87 AD

Reign of Rajasinghe 11 King Rajasinghe's army inflicted a major defeat on the Portuguese. But the Sinhalese King was not pleased with the bloodshed. Having seen the decapitated head of the Portuguese commanderConstance de Sa, the king lamented. "How often did I ask thee not to make war on men, nor destroy my lands, but to let me live in peace, the Portuguese remaining absolute lords of the best part of Ceylon"


1656 AD

Dutch arrive & oust Portuguese after both land & sea battles. Following an epic siege of Colombo Fort, 73 Portuguese survivors surrendered to the Dutch. "At three o'clock on the afternoon of the 12th May, 1656, we came out of the city, 73 very emaciated soldiers, all hat remained there, including some with broken arms & minus a, leg, & all looking like dead people... We then entered the house where we met the Dutch general & major, who received us very warmly & gave us a toast..." The Dutch officers said they looked forward to meeting the rest of the brave defenders. They were told there were no more surviving." At this they changed colour, a great sadness following the cheerfulness with which they received us"


 

1660-80 AD

Robert Knox, an English sailor, is captured by the king of Kandy



Modern History of Sri Lanka

Crown colony Ceylon: Pearl of the Indian Ocean. Coffee, Tea, Rubber, highways, railways, missionary schools & colonial repression & exploitation



1796

Dutch surrender to the British, who have become interested in Trincomalees's fine natural harbour


 

1798-1815

Reign of Sri Wickrama Rajasinha; ultimate betrayal of the nation to the British by Kandyan Ministers



British Colonial Period 1802-1948


1802

Ceylon becomes a Crown Colony


1813

The American Mission founds the Batticotta Seminary (later Jaffna College) in Tamil speaking Jaffna. The establishment of these Christian schools was a means of spreading Christianity in Sri Lanka.

Education & employment in Colonial Sri Lanka was restricted to Christians.

Buddhist Sinhalese & Hindu Tamils had to become Christians to advance themselves within the colonial administration.

This situation resulted in, at the independence in 1948 ( population then 8 million), 49 out of 103 schools were in the Tamils populated North & the Tamil populated East servicing an almost exclusively Tamil population: 12% of the population, the Tamils had access to 50% of the education institutions which translated into public sector employment.

At independence in 1948, 42% of the beurocracy Ceylon consisted of minority Tamils.


In effect successive European Colonial administrators relied heavily on the Tamil minority, local & immigrant from South India, to administer the country, since the bulk of the Sinhalese majority were opposed to European rule. This was compounded by the European colonial powers encouraging millions from South India to settle in Sri Lanka as a means of cheap labour to work in the tobacco plantations (Portuguese) in Jaffna & coffee, tea & rubber plantations in the central hills. Tea plantations (British) alone had over a million Indian labourers in the island, which at independence in 1948 had a population of only 8 million. This was a deliberate colonial policy to dilute & weaken majority Sinhalese who resisted colonial rule.


1815

Sinhalese chieftains in Kandy, who despised king Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, voluntarily submitted to the British in 1815 by signing a pact with British at "Magul Maduwa" which stands to date close to "The Holy temple of Tooth Relic" by the Kandy lakeside.

Last Kandyan king deposed & exiled in Madras.

Soon the island was dotted with coffee, cinnamon & coconut plantations & a network of roads & railways was built to handle to new economic revolution. English became the official language of the rulers.


 

1826

Ceylon's Rosetta stone was found; ola parchment at Mulgirigala that led to deciphering of classical Pali scripts, & the translation of the Mahawamsa.


1833

Colebrooke Report (1831-32) was an important document in the history of the island. G.C. Mendis, considered by many to be the doyen of modern Sri Lankan history, considers the Colebrooke-Cameron reforms to be the dividing line between the past and present in Sri Lanka. Under Colebrooke-Cameron Reforms, English becomes the language of administration.


1869

A devastating leaf disease--hemleia vastratrix struck the coffee plantations and spread quickly throughout the plantation district, destroying the coffee industry within fifteen years. Climatic conditions for the cultivation of tea were excellent in Sri Lanka, especially in the hill country. By the end of the century, tea production on the Island had risen enormously. The British were unable to persuade the Sinhalese to work cheaply & willingly on the plantations, so they imported large number of Dravidian labourers from India


 

1871

The first official census conducted by the the Briish rulers: total population 2.8 million


 

1886

Ruins of Polonnaruwa discovered


1891

Sri Lanka's Anagarika Dharmapala founded the Mahabodhi Society & launch "Save Bodh Gaya" campaign. Bodh Gaya (Bihar), one of holiest of holy Buddhist sites in the world was threatened with irrecoverable devastation.

It was at Uruvela ( modern Maha Bodhi) that Prince Siddhartha, then an ascetic, attained eternal & total enlightenment following a prolonged meditation by means of middle path (golden means), having given up means of austerities which failed to achieve the ultimate objective of end to all suffering.


Bodh Gaya, today is one of the five most famous Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India. Other four sites are Lumbini, near the Shakyan capital of Kapilavastu in the southern region of Nepal where Buddha was born; Deer Park at Saranath (Uttar Pradesh), just north of Varanasi the place of his first sermon; Kushinara, where Buddha left the world & eternal suffering.


1908

"The Sinhalese people are not, in my opinion, happier or better than they were in the eighteenth century. Talk of progress, & the reality, are not the same. Civilzation is supposed to advance by the creation of new desires, to gratify which the individual must endeavour to improve his position. But in reality it is not quantity, but quality of wants that may be taken as evidence of progress in the Art of Living. No one acquainted with modern Sinhalese taste will pretend that it gives evidence of any improvement in the quality of wants. Indeed, it is sufficiently obvious that quantity, variety, & novelty are not really compatibale with quality." Mediaeval Sinhalese Art : Sri Lankan Tamil scholor Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy comparing the period prior to British rule with the period of British rule


 

1918

The Jaffna Association of Jaffna Tamils submits 50-50 representation formula for the Legislative Council in memo.


 

15th Aug. 1921

Tamil political party, Tamil Mahajan Sabha, once again takes up call for 50-50 representation. Herein a 12% of Tamil minority in Sri Lanka demands 50% representation in the legislative council. This would leave majority Sinhalese -70% of the population- with only 50% representation in the legislative council.


 

1922

H. W. Codrington, B. A.(Oxon.) F. R. N. S. of Ceylon Civil Service publishes "Ceylon currency & coins"


1926

H. W. Codrington publishes "Short history of Ceylon" history till year 1833 in about 50,000 words. A Tamil scholor Mudaliyar C. Rasanayagam's "Ancinet Jaffna" is published. In the final chapter on page 384 he mentions that the Sinhalese occupied Jaffna before the Tamils & goes on to give his reasons.


1931

Universal franchise granted by the Donoughmore Constitution. No leader of Ceylon had agitated for it in the legislative Council. At best there were lone voices of the Lablour leader A. E. Gunasinghe & George E. de Silva, the Member of Kandy. Nowhere in British Empire was the experiment carried out in the decade of the nineteen thirtees.

The first General Election in Ceylon under universal franchise held in 1931 was boycotted by four electorates of Jaffna peninsula: Jafna, Kankesanturai, Kayats & Point Pedro giving unmistakable message Tamil predominant Jaffna peninsula was opposed to universal franchise.


1935

The Jaffna Association repeats its demand for 50-50 representation: 50% for the Sinhalese who consists 70% of the population of the island, 25% for the Tamils, 25% for the other minorities.


1937

G. G. Ponnambalam of Ceylon Tamil Community clamours for "fifty-fifty" representation in the state council with parity status with the Sinhalese speaking majority & All Tamil speaking minorities.

All Tamil speaking minorities, The Ceylon Tamils (descendants of invaders who later became settlers), the Indian Tamil (brought in to the island by the British colonialists for the tea plantations) & the Muslims put together accounted for only 30.1% of the population whereas the Sinhalese accounted for 69.2%. The exact parallel today is that the Ceylon Tamils demanding for two-thirds of the coastline of the entire nation & one third of the landmass, while accounting only one-eighth of the population.


 

1941

Unlike India, where nationalists demanded a guarantee of independence as recompense for their support in the war effort, Sri Lanka committed itself wholeheartedly to the Allied war effort. Although the island was put under military jurisdiction during the war, the British and the Sri Lankans maintained cooperative relations. Sri Lankan pressure for political reform continued during the war, however, and increased as the Japanese threat receded and the war neared its end. The British eventually promised full participatory government after the war.


 

1946

Soulbery Commission of the British Colonialist rulers rejects proposal of fifty-fifty presented by the all powerful All Ceylon Tamil Congress.



Contemporary events in India


1947

In August India gains political independence from the British. British India is partitioned into two countries: India & Pakistan. Pakistan becomes the first country in the world to be born out of a religion: Islam. Partition –related riots kill 200000 to a million. In October erupts the first Indo-Pakistan war.


1948

Ceylonese led by Sir James Peiris, George E. De Silva, E. W. Perera, Ramathanan, Arunchalam, Coreas, Macan Markars,Caders, Razeek Fareed, Jayawardenes, A. E. Gonnasinghe procure independence from the British solely by means of negotiations without single drop of blood being shed.


Foreign occupation had a tremendous impact on the nation. Changes of laws & customs, clothing styles, religions & proper names were significant results of the colonial era, followed up with plantations of Tea, Rubber replacing Rice cultivation in numerous areas.


The population had grown from 800000 in the year 1802 to more than 7 million. Over a relatively short period, the island had developed an economy capable of supporting the burgeoning population. Roads, railways, schools, hospitals, hydroelectric projects, and large well operated agricultural plantations provided the infrastructure for a viable national economy.


A highly respected statesman, Mr. Don Stephen Sananayake becomes the first Prime Minister of Ceylon. Senanayake, the minister of agriculture in the pre-independent British appointed Ceylonese state council had devoted himself to the immense task of restoration of the derelict irrigation networks of ancient capitals of Anuradhapura & Polonnaruwa. Now, becoming Prime Minister of the independent Ceylon, Senanayake runs close at the heels of King Parakrabahu the great in the context of irrigation. The Gal Oya irrigation Project harnessing the waters of River Mahaweli, the longest river of the island would create an inland sea four times larger than Parakrama Samudra. It is named Senanayake Samudra.


 

1949

Mahabodhi society founded by Angarika Dharmapala of Ceylon achieves its objective of rescuing Buddhist sacred site Bodh Gaya of India. Today Bodh Gaya is one of the World Heritage sites with monasteries & meditation centres run by Tibetan, Burmese, Thai & Vietnamese communities.


Bodh Gaya & its Mahabodhi Temple complex where prince Siddhartha, then an ascetic, attained supreme enlightenment, today is a vibrant pilgrimage site. With a 50 meter high pyramidal spire, the grand magnificent, restored Mahabodi temple stand on the sacred place & a golden image of the Buddha adorns the shrine. Built in 3rd century by BC by Mauryan emperor Ashoka, the temple had to be restored several times to overcome the ravages of time. Emperor Asoka's daughter Sangamitta had carried a sapling of the holy Bo (Peepal) tree to Sri Lanka where she went propagating Buddhism. Later, when the original Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya died, a cutting of the tree planted at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was brought back & transplanted at Bodh Gaya, which is presently flourishing. Under the holy Bo tree is a lotus shaped red sandstone seat-the vajrasana- on which sat the Buddha while in meditation. On a rounded stone slab near the Bo tree the footprints of the Buddha are preserved. Ever year on Buddha Purnima, the birthday of Buddha, a large congregation is held here participated by Buddhists from all over the world.


 

1956

Silver bell of Asia, Oxford educated S.W.R.D Bandaranaike, storms into office of Prime Minister promising administration in Sinhala. Sinhalese had been disappointed that in spite of the independence, in spite of being relieved from the suffering under the jack boot of colonialist masters, still being administrated in English language by the English educated Ceylonese elite. Leonard Wolfe, a British civil servant of Ceylon (husband of Virgina Wolf) vividly depicted the suffering of natives under English language administration in his famous book "A village in the Jungle" True to his promises, Sinhala, language of 72% of population was made the official language of Ceylon, by Bandaranaike.


 

1959

S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike was assassinated. Courts of Law finds Buddhist monk Somarama guilty; but the nation wasn't convinced at all. There was a notorious local name & name of a foreign Intelligence Agency in the winds of conspiracy. Those were the days of the assassination of another nationalist, Patrick Lulumba. Ceylon'sWarren commission + John Kennedy + Edgar Hoover + FBI + CIA + Mob + Marylyn Monroe + Lee Harvey Oswald + second gunman + Oliver Stone maze


 

1960

Mrs Bandaranike, widow of slain Prime Minister, on the wave of sympathy, becomes world's first women Prime Minister.




Contemporary events in India

1962

First Sino-Indian war erupts


 

1963

In an attempt to suppress militancy in Tamil State of Tamil Nadu in India, Prime Minister Nehru introduces the Sixteenth Amendment to the constitution of India, making it mandatory for those running for office to take an oath stating that "I will uphold the sovereinighty & integrity of India". Since then, Tamil politicians holding office could not campaign for a separate Tamil State openly, but those in the Opposition continued to harbour a Tamil State dream.


 

1965

Second Indo-Pakistan war erupts in September.


 

1971

Third Indo-Pakistan war erupts in December.


1971

April Insurrection by Sinhalese.


 

1972

Ceylon becomes a republic: Sri Lanka


 

2005

Mahinda Rajapakse from Ruhuna (which gave birth to the hero of the nation King Dutugamunu, King Vijayabahu & an array of heroes) becomes executive president of Sri Lanka


Demographics of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a land filled with beauty and warmth that brings forth a fusion of ethnicities and cultures which flourish side by side. This paradise island is not only bountiful in its cultures, but also presents a vibrant history to match.

Located only a mere 28 kilometres away from India by sea across the Palk Strait, this paradise land is a not only culturally vibrant, but also an ethnically diverse nation.

The following includes information with regard to the demography of Sri Lanka as of the year 2008.

 

Official Name

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Śri Lanka Prajatantrika Samajavadi Janarajaya (Sinhala)
Ilangai Jananayaka Socialisa Kudiarasu (Tamil)

Total Population

21,128,772

Age Structure

0-14 years: 24.1% (male 2,596,463/female 2,495,136) 
15-64 years: 68% (male 7,019,446/female 7,340,809) 
65 years and over: 7.9% (male 783,823/female 893,096)

Median Age

total: 30.4 years 
male: 29.5 years 
female: 31.4 years

Population Growth Rate

0.943%

Net Migration Rate

1.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Nationality

noun: Sri Lankan(s) 
adjective: Sri Lankan

Ethnic Groups

Sinhalese 73.9%
Sri Lankan Tamil 12.75%
Sri Lankan Moors 7%
Indian Tamil 5.52%
Malay 0.32%
Burgher 0.27%
Other 0.19%

Religions

Buddhist 69.1%
Muslim 7.6%
Hindu 7.1%
Christian 6.2%
Unspecified 10%

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write 
total population: 90.7% 
male: 92.3% 
female: 89.1%

Labour Force 

7,598,762

Labour Force  Participation Rate

51.2%

Unemployment Rate

6.5%

Language

Sinhala (Indo-European) – Official Language
Tamil (Dravidian) 
English
Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Monetary Unit

Sri Lankan Ruppee (LKR)

Source/Reference : Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka

Economy of Sri Lanka

Known as the Pearl of the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is a paradise island that is gifted with the bounties of nature. With terrains that are home to different climates, high and low grounds, the land is ideal for agriculture and other industries which provide indications of the country’s economic stability.

The government controls a country that follows a form of mixed economy, whereby capitalist and socialist vantages have been utilised to benefit the overall affect of the land. Being an agricultural country, Sri Lanka grows numerous crops but rice is considered its key product. Tea, coconut and rubber are the nation’s secondary exports with the tea industry being one of the island’s main export and foreign exchange earners.

Other crops include spices such as cinnamon, nutmeg, cardamom, pepper and cloves as well as the likes of cocoa. Furthermore due to Sri Lanka’s tropical climate, the island is home to a bountiful offering of fruits and vegetables.

Apart from agriculture and tea, other industries such as tourism, apparel and textiles have emerged as key factors in the growth of the economy.

The following includes information with regard to the economy of Sri Lanka as of the year 2008.

 

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$93.32 billion

GDP (official exchange rate)

$42.16 billion

GDP - real growth rate

5.4%

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$4,400

GDP - composition by sector

agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 29.9% 
services: 58.4%

Labour force

7.511 million

Labor force - by occupation

Agriculture: 34.3% 
Industry: 25.3%
Services: 40.4%

Industries

Processing of rubber
Tea
Coconuts
Tobacco
Other agricultural commodities
Telecommunications
Insurance
Banking
Clothing
Textiles
Cement
Petroleum refining

Growth Rates of Major Sectors

Agriculture: 12.4% 
Industry:5.6%
Services: 5.5%

Exports

$9.132 billion f.o.b.

Exports - commodities

Textiles and apparel
Tea and spices
Diamonds
Emeralds
Rubies
Coconut products
Rubber manufactures
Fish

Exports – partners

US 25.5%
UK 13.2%
India 6.7%
Germany 5.7%
Italy 5.1%

Imports

$12.57 billion f.o.b.

Imports – commodities

Textile fabrics
Mineral products,
Petroleum
Foodstuffs
Machinery 
Transportation equipment

Imports – partners

India 23.1%
Singapore 9.9%
China 8.2%
Iran 7.5%
Hong Kong 6.4%

Exchange rates

Sri Lankan rupees (LKR) per US dollar 
108.14 (2008)
110.78 (2007)
103.99 (2006)
100.498 (2005)
101.194 (2004)

Source/Reference : Department of Census and Statistics, Sri LankaCentral Bank of Sri Lanka

Government of Sri Lanka

The Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka features an Executive Presidency that is based on the French system. The title of the Head of State is known as the Executive which is held by a President that is elected for a period of 6 years and can be reelected for a second term.

The country has a government that is currently held by the Sri Lanka Freedom Party. After the 2005 elections, the Honorable President Mahinda Rajapksa was appointed as chief of state while Honorable Ratnasiri Wickremanayake was named Prime Minister.

Sri Lanka also has a unicameral national legislature which features a parliament with 225 seats whose members are elected by a vote from a list on a popular vote basis.

Under an amendment made to the constitution, 9 directly elected provincial councils were given extensive authority which was designed to give more authority to minorities in the country.

The country’s legal system follows a mixture of English Common Law, Roman Dutch Law in addition to Kandyan and Jaffna Tamil Law.  The Judiciary is elected by the president while the two most important courts in the country are the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals.

More information regarding the Government can be found here:


 

Google Calendar



Śrī Pada or Adam's Peak: Lanka's Holy Mountain

Welcome to Adam's Peak

Welcome to Adam's Peak

Sanctuary for all Faiths

Guides for Climbers Maha Saman Deviyo Traditions


Galle Fort

 

As the train from Colombo reaches Gale in 2 and half hours & one leaves the precincts of the station, the look of the town does not appear to justify any of the historical importance attached to it,To discover that one has to enter the little town within Galle fort.The ancient town has seen many changes & upheavesl during the last few centuries, but perhaps none like quiet one that is

presently experiencing.

 

The Portuguese captured Galle from the Sinhala kings in 1587,only to succumb to the Dutch in 1640.The Dutch considerably enhanced the Portuguese fortifications, says Nora Roberts, a long time resident of Galle who spent ten years researching its history, Ken Bastains on the ramparts enclosed the quaint town. The concepts of 45 towns in Ceylon had been introduced earlier by the Portuguese, but without success in their case. All Dutch possessions in Ceylon passed to the British by treaty in 1796,including the legacy of Dutch style tropical houses & grander administrative buildings within Galle fort, The British continued to use Galle as Ceylon's chief port, until Colombo superseded it, around 1880(Robert's 1993).When the British moved from Galle fort to Colombo, the Muslim community began to establish a presence there, Though there had remained until as

relatively recently, as the end of WW2,a sizable Dutch burger community,

 

Today, reports indicate that the Muslim community accounts for 80 % of Galle fort's population, while the majority sinahlese community account for the remaining 20 % Nora Roberts notes that "Inside the fort surrounded by Dutch ramparts, life still moves leisurely at dusk when the offices & schools are closed  & kindly ghosts moves up& down in Galle fort town..." in her appropriately titled book,Galle as quit as sleep (1993).And so it appeared to me during my recent visit there though I must confess I did not come across any ghosts while waiting through the little town & atop the wide grass covered ramparts surrounding it the latter been also the recreation area for residents,

 

A combination of historical & architectural significance had led Galle fort to be declared a world heritage site. This attracted World bank funding for renovations completed to the court complex. The existence of justice & other Govt. Depts. located within the Fort is the main reason why people outside the Fort disturb its otherwise tranquil atmosphere. Consequently the authorities are constructing a multi storey building in the town outside the Fort & are apparently aiming to move all government Departments within the fort out within one to five years, There are reportedly also plans in the future to make the Fort town a pedestrian only zone, apart from access to residents vehicles. However this is not  the quiet upheaval I mentioned at the start, since 1998 in formation received indicates that local owners of  Dutch colonial period houses numbering over 300, has sold at least to 30 to foreigners, Sabri Khalid who is one of the two main brokers reasoned that a combination of the high purchasing power of the buyers, the lack of funds by the residence to renovate their houses to the approved historical standards & the changing economy circumstances that see key members of family working outside Galle had let to these changes. Sabri who offers his foreign buyers a package which includes re-construction & management of the property said that he had sold 8 houses to foreigners since October of last year charging commissions from the seller & the buyer, Sellers & buyers are referred to him by word-of-mouth.

 

The highest value sale in Galle fort was reported to be 20 million Rupees, most are which are between 10 to 15 perches in land area.I sold a 7 perches property with a sea view in November 2002, for 7.5 million Rupees.said Sabri. Also showing me the business card of his buyers who are mostly British expatriate top executives based in Singapore or Hong Kong, though a couple were from the UK,A young British expatriate couple Jack & Jo Eden, who were the first foreigners to buy a property in Galle Fort now run a property management company in Sri Lanka,for foreign buyers & recently had three properties within Gale Fort available to let included in their web site

 

A visitor to the website can view images depicting to the high standards to which the foreign owners have reconstructed their properties, prices start at USD.150-250 per night for a house, this website was also mentioned with regard to the availability of houses to buy & rent in Galle Fort, in an article on the tourism potential of Sri Lanka which appeared on Nov, 27 th,2002 in the UK's Daily Mail news paper.

 

Meanwhile the overwhelming Muslim community within Galle Fort town is according to Sabri Khalid divided on the issue of foreign purchase of their houses, considering whether it will lead to the end of their community that included Muslim Schools.Sabri though is keen to keep selling houses,but not hi parents house,& confidently predicts if there is sufficient supply, there will be demand to see 50% of these historical Dutch colonial period houses fall to foreign buyers within 5 years & possibly 90% within 15 years.

 

This scenario will probably also see a local private school for the children of the foreign buyers, if in the future they choose to  reside there, rather than as at present spend a few weeks on vacation amidst safety & historical tranquility of Galle Fort town. In effect a new foreign colony, albeit armed with the power of rather than arms of old. If so will it prove to be the final chapter in the long history of Galle Fort?

 

Another development to be undertaken within the Fort is the reported conversion of the New Oriental Hotel into one of the most  luxurious hotels in Sri Lanka & the region. Whether in the future, tourists who stay there or visit, will appreciative of these winds of change within Galle Fort, that may result in a largely British community living in seclusion, in place of the present indigenous population, remains to be seen, Moreover, would tourists be allowed to view the admittedly fine restoration work on the houses purchased by foreigners, or will access be granted only to those who rent these properties, when available to let? These colonial- era houses irrespective of new foreign buyers, are part of Sri Lanka's history!


face book--Island Hermitage on (Polgasduwa) Dodanduwa Island, Galle District, Sri Lanka is a famous Buddhist forest monastery founded by Ven. Nyanatiloka Mahathera in 1911. It has an excellent English and German library. It is a secluded place for Buddhist monks to study and meditate in the Buddhist tradition.

The Island Hermitage was the first centre of Theravāda Buddhist study and practice set up by and for Westerners. Its many prominent residents, monks and laymen, studied Theravada Buddhism and the Pali language, made translations of Pali scriptures, wrote books on Theravada Buddhism and practised meditation. The Island Hermitage once formed an essential link with Theravāda Buddhism in the West.

Since 2003 the hermitage is run by a group of young Sri Lankan monks who are very strict. There are currently no Western monks present.

Location

The Hermitage is located in Ratgama Lake, a salt-water lagoon about two kilometers from the coast near Dodanduwa. It is 105 kilometers south of Sir Lanka's principal city, Colombo, and about 12 kilometers north of the provincial capital, Galle.

The hermitage consists of two islands: Polgasduwa and Metiduwa (or Meddeduwa). It is characterised by rich jungle vegetation and abundant bird, animal and reptile life. It is a peaceful place on an island on the large Bolgoda Lake (which is about two-and-a-half miles across and brackish as it connects with the sea). The terrain of the island is mostly flat or slightly undulating. The highest point is about 5 meters above sea level. On Metiduwa the vegetation consists of scrubs and small trees such as cinnamon and bombu, with mangrove and palm trees growing along the water's edge. On the higher ground at Parapaduwa there are larger trees such as mahagoney, mango and jak. There is a noisy breeding colony of egrets, night herons and cormorants and also a colony of flying foxes. There are many mongoose and monitor lizards on the islands.


flands and houses   CONTACT DETAILS  chefaravinda@gmail.com   tell phone 0094 771314136
  in sri lanka  0771314136

YouTube Video

Sri Lanka

Maps

An island paradise situated in the Indian Ocean, Sri Lanka is known to many as the Pearl of the Indian Ocean. Visit this wondrous country and explore the island, with its vibrant array of attractions and destinations. Utilise the following map and explore Sri Lanka from a birds eye view.

Maps




DEAR SRI LANKA LOVERS........I LIKE TO OFFER YOU ...!!!!!
             SRI LANKA TRIP PACKAGES
LOOKING FOR A WONDERFUL GET A WAY COME VISIT SRI LANKA! YOU WILL BE DELIGHTED BY THE BEAUTY OF THE
country! come and stay in a beautiful LUXURY HOTEL or BEACH FRONT hotel. there is plenty to do. from shopping to visiting some of our beautiful parks. you will be delighted with the kinniya hot water wells are reputed as one of the 7 wonders of sri lanka. this place has seven hot wells. water is in different temperatures. the place is located in kinniya 7 km away from trincomalee. people believe that bathing in these well will refresh themselves. this is one of the historical places of trincomalee district.

or hummanaya, is reputed to as the 2nd largest blowhole in the world. a visit to the hummanaya also gives you an opportunity to take a dip in the sea and a day of leisure at the glorious tangalle beach. the place is 89km.south of colombo is dikwella, a coastal town 22km east. the ocean water flows underneath the shore, and then comes out of this hole due to pressure. water shoots up every minute or so, and it gives a very serene feeling.

you can come and check out parakrama samudra, an inland sea with a spectackular view, if you like wild life come check out randenigala wild life santuary, great place for bird watching, or somawathiya national park where you will be one with nature! visit rekawa, it is among the top 10 eco friendly destinations in the world.

if you art you can visit ambekke devalaya is world famous for it's carved woodern work

this world famous ancient place is dedicated to god kataragama. this temple is famed for its carved wooden pillars with intricate designs. the pillars leap to life with dancers, musicians, wrestlers,
legendary beasts and birds.

nearby are the ruins of an ancient rest house with similar pillars carved in stone. all the above
described monuments belong to the 14th century.

there is so much to do and see while you stay in sri lanka, and if you just want spend a relaxing day soaking up the sun or just playing the water check out our beautiful beaches.  
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
PACKAGE - 01
ROUND TOUR
This tour plan for  14  nights ,
RATES
  include - hotel room or luxury guest house room  <up to the area> break fast  / snack for   
-lunch /     dinner / round tour for  14  nights / tour guide /  vehicle / driver / entrance fee of national park , culture siteS,
BREAK FAST  AND DINNER WESTERN STYLE , IF YOU LIKE SRI LANKAN FOOD , YOU CAN HAVE,
                                   TOUR -1ST - NIGHT -ARI PORT -TO -NEGOMBO BEACH
                                                  2 ND-NIGHT - ANURADHAPURAYA
                                                  3RD -4TH -NIGHTS IN SIGIRIYA  AND  DHAMBULLA
                                                  5TH- NIGHT -KANDY < TOOH TEMPLE / BOTANICAL GARDEN / CULTURE SHOW /
                                                                                               GEMING / JEWELLERY / GEMS / SHOPPING
                                                  6TH - NIGHT - KANDY - ELEPHANT OPHANAGE
                                                  7TH - NIGHT - NUWARA ELIYA  -< CITY TOUR > VIA - BANDARAWELA
                                                                              THIS IS HILLS IN SRI LANKA < TEA PLANTATION < TEA FACTORY >
                                                  8TH - NIGHT -  THISSA / KATARAGAMA
                                                                               NEXT DAY EARLY MORNING  YALA - NATIONAL PARK
                                                   9TH - NIGHT   EBILIPITIYA-HOT WATER SPRING AND VILLEGE  TOUR.                
                                                                              NICE VILLEGE AREA IN SRI LANKA ,ON WAY BACK TO GALLE....          
                                                                               HUMMANAYA /  -WATER BLOW HALL 
                                                  10TH -NIGHT -   GALLE  < DODANDUWA OR HIKKADUWA>
                                                  11-TH- NIGHT - UNAWATUNA  BEACH / DUTCH FORT / GALLE CITY TOUR 
                                                  12 TH -NIGHT -REST ON THE BEACH  /  DODANDUWA LAKE SAFARY
                                                  13 TH NIGHT - COLOMBO ZOO / CITY TOUR WITH SHOPPING
                                                  14 TH NIGHT - COLOMBO - DAY AND NIGHT AS YOU WISH......
                                                                               UNTILL DEPARTURE....

RATES PER-01-PERSON , 3000/-US DOLLERS
                        01-COUPLE , 5600/-US DOLLERS
                        03 -PERSON GROUP -PER PERSON -2500 /-US DOLLERS ,
                                7500/-US DOLLERS FOR 3 PERSON GROUP
                        04- PERSON GROUP-PER PERSON -2300/-US DOLLERS
                                FOR  04 PERSON -9200/-US DOLLERS
                        05-PERSON GROUP- PER PERSON 2100/-
                               FOR 05 PERSONS -10,500/-
                        05 PERSON UP ....RATE IS PER PERSON ....2100/-US DOLLERS

***.................WELCOME... ....THANK YOU .....***
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

PACKAGE -2
THIS PACKAGE INCLUDE BEACH FRONT LUXURY  HOTEL ROOM / FULL BOARD /
UP AND DOWN AIR PORT TAXI / VISITING GUIDE.....ALL THE WAY YOU ARE FREE
ROOMS AVAILABLE IN - DODANDUWA / HIKKADUWA / KOGGALA  / NEGOMBO /
**IF YOU LIKE WE CAN ARRENGE -*VILLAS / *ECO TOURISM GUEST HOUSE  /
 OR - *PRIVET  HOUSE  / FOR THIS RATE......BUT THIS AREAS...INFRONT OF....
LAKE  OR RIVER.
RATES--SINGLE....................7 DAYS......................1300/- US DOLLERS
                DOUBLE..................7 DAYS.......................1650/-US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
                TRIPLE....................7DAYS.........................1850/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
               
                SINGLE....................14 DAYS.....................2000/- US DOLLERS
                DOUBLE...................14 DAYS.....................2400/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
                TRIPLE.....................14 DAYS......................2800/- US DOLLERS--ONE ROOM
*****FOR THIS RATE WE WILL GIVE YOU RIVER SAFARY   AND  AREA CITY TOUR

******.........WELCOME...................THANK YOU...........................**********
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

PACKAGE -3
THIS PACKAGE INCLUDE , BEACH FRONT HOTEL / FULL  BOARD / UP AND DOWN -
AIR PORT TAXI / VISITING GUIDE
ALL THE WAY YOU ARE FREE , ROOMS AVAILABLE IN
DODANDUWA , HIKKADUWA , KOGGALA , NEGOMBO ,
FOR SAME RATE WE CAN GIVE YOU VILLEGE AREA HOTELS IN GALLE
RATES.........SINGLE.............................07 DAYS..........................1100/-US DOLLERS
                        DOUBLE..........................07 DAYS..........................1300/-US DOLLERS   ONE ROOM
                       TRIPLE..............................07 DAYS..........................1500/-US DOLLERS    ONE ROOM
                 
                       SINGLE............................14 DAYS...........................1300/-US DOLLERS
                       DOUBLE...........................14 DAYS...........................1500/- US DOLLERS ONE ROOM
                       TRIPLE..............................14 DAYS........................... 1 700/- US DOLLERS ONE ROOM

*********....FOR THIS RATE WE WILL GIVE AREA CITY TOUR...........*********

**************WELCOME............................THANK YOU...............................................

////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////


PACKAGE - 4
THIS TOUR PLAN FOR 14 NIGHTS , RATES INCLUDE  HOTEL ROOM OR LUXURY
GUEST HOUSE ROOM
<UP TO THE AREA> BREAK FAST /SNACK FOR LUNCH
/ DINNER / ROUND TOUR FOR 14 NIGHTS / TOUR GUIDE / VEHICLE / DRIVER /
ENTRANCE FEE OF NATIONAL PARK  AND  CULTURE SITES ,
BREAK FAST AND DINNER WESTERN STYLE ,
IF ANY  GUEST LIKE SRI LANKA FOOD , YOU CAN HAVE .

TOUR .............01- ST- NIGHT ..........AIR PORT TO  NEGOMBO
                          02 - ND - AND
                          03 - RD - NIGHTS .........KANDY
                                                           TOOTH TEMPLE / BOTANICAL GARDEN / GEMING /
                                                           JEWELERY / GEMS / SHOPPING /
                         04 - TH - NIGHT - ANURADHAPURAYA
                         05 - TH - NIGHT - AND
                         06 - TH - NIGHTS - SIGIRIYA / DAMBULLA / POLONNARUWA
                         07 - TH - NIGHT - TRINCOMALEE....KINNIYA HOT WATER WELLS AND
                                                          CITY TOUR
                         08 - TH - NIGHT.....VIA - WAKARAI /  WALACHCHENA  / KALKUDA / PASIKUDA
                                                            TO BATICALOW ......CITY TOUR
                        09- TH - NIGHT.....ARUGAMBAY ...... REST ON THE  SURFING BEACH
                        10 - TH - NIGHT.....TISSAMAHARAMAYA / KATARAGAMA
                        11- TH -..................... EARLY IN THE MORNING  TO YALA NATIONAL PARK ,
                                                            ON THE WAY BACK TO - GALLE / HIKKADUWA...,
                                                             visit HUMMANAYA <2-nd largest blow hale in the world>
                        11 - TH - NIGHT -    GALLE  OR  HIKKADUWA  OR  DODANDUWA
                        12 - TH - NIGH -       DUTCH FORT AND  GALLE  CITY  TOUR
                        13 - TH -....................REST ON THE BEACH......OR ..........AS YOU WISH....
                                                            ..OR .................NIGHT LIFE IN HIKKADUWA.........................
                        13 - TH -NITE -         *DODANDUWA / HIKKADUWA
                        14 - TH - NIITE-       COLOMBO - COLOMBO ZOO / CITY TOUR WITH SHOPING..........
                                                           ...................  AS YOU WISH UNTILL DEPARTURE.................

RATES PER - ONE PERSON -............................. 3400/- US DOLLERS
                           0NE COUPLE  -............................. 6400/- US DOLLERS
                           3 PERSON GROUP  ...................9300/- US DOLLERS - , PER PERSON 3100/-
                          4 PERSON GROUP......................11,600/- US DOLLERS-,PER PERSON 2900/-
                          5 PERSON GROUP......................13,750/-US DOLLERS- PERPERSON 2750/-
                          5 PERSON UP ................................RATE IS PER PERSON.....2750/-USD
                           .............WELCOME .................THANK YOU........................
  ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

                                                           
                                                           
                                                           
                                                                
                                                               
                                                          
                                                             


                      






                                                                            
                                                     
                                                
                                                                             
                                                 
                                                                             
 
                                               



                                



                                                            
                                                            
                                                            
                                                                 
                                                                
                                                           
                                                              


                       






                                                                             
                                                      
                                                 
                                                                              
                                                  
                                                                              
 
                                                



                                 


Comments