Carolingian Figurative Queen

The Queen was originally a Visir in Persia. In Arab this became Firz or Firzan. The Queen was a weak piece in the old game, it could only move to four squares diagonally one squares away. Until 1475 this was the move used in Europe.


That the queen is not a Visir in Europe is weird. In Europe is the Queen put next to the King second in line for power. Changing into a Queen even could have been dangerous, in the middle ages you could get killed if you challenged authority. So it should have been a decision at a court. To do this that it would influence the whole of Europe it should have been a very - very powerful court. These courts only existed during the 9th century under the Carolingians.


The queen was a Christian queen, since after promotion of a pawn, there was only one queen allowed, avoiding promiscuity. So the queen should have been taken of the board before promotion of the pawn to queen. The middle agers were well aware of the Arab version and found a solution for the promiscuity, since sometimes the pawn could promote to a Ferzia!!! The Ferzia was a female Vizir parallel to Shatranj (Arab chess). So next to the Queen a female Visir could be on the board.


An ivory Queen sitting in a chair from Italy from around 1100 could well be how the original model for a Queen looked like. It was normal to show important people sitting in a chair during Carolingian times. She also has her hand on her hart as a sign of loyalty. The same sign with the hand on the hart can be seen in an Ivory for the crowning ofOtto II (973-83) and Theophanou. The ivory shows them on the same level, just as on the chessboard. The Carolingian Renaissance was much influenced by Byzantium, so it is hard to distinguish between Carolingian and Byzantine influences, since sometimes the sitting pose was used in Byzantium as well.


However the example is probably not Byzantine, because then a dome is expected around the figure and a Visir instead of a Queen, just as can be seen on the Visir from the Bargello museum from the beginning of the 12th century. Note: this piece is often called a king, since it is a male with a beard.


In Scandinavia, United Kingdom or Ireland Queens have regularly have their hand on their cheek. Remarkable is also that several queens are on horseback, sometimes with soldiers around them, just like the Charlemagne King from Paris.