Fauvism was a name given to a group of painters, around 1900 known through the use of pure colors. In the use of pure colors (primary, secondary and tertiary colors) black and white they get down the extreme of avoiding tonal gradation. The black and white of chess boards fitted perfectlyin this. Forms are simplified, often delineated by black lines. As for the suggestion of space is concerned. The perspective taken personally or rejected, mainly using of overlap, reducing back and also by color (red, yellow and orange on top, blue and green background). This broke the art movement with the academic tradition.
This art movement is a deliberate response to the methodology of the
Neo-Impressionists such as Georges Seurat and Paul Signac. The peak was between 1904 and 1907. The founders of Fauvism are Henri Matisse
and André Derain.
1944 The Imagery of Chess
In 1944-45, Duchamp, Ernst and Surrealist dealer Julien Levy hatched the
idea of inviting artists to reinvent and comment upon the classic chess
set. Figures like Yves Tanguy, André Breton, Robert Motherwell, Arshile
Gorky and even John Cage took part. The exhibition contained many unique and famous chess art, like The Knight's Tour from Man Ray.
During the Cold War both “superpowers” used particularly chess,
in order to construct an ideology of complete conflict and
irreconcilable division between East and West. By the 1960s
artists contested this realm
for propaganda. The complete white chess set from Yoko Ono contests every notion of competition altogether. In a wave of
game-focused art, artist returned to the concerns of surrealist art practice
and to earlier cultural game theory, like from the dutch philosopher Johan Huizinga.
Fluxus was almost exclusively performed by Fluxus artists at its usual venues of art galleries and concert
halls mainly in New York. Fluxus is found in Maciunas' Fluxus multiples: the "Fluxkits" and
"Yearboxes", and in Fluxus games and Fluxchess. Artists associated with Fluxchess were Takako Saito and Yoko Ono.
2004 The Imagery of Chess Revisited
In 2004, the Noguchi Museum
in Long Island City, hosted The Imagery of Chess Revisited, a reprise
of a significant surrealist exhibition, The Imagery of Chess, put on by Julian Levy
beginning in December of 1944.
show began when the museum acquired a chess table by Isamo Noguchi, the
founder of the museum. The chessmen had long since been lost. The effort
to re-create the pieces led to the show, for one of the two known
pictures of them is of Julian Levy apparently playing a game with them at the 1944 show.
Artist to do
Lucas Van LEYDEN (1494-1533)
Jan De BRAY (1627-1697)
Maurits Cornelis ESCHER (1898-1972)
Jacob Van Der HEYDEN (1573-1645)
Herman Frederik Karel Ten KATE (1822-1891)
Ferdinand Van KESSEL (1648-1696)
Cornelis De MAN (1621-1706)
Karel Von MANDER (1579-1623)
Gabriel METSU (1629-1667)
Karel De MOOR (1656-1738)
Antonio MORO or Mor DASHORST (1512-1577)
Cornelis TROOST (1696-1750)
Adriaen Van Der WERFF (1659-1722)
Sofonisba ANGUICIOLA (1527-1623)
Paschalino BORDONE (1500-1571)
Girolamo Da CREMONA (1474-1555).
Johann Erdmann HUMMEL (1767-1852)
Moritz RETSCH (1779-1857)
Johann Heinrich Wilhem TISCHBEIN (1751-1792).
Henri CARO-DELVAILLE (1876-1928)
Louis Robert CARRIER-BELLEUSE (1848-1913)
Eugène DELACROIX (1798-1863)
Jean-Louis Ernst MEISSONIER (1815-1890)
Jean-Michel MOREAU Le Jeune (1741-1814)
Georges BRAQUE (1882-1963)
Bernard BUFFET (1928-...)
Henri MATISSE (1869-1954)
Jacques VILLON (1875-1963) or Gaston DUCHAMP
Juan GRISS (1887-1927)
Vassily KANDINSKY (1866-1944)
Victor VASARELY (1909-...)