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Canadian National Tower
Canadian National Tower Toronto, Ontario, Canada Located in the heart of Downtown Toronto between the SkyDome and the Metro Toronto Convention Centre on Front Street, just north of Bremner Blvd. Near the top, a 24 sq. metre glass floor allows visitors to watch the streets under their feet. The CN Tower is the world's tallest building as well as Canada's most recognizable icon. At a height of 553.33m (1,815 ft., 5 inches), the tower is the centre of tourism in Toronto. With a chance to see the breathtaking view of downtown Toronto, the CN tower attracts approximately 2 million visitors each year. Things to do in the tower include walking on glass floor, eating over 1000 ft above ground at the revolving 360 Restaurant, watching a movie about the construction of the CN tower and of course enjoying the view. CN Tower Facts The CN Tower was built by the Canadian National Railway. At 181 storeys, 553.33m (1,815 ft., 5 in.) it is the world's tallest building and free-standing structure Height of: Glass Floor - 113 storeys - 342m (1,122ft.) Look Out Level - 114 storeys- 346m (1,136ft.) Sky Pod - 147 storeys- 447m (1,465ft.) At the base of the CN Tower: * Circumference - 109.1m (358ft.) * Radius - 33.2m (109.2 ft.) * Diameter - 66.6m (218.4 ft.) Located at a: * latitude of 43 degrees 28 mins 36 sec North * longitude of 79 degrees 23 mins 15 sec West Opened to the public on June 26, 1976 Official opening on October 1, 1976 Original cost: $63 million Adjusted cost (1999 dollars): $260 million Construction started on February 6, 1973 Total construction time: 40 months Tower sphere construction (middle portion) started on August 1974 Antenna construction started on March 1975 Construction of The Tower was completed on February 22, 1974, and the antenna was completed on April 2, 1975 Number of construction workers: 1,537 Total weight of the Tower: 117,910 metric tonnes (130,000 tons) Volume of concrete: 40,523.8 cubic metres (53,000 cubic yards) Tensioned steel: 128.7km (80 miles) Reinforcing steel: 4,535 metric tonnes (5,000 tons) Structural steel: 544.2 metric tonnes (600 tons) Number of elevators: 6 (including 2 which officially opened March 20, 1997) Speed of elevators: 6 metres/second (20 feet/second) Slow speed of elevators (in high winds): 1.5 metres/second (5 feet/second) Attendance: about 2 million per year Total staff (off season): approximately 400 Total staff (peak season): approximately 550 · Maximum sway in 190 km/h winds with 320 km/h gusts (120 mph winds with 200 mph gusts): *Antenna: 6 ft., 8 in. from centre * Sky Pod: 3 ft., 4 in. from centre * Tower Sphere: 1 ft., 7 in. from centre Windows: Double-pane armour-plated Thickness of windows: Outer pane - 9.5 mm (3/8 inch), inner pane - 6.4 mm (1/4 inch) Glass Floor was opened on June 26, 1994 360 Restaurant was opened on April 25, 1995 The Wine Cellar in 360 Restaurant was opened on May 13, 1997 Capacity of 360, The Restaurant at the Tower: 400 people Time for 360 Restaurant to revolve once: 72 minutes Capacity of Horizons Cafe: 500 people The opening of the $26 million entertainment expansion, which was completed in nine months, took place on June 26, 1998 Broadcast Facilities: UHF, VHF Television; FM Radio; Microwave Transmissions; Fixed Mobile Systems Companies that broadcast from the Tower: § CBC Channel 5 & 25, CFMT 47, CFTO 9, City 57, Global/CIII 41, TV Ontario 19, LOOK Communications (Digital), CHFI/Rogers, CFNY FM, CHIN FM, CHUM FM, CILQ FM, CJEZ FM, CJRT FM, CKFM FM, Bell Canada, Cantel, Motorola, TTC Thickness of The Glass Floor: 2 1/2 ". Layers, from the top down: * 3/16" scuff plate (replaced annually) * Two 1/2" layers of clear tempered glass, laminated together * A one inch layer of air (for insulation) * Two 1/4" layers of clear tempered glass, laminated together * Size of each panel: 42" by 50" * Load tests are performed annually on each panel to ensure safety.Toronto's CN Tower
(From Wikipedia): The CN Tower, at 553.3 metres (1,815 ft 5 in) tall, is the world's tallest freestanding structure on land. It is located in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and is considered the signature icon of the city; more than two million international visitors are attracted annually to the tower. Guinness World Records has listed the CN Tower as the world's tallest "building" for 31 years. CN originally referred to the Canadian National Railway, but following the railway's decision to divest non-core freight railway assets, prior to the company's privatization in 1995, the CN Tower was transferred to the Canada Lands Company (CLC), a federal Crown corporation responsible for real estate development. Since the citizens of Toronto wished to retain the name CN Tower, the abbreviation CN now officially could stand for either the Communication Networks Tower or Canada's National Tower rather than the original Canadian National. The CN Tower consists of several substructures. The main portion of the Tower consists of a hollow concrete pillar containing the elevators, stairwells and power and plumbing connections. On top is the 102 metre (335 ft) metal broadcast antenna, carrying TV and radio signals. There are two main visitor areas, the main seven-story pod located at the 330 metre (1,100 ft) level, and the SkyPod at 447 metres (1,465 ft), just below the antenna. Microwave antennas ring the lower portion of the main pod, protected in a large white donut-shaped radome. The Sky Pod, situated high above the main observation floor, is the highest public observation deck in the world. From its top, it is possible on a clear day to see approximately 100 to 120 kilometres (60–75 mi) away and even see an outline of the city of Rochester across Lake Ontario in the United States, or the mist rising from Niagara Falls. At 342 metres (1,122 ft) is the Glass Floor and Outdoor Observation Deck. The glass floor has an area of 24 square metres (256 ft?) and can withstand a pressure of 4,100 kilopascals (600 lbf/in?). The glass floor consists of thermal glass units that are 64 millimetres (2.5 in) thick, consisting of a pane of 25 mm (1 in) laminated glass, a 25 millimetre (1 in) airspace and a pane of 13 millimetres (0.5 in) laminated glass. Some people experience vertigo by walking out on the glass floor and looking down at the ground below. At 346 metres (1,136 ft) is the Horizons Cafe and the Lookout Level, and at 351 metres (1,150 ft) is the 360 Restaurant, which completes a full revolution once every 72 minutes. The structure's microwave receivers for distant signals are housed at 338 metres (1,109 ft), and the top of the transmission antenna is at the apex of the tower. A metal staircase with 1,776 steps reaches the Lookout level, reaching 2,579 steps by the SkyPod, and is the tallest metal staircase on earth. These stairs are intended for emergency use and are not open to the public, except for thrice per year for charity stair-climb events: around Earth Day in the spring by the World Wildlife Fund and in the fall by the United Way's Toronto chapter. The average climber takes approximately 30 minutes to climb to the base of the radome (the white ring around the bottom of the main pod), but the fastest climb on record is 7 minutes and 52 seconds in 1989 by Brendan Keenoy, an Ontario Provincial Police Officer. The fastest record for a woman belongs to Chrissy Redden, who climbed the stairs in 2000 in 11 minutes and 52 seconds. In 2002, Canadian Olympian & Paralympic Champion Jeff Adams climbed the stairs of the CN Tower in a specially designed wheelchair.
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