May, L. N., & Jones, W. H. (2007). Does hurt linger? exploring the nature of hurt feelings over time. Current Psychology, 25(4), 245-256.
Abstract (from PsycINFO):The utility of distinguishing between introjective hurt (feeling sad,
engaging in self-blame, and wondering what one did wrong) and
retaliatory hurt (yelling at, blaming, confronting, and feeling angry
toward the offender) was explored in a longitudinal design of two
months. Participants (N = 51) were asked to describe a recent hurtful
incident in survey format and complete subsequent measures of various
behavioral and emotional reactions, including hurt and forgiveness.
Results suggested the stability and relative independence of the two
types of hurt and the differential significance of predictor variables
(for example, apology) for each hurt type, both simultaneously and over
time. These results support the distinction between retaliatory and
introjective hurt as they represent distinct reactions with
differential interpersonal outcomes.Excerpt:Hurt refers to feeling emotionally injured or harmed by another person as a result of a perceived interpersonal transgression, rejection, threat or frustration and is associated with feelings of anger, fear, and guilt (Fine & Olson, 1997; May & Jones, 2005; Vengelisti, 1994; Vangelisti & Crumley, 1998). Previous research (for example, Fine & Olson, 1997; Leary, Spirng, Negel, Ansell, & Evans, 1998; Vangelisti & Young, 2000) generally conceptualizes hurt as a discrete and temporary experience arising from a particular incident or situation.References:
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