Mitosis Plants vs. Animals

While the main purpose of mitosis remains the same in plants and animals, the process contains similarities and differences between these two types of eukaryotic cells.
Similarities
  • During Prophase, chromosomes condense
  • In Prometaphase, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the chromosomes move towards the metaphase plate, and the spindle grabs the chromosomes
  • In Metaphase, the chromosomes align at the equator
  • In Anaphase, they move towards opposite poles
  • In Telophase, the nuclear envelope appears again, chromosomes de-condense, and the spindle breaks down.
Differences
  • In Prophase, animal cells have centrioles that organize spindles while plant cells don't. Plants also have a pre-prophase band, which consists of actin and microtubules, that forms in the place where the cell wall will appear
  • During Prometaphase, the pre-prophase band of plant cells disappears.
  • During Telophase, animal cells have a contractile ring, which is made of actin and myosin, that forms halfway between the two nuclei in the dividing cell. In Plant cells, a phragmoplast, which is made of actin, myosin, and microtubules, forms in the center of the cell where the cell wall will appear
  • In Cytokinesis, the contractile ring in animal cells contracts and pinches the cell into 2 daughter cells. In plants, the phragmoplast extends and forms the cell wall.
  • In plants, mitosis occurs only in the meristem tissues. They are located at the tips of roots, shoots, and in the stem, between the xylem and phloem.
 
 

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