Our Work
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Our Contributions to the field of carbon nanostructures since 1997



A. Heavy Ion Induced Clustering in Amorphous Graphite:


We serendipitously discovered a technique of inducing fullerene formation on the surface of amorphous carbon by heavy ion bombardment. This work had a certain element of novelty and we claimed it as such in our papers.

1.      "Evolution of clusters in energetic heavy ion bombarded amorphous graphite"

Physics Letters A 234, 337 (1997).

2.      "Multiply charged direct recoil spectra from Ar+ and Kr+ bombarded graphite"

Nucl. Instrum. & Methods Phys. Res. B 122, 19 (1997).

3.      "Heavy ion induced cluster formation and fragmentation phenomena in amorphous graphite"

Eur. Phys. J. D 3, 267 (1998).

4.      “Energy spectra of charged clusters recoiling from Xe+ irradiated graphite surfaces"

            Rad. Eff. & Def. Solids, 153, 35 (2000).

B. Carbon Cluster Formation in Specially Designed Sources:


We have designed special sources that deliver carbon clusters. We have also developed techniques of emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of carbon clusters.

1.         “A cusp field, hollow cathode, carbon cluster ion source"

Nucl. Instrum. & Methods Phys. Res. B 152, 506 (1999).

2.                  "Carbon cluster formation in regenerative sooting plasmas"

                        Physics Letters A 261,327 (1999).

3.           "Photo emission spectroscopy and velocity analysis of sputtered carbon atoms,          ion, and clusters"

                        Applied Physics Letters, 75, 410 (1999).

4.         "A compact, permanent-magnet-based ExB velocity filter for carbon cluster diagnostics"

Nucl. Instrum. & Methods Phys. Res. A 452,371 (2000).

C. Discovery of the Regenerative Soot and Special Techniques for the Study of Carbon Clusters

We claim that a new method of producing carbonaceous environment has been developed at PINSTECH. This method provides us with the Regenerative Soot. This technique has certain advantages and we have done research on various aspects of the Regenerative Soot.

1              "Emission of carbon clusters from sooting plasmas"

             European Physical Journal AP 5, 111 (1999).

2.         "Sputtering and formation of C1, and C2 in the regenerative sooting discharge"

   Nucl. Instrum. & Methods Phys. Res. B 171, 55 (2000).

3.                  "The state of the carbon vapour in the regenerative sooting discharge"

             European Physical Journal D 15, 349 (2001).

4.         "The kinetic and potential sputtering in the regenerative of the soot"

             Applied Physics Letters 78, 1499 (2001).

5.         "Transition from C3-dominated discharge to the sooting plasma"

             Physical Review E 64, 026408 (2001).

6.         "Spectroscopy of the regenerative soot"- A REVIEW ARTCILE

             European Physical Journal D 18, 309 (2002).

7.         "The excited states of the neutral and ionized carbon in the regenerative sooting discharges"

             Journal of Physics D: Appl. Phys., 36, 1176 (2003).

8          "Regenerative soot as a source of broad band VUV light"

             European Physical Journal D 22, 189 (2003).


D. Development of a Theoretical Model for Explaining Some of the Growth Properties of Fullerenes and Nanotubes


  1. "Continuum elastic model of fullerenes and the sphericity of the carbon onions"

      Journal of Chemical Physics 116, 3396 (2002).

  1. “Criteria for the growth of fullerenes and nanotubes in sooting environments”, Shoaib Ahmad,

      Nanotechnology 16, 1739 (2005).

  1. “The degenerate Fermi gas of pi electrons in fullerenes and the sigma surface instabilities”,

      Nanotechnology, 17, 1686 (2006)

  1. “Modelling of C2 addition route to the formation of C60”,

      Nanotechnology, 17, 4654 (2006)