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Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement: Research on What Works in Schools
In Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement, Robert J. Marzano shows how a carefully structured combination of two approaches--sustained silent reading and instruction in subject-specific vocabulary terms--can help overcome the deficiencies in background knowledge that hamper the achievement of many children.78% (16)
Readers will learn
* The principles that underlie an effective sustained silent reading program
* A five-step process for using sustained silent reading to enhance background knowledge
* The defining characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction
* A six-step process for direct instruction in vocabulary in each discipline
* The vocabulary terms critical to students’ success in every academic subject
Vignettes suggest how the recommended reading and vocabulary instruction programs might be implemented in elementary schools, middle and junior high schools, and high schools. The book also includes a list of 7,923 vocabulary terms culled from the national standards documents and other publications, organized into 11 subject areas and 4 grade-level categories.
With its research-based recommendations and step-by-step approach, Building Background Knowledge equips educators with the tools they need to help close the achievement gap and enable all students to succeed.
Westfield Township District School No. 7
Charleston, Staten Island The Westfield Township District School No. 7, one of the oldest surviving school structures on Staten Island, was erected in 1896 during a school construction boom related to the population growth on the island. The building project, undertaken by the school district Board of Trustees at the time when the village of Kreischerville approached a peak of development and during the time when the schools on Staten Island were under the jurisdiction of Richmond County and the State of New York, was both an exercise in local government and an architectural achievement. The use of two tones of ironspot glazed face brick on the street-facing walls establishes a civic presence for the school and reflects the close association of the community with its brick works. The design of District School No. 7 incorporates an often-used T-shaped plan that presents a gable-framed central portion to the street bearing the date and name of the structure, and elements of classical architecture, such as quoined comers and denticulated banding. An addition to the rear of Public School No. 4 (as the school was renumbered after the consolidation of Greater New York in 1898), was constructed in 1906-07 to the designs of the New York City Board of Education's Superintendent of School Buildings, C.B.J. Snyder. The building served for nearly ninety years as the village school and a center of Charleston community life until Public School No. 4 was relocated in 1984; it remains in use as Public School 25, Annex D under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education's Division of Special Education. The Development of Kreischerville During the early and mid-nineteenth century, the township of Westfield on the southwestern side of Staten Island was a rural area with scattered small settlements; the hamlet near the juncture of Arthur Kill Road and Sharrotts Road was known as Androvetteville because of the extensive land holdings of the Androvette family. The area changed dramatically in the mid-1850s with the discovery of refractory Are clay deposits and the subsequent development of a Are brick manufacturing works by Balthazar Kreischer. As the brick works established by Kreischer in 1855 at the edge of the Arthur Kill (Staten Island Sound) and clay mining began to dominate Androvetteville, the area became known as Kreischerville. The main impetus for the growth of the village of Kreischerville was the provision of housing within walking distance of the brick works. Rental housing — predominantly semi-detached cottages — was developed by the Kreischer firm and Captain Peter Androvette, who owned the double houses at 71-73, 75-77, 81-83, and 85-87 Kreischer Street (designated New York City Landmarks). The relative geographic isolation of Kreischerville prompted the development of an entire village with its own institutions as well as a company town culture. The West Baptist Church, erected in 1847 (adjacent to the community cemetery that remains) was the one institution that preceded the establishment of the Kreischer works. In 1856, Westfield School District No. 7 was carved out of the district centered around Rossville to the north, and in 1863 a Kreischerville post office was opened. Among the first businesses in the village was the store Kreischer helped Nicholas Kilmeyer to establish in the building that stands at 4321 Arthur Kill Road (at the comer of Winant Place). In 1883, Balthazar Kreischer erected a church building on Winant Place for St. Peter's German Evangelical Reformed Church of Kreischerville (now the Free Magyar Reformed Church, a designated New York City Landmark). Kreischerville, one of several villages that grew up near manufacturing enterprises on Staten Island, was a quasi-company town since it was not developed and owned entirely by the manufacturer. In Kreischerville the presence of older development and members of families who long resided in the area, such as Peter Androvette, tempered the control of the industrialist, and private enterprise flourished. According to reminiscences of residents, Kreischer considered the town named after himself to be a family community, and in a paternalistic manner he advanced money to purchase homes and assisted employees through sickness and trouble. As was common in industrial towns, the Kreischer family maintained conspicuous residences, one of which still stands, the Charles Kreischer House at 4500 Arthur Kill Road (a designated New York City Landmark attributed to Palliser & Palliser). In addition to his role as employer and landlord, Balthazar Kreischer influenced the religious and educational aspects of village life. He provided the site for District School No. 7 at a nominal rent and in 1883 he supplied some additional facilities (see below). Charles Kreischer and Edward Kreischer served the local school district as officers and trustees. During the 1880s and 1890s, the village of Kreischerville grew steadily to a peak of development wiWestfield Township District School No. 7
Charleston, Staten Island The Westfield Township District School No.7, one of the oldest surviving school structures on Staten Island, was erected in 1896 during a school construction boom related to the population growth on the island. The building project, undertaken by the school district Board of Trustees at the time when the village of Kreischerville approached a peak of development and during the time when the schools on Staten Island were under the jurisdiction of Richmond County and the State of New York, was both an exercise in local government and an architectural achievement. The use of two tones of iron spot glazed face brick on the street-facing walls establishes a civic presence for the school and reflects the close association of the community with its brick works. The design of District School NO.7 incorporates an often-used T-shaped plan that presents a gable-framed central portion to the street bearing the date and name of the structure, and elements of classical architecture, such as quoined comers and denticulated banding. An addition to the rear of Public School No. 4 (as the school was renumbered after the consolidation of Greater New York in 1898), was constructed in 1906-07 to the designs of the New York City Board of Education's Superintendent of School Buildings, C.B.J. Snyder. The building served for nearly ninety years as the village school and a center of Charleston community life until Public School No. 4 was relocated in 1984; it remains in use as Public School 25, Annex D under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education's Division of Special Education. Westfield Township District School No.7 is set back on a slight rise on the east side of Arthur Kill Road. The school building, sited near the south property line with a landscaped yard area extending to the north, consists of the original 1896 structure and the 1906-07 addition (and small extension) to the rear. The central section of the T -shaped, two-and-one-halfstory original portion of the brick building extends toward the street and bears in the gable face the identification "Public School 4" and the year of construction, 1896, in light-colored brick lettering. The original portion of the brick building has exterior walls of face brick on the front-facing central portion and flanking sections; tan glazed ironspot brick walls are articulated by an orange-brown ironspot brick which defines the comers of the building with quoins and marks the floor levels with denticulated bands. The raised basement, with small window openings, is also of the darker brick. The side and rear walls of the building are of a common red brick. The intersecting gable roof has slightly-projecting eaves; triangular windows in each gable face are now blocked. The main entrance to the building has a stoop with brick cheek walls; the single-leaf door (a replacement) is sheltered by a hipped roof supported by angled brackets. The window openings, set off with sandstone sills and lintels, have nine-over-nine double-hung wood sash (to which security screens have been added). The windows at the second story of the south side of the front portion are blocked with face brick. In 1991 the current fire escape was placed adjacent to the north side of the structure; openings providing access to the stairs have solid doors. For nearly ninety years - until 1984 - Public School No. 4 was the village school, a center of community life, and the major public building in Kreischerville, since the 1910s known as Charleston. The building remains in use as Public School 25, Annex D, under the jurisdiction of the Board of Education I s Division of Special Education. - From the 1995 NYCLPC designation report
With unequaled insight and brio, David Brooks, the New York Times columnist and bestselling author of Bobos in Paradise, has long explored and explained the way we live. Now, with the intellectual curiosity and emotional wisdom that make his columns among the most read in the nation, Brooks turns to the building blocks of human flourishing in a multilayered, profoundly illuminating work grounded in everyday life.Related topics:
This is the story of how success happens. It is told through the lives of one composite American couple, Harold and Erica—how they grow, push forward, are pulled back, fail, and succeed. Distilling a vast array of information into these two vividly realized characters, Brooks illustrates a fundamental new understanding of human nature. A scientific revolution has occurred—we have learned more about the human brain in the last thirty years than we had in the previous three thousand. The unconscious mind, it turns out, is most of the mind—not a dark, vestigial place but a creative and enchanted one, where most of the brain’s work gets done. This is the realm of emotions, intuitions, biases, longings, genetic predispositions, personality traits, and social norms: the realm where character is formed and where our most important life decisions are made. The natural habitat of The Social Animal.
Drawing on a wealth of current research from numerous disciplines, Brooks takes Harold and Erica from infancy to school; from the “odyssey years” that have come to define young adulthood to the high walls of poverty; from the nature of attachment, love, and commitment, to the nature of effective leadership. He reveals the deeply social aspect of our very minds and exposes the bias in modern culture that overemphasizes rationalism, individualism, and IQ. Along the way, he demolishes conventional definitions of success while looking toward a culture based on trust and humility.
The Social Animal is a moving and nuanced intellectual adventure, a story of achievement and a defense of progress. Impossible to put down, it is an essential book for our time, one that will have broad social impact and will change the way we see ourselves and the world.
Guest Reviewer: Walter Isaacson on The Social Animal
Walter Isaacson, the CEO of the Aspen Institute, has been chairman of CNN and the managing editor of Time magazine. He is the author of Benjamin Franklin: An American Life and of Kissinger: A Biography, and the coauthor of The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made. He lives in Washington, D.C., with his wife and daughter.
David Brooks has written an absolutely fascinating book about how we form our emotions and character. Standing at the intersection of brain science and sociology, and writing with the wry wit of a James Thurber, he explores the unconscious mind and how it shapes the way we eat, love, live, vacation, and relate to other people. In The Social Animal, he makes the recent revolution in neuroscience understandable, and he applies it to those things we have the most trouble knowing how to teach: What is the best way to build true relationships? How do we instill imaginative thinking? How do we develop our moral intuitions and wisdom and character? Brooks has always been a keen observer of the way we live. Now he takes us one layer down, to why we live that way.
An Amazon Interview with David Brooks
We talked with David Brooks about, among other things, Jonathan Franzen, Freud, and Brooks's own unfamiliar emotions, just before the publication of The Social Animal. You can read the full interview on Omnivoracious, the Amazon books blog, including this exchange:
Amazon.com: Speaking of Tolstoy, I bet a lot of people are going to quoting the first line of Anna Karenina to you: "Happy families are all alike. Every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way." Is there a consistency between what makes a family happy, the way that this family turns out to be?
Brooks: You know, I never bought Tolstoy's line.
Amazon.com: I didn't either.
Brooks: I didn't know many happy families that were alike. One of the things you learn is that we're all so much more complex. We all contain multitudes, so someone who might be a bully in one circumstance is incredibly compassionate in other circumstances. We have multiple selves, and the idea that we can have a very simple view of who we are, what our character is, that's actually not right.
One of the things all this research shows you is how humble you have to be in the face of the complexity of human nature. We've got a 100 billion neurons in the brain, and it's just phenomenally complicated. You take a little child who says, "I'm a tiger," and pretends to be a tiger. Well that act of imagination--conflating this thing "I" with this thing "tiger"--is phenomenally complicated. No computer could ever do that, but it's happening below the level of awareness. It seems so easy to us. And so one of the things these people learn is they contain these hidden strengths, but at the same time they have to be consciously aware of how modest they can be in understanding themselves and proceed on that basis.
A Letter from Author David Brooks
© Josh Haner, The New York Times
Several years ago I did some reporting on why so many kids drop out of high school, despite all rational incentives. That took me quickly to studies of early childhood and research on brain formation. Once I started poking around that realm, I found that people who study the mind are giving us an entirely new perspective on who we are and what it takes to flourish.
We’re used to a certain story of success, one that emphasizes getting good grades, getting the right job skills and making the right decisions. But these scientists were peering into the innermost mind and shedding light on the process one level down, in the realm of emotions, intuitions, perceptions, genetic dispositions and unconscious longings.
I’ve spent several years with their work now, and it’s changed my perspective on everything. In this book, I try to take their various findings and weave them together into one story.
This is not a science book. I don’t answer how the brain does things. I try to answer what it all means. I try to explain how these findings about the deepest recesses of our minds should change the way we see ourselves, raise our kids, conduct business, teach, manage our relationships and practice politics. This story is based on scientific research, but it is really about emotion, character, virtue and love. We’re not rational animals, or laboring animals; we’re social animals. We emerge out of relationships and live to bond with each other and connect to larger ideas.
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