This website was produced in november 2015 as part of the course Cartography 2. This course is part of the Master program in Geomatics at the University of Gävle. The goal of this website is to guide you trough the basic principles of Cartography, by giving examples of different classification methods, concepts of visualization, projections, map types, visualization and much more. These examples where executed in the form of exercises and labs, which you can find on the left side of the web page. 

Let's start with a definition of cartography. A widely used definition is: ''the art, science and technology of making maps, together with their study as scientific documents and works of art. In this context, maps may be regarded as including all types of maps, plans, charts and sections, three-dimensional models and globes representing the earth or any celestial body at any scale" (Meynen, 1973). 

In the past decades a new world became more important. The previous definition does not mention the virtual world. Cartography is not only about mapping visible things, it is also about mapping networks that are not visible. A good example is a social networks. A key word in the difference between the virtual world and the real world is topology. Network visualizations of the virtual world can handle topology, but they cannot handle geometry. This is different from  maps about the real world, which are most of the times topologically and geometrically correct. Somewhere in the middle of topological and geometrical maps, we can find cartograms, which handle topology but are geometrically distorted. Another key word is scaling structure. Scaling structure refers to the fact that in nature there are far more smaller thing than larger things. An example of this structure can be found in the human body. Keep in mind the key words 'topology' and 'scaling' when you surf through this website. 

Meynen, E. (1973). Multilingual Dictionary of Technical Terms in Cartography. Stuttgart: International Cartographic Association.