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Chess Cafes and Clubs

The early chess clubs evolved from the early coffee houses, cafes and restaurants.Perhaps the first chess club ever organized occurred in Italy in 1550.

In 1686, Francois Procope (Procopie Cotelli), a native of Sicily, opened the Cafe de Procope, which soon became a gathering place of chess players. Café Procope is the oldest coffee house in Paris and is located right at the heart of the famous Quartier Latin. Cafe Procope claims to be the world’s oldest existing restaurant. Café Procope developed into a meeting place for the intellectual establishment of the 18th century, including Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson. Napoleon played chess at the Cafe de Procope when he was a young artillery officer. In 1989 Café Procope was refurbished in 18th-century style. Cafe de Procope:


Around 1740 chess players moved to the Cafe de la Regence from the Cafe Procope. The Cercle des Echecs chess club met at the Cafe de la Regence in Paris, the most famous meeting places for chess players.  It was frequented by Philidor, Legall, Descheppeles, La Bourdonnais, Saint-Amant, Kieseritzky, Voltaire, Rousseau, Robespierre, Diderot, Franklin, Napoleon, and Paul Morphy.Cafe de la Regence:

Hooper and Whyld, in The Oxford Companion to Chess, 2nd editon, writes that the Cafe de la Regence was opened in 1670 by an American, and that it was the first cafe in Europe.  Edward Brace, in An Illustrated Dictionary of Chess, writes that the cafe was founded during the regency of Philip, Duke of Orleans (1715-1723), after whom it was named.

In 1735, chess was being played at Slaughter's Coffee House.  Thomas Slaughter established the place in 1692.

In 1747, Francois Philidor played Philip Stamma at Slaughter's Coffee House on St. Martin's Lane in London.  By 1770, Slaughter's was deserted.  The building was demolished in 1844.  It housed London's only chess club for many years.

From 1774, Philidor frequented Parsloe's Coffee House on St. James Place (next door to the Thatched House Tavern) in London.  In 1774, Parsloe's was the scene of the first organized chess club in England, strictly limited to 100 players at a three- guinea Subscription.  The dues were used to pay for Philidor's expenses while in London.  Parsloe's existed from 1772 to 1825.

Murray, in The History of Chess, writes that a chess club was organized in Paris in 1783 under the patronage of le Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII), who was himself a member.  The subscription was 100 francs.

In 1803 there was a chess club in Berlin and another in New York.

On April 6, 1807, the London Chess Club was founded at Tom's Coffee House, in Cornwall.  The club was supported by city merchants and members of the Stock Exchange, who played chess in the middle of the day.  The club was closed to amateurs not from London. It folded in 1827 when William Lewis, the owner of the club, went bankrupt from bad investments in the piano business.

In 1809, a chess club was organized in Zurich (the Schachgesellschaft Zurich), which still exists today.  It is the world's oldest chess club still in existence. The founders were a cashier, a paper manufacturer, a grocer, and three painters.  The first documentation of the club is a balance sheet, dated 1810.

In 1824, the London Chess Club played a correspondence match with the Edinburgh Chess Club.  The Edinburgh CC won the match. Book about the match

In 1827, the Philadelphia Chess Club at 5th Street and Chestnut, was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The chess club formed after a visit by Maelzel and the Turk automaton. Over 100 members enrolled themselves in the chess club in the first week.  The club soon disbanded.

In 1833, he gave it the name Simpson's, named after his head waiter. Simpson's was frequented regularly by all the greatest players of the time.  In 1903, Simpson's was purchased by Westminster Council.  Simpson's was reopened in 1904, but chess was not encouraged there until 1980 when the final of the English national club championship was held there.




In 1830, Huttman opened a coffee house on Bedford Street in Covent Garden. George Walker then suggested the formation of a chess club in the coffee house.  Soon, every cigar Mr. Huttman sold in the coffee house was wrapped in a printed chess problem.  Huttman later published a chess periodical and expanded his club (renamed the Westminster Club in 1835).  Soon, the club had 300 members.  It was this club that La Bourdonnais and McDonnell played thier chess matches in 1834.  The club dissolved in 1840.

In May-July 1851, the St. George's Club, Polytechnic Building, Cavendish Square in London, sponsored the first International Chess Tournament. The London Chess Club did not take part in the Tournament of 1851, but July-August, 1851. they gave a cup worth 100 guineas in a tournament for the foreign players then in London.  The cup was won by Adolf Anderssen.

In 1852, the City of London Chess Club was formed.  It held its meetings at the George and Vulture Tavern, Cornhill.  It later met at Mouflet's Hotel on Newgate Street.  It merged with the National Chess Centre in 1939.  It had a membership of about 450 chess players.

The Mechanics' Institute building in San Francisco, 1861

The Mechanics' Institute building in San Francisco houses the oldest chess club in the United States.  It was organized in 1854, with its first meeting on December 11, 1854.  The Institute chess club was incorporated on April 24, 1855.

It is currently located at 57 Post Street, San Francisco, 4thfloor.


1856 the Ballarat Chess Club was founded at Brun's Cigar Divan in Australia.
It is unknown how long the 1856 club lasted. A number of chess clubs were founded in Victoria during the 1850's (Melbourne 1851, 1855 and 1857, Geelong 1855, Beechworth 1857, Ararat 1859) but the constant movements of the population during the gold rushes mitigated against the clubs lasting for very long. The first Ballarat Chess Club is no exception and it seems to have petered out like the others. It seems likely that the present club goes back to a meeting at the Ballarat Mechanics Institute on Tuesday, February 28th, 1865, when the Ballarat Chess and Draughts Club was founded with 35 members.

In 1872, Mary Rudge joined the Bristol Chess Club.She was the first woman member of the club, which did not allow women to be members of the club until she joined.


In 1877, chess players met at the Cafe Logeling, 49 Bowery St in lower Manhattan.  My Logeling was a chess enthusiast and eventually built a room in the back of his cafe for chess.  There was a decision to form a chess club, and discussion centered around the name of the club: Metropolitan, Morphy, or Manhattan.  On December 1, 1877, 37 chess players showed up for the first meeting, calling it the Manhattan Chess Club.

Dues were $4 per year and $1 per person entrance fee.  In 1882, world champion William Steinitz joined the Manhattan Chess Club.  The Manhattan CC hosted some of the games of the world championship matches in 1886, 1889 amd 1894.  Women were not allowed to join the Manhattan CC until 1938.  In 1942, former world champion Jose Capablanca fell from a stroke while watching a chess game at the Manhattan CC. He died the next day.  In 1955, Bobby Fischer joined the Manhattan CC and was its youngest member. In January 2002, the Manhattan Chess Club finally closed permanently after 124 years.  From 1877 to 2002, it was the oldest chess club in America in continuous existence.

In 1888, the San Antonio Chess Club was founded at the historic Menger Hotel, near the Alamo.  It is the oldest chess club in Texas.

In 1915, Frank Marshall formed the Marshall Chess Club.  In 1931, it permanently moved to 23 West 10th Street in New York. It is currently New York's oldest chess club.

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Timeline

Year Event
1550 Probably first chess club ever organized occurred in Italy.
1686 Cafe de Procope in Paris
  • meeting place for the intellectual establishment of the 18th century
  • famous chess playing visitors are: Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and Napoleon
  • 1989 Café Procope was refurbished in 18th-century style.
1670 Café de La Regence in Paris.
  • Place du Palais-Royal
  • 1740 chess players moved to the Cafe de la Regence from the Cafe Procope
  • Frequent visitors were Philidor, Legall, Descheppeles, La Bourdonnais, Saint-Amant, Kieseritzky, Voltaire, Rousseau, Robespierre, Diderot, Franklin,Napoleon, and Paul Morphy.
  • 1855 relocated on Rue St. Honore
  • 1916 the chess room was closed
1692 Slaughter's Coffee House London
  • St. Martin's Lane London
  • It housed London's only chess club for many years
  • 1735 chess was being played
  • 1747 Francois Philidor played Philip Stamma
  • 1770 Slaughter's was deserted
  • 1844 the building was demolished 
1749  An informal chess club existed in Dublin, Ireland.
1770 Chess players started gathering at the Salopian coffee house and tavern at Charing Cross
  • 1804 coffee house stops
  • 1851 restaurant stops
1772 Chess club in Parsloe's Coffee House on St. James Place (next door to the Thatched House Tavern) in London
  • 1774, Philidor frequented Parsloe's
  • 1825 Parsloe's stops
1783 Chess club under the patronage of le Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII), who was himself a member.
1803 Chess club in Berlin.
1803 Chess club in New York.
1807 The London Chess Club was founded at Tom's Coffee House, in Cornwall.
  • The club was supported by city merchants and members of the Stock Exchange, who played chess in the middle of the day. The club was closed to amateurs not from London.
  • 1824, the London Chess Club played a correspondence match with the Edinburgh Chess Club.  The Edinburgh CC won the match. Book about the match
  • 1827 Stopped because William Lewis the owner went bankrupt from bad investments in the piano business.
1809 Chess club Schachgesellschaft Zurich
  • The world's oldest chess club still in existence
1812 A chess club was founded in Dusseldorf, Germany.
1813 A chess club was founded in Dublin
  • 1819 stopped
1814 Chess was being played at the Athenaeum, on the 2nd floor, 6th Street and Walnut, in Philadelphia.
1817 The Manchester Chess Club was founded and met at the Albion Hotel in Manchester, England.
  • 1825 the Manchester Chess Club defeated the Liverpool Chess Club in a correspondence match.
  • Henry Blackburne was champion of the Manchester Chess Club in the 1860s.
  • 1876 stopped
1819 The Dublin Philidorian Chess Society was formed at the Harp Coffee House in Dublin.
1820 A tobacconist named Gliddon, opened a room in the rear of his shop, King Street, Covent Garden for chess.  He supplied it with chess books and periodicals, chess sets, and chess boards and called it Gliddon's Divan. Gliddon's Divan was frequented by Howard Staunton.
1822 The Edinburgh Chess Club was founded, the oldest in Scotland. It is probably the second oldest chess club in the world.
  • 1824 the London Chess Club played a correspondence match with the Edinburgh Chess Club. The Edinburgh CC won the match. Book about the match
1822 The Amsterdam Chess Club, or Vereenigd Amsterdamsch Schaakgenoostschap (VAS), was founded.
  • 1824 the Amsterdam Chess Club defeated the Rotterdam Chess Club in a correspondence match, winning two games.
1822 The Royal Dutch Chess Society (Discendo Discimus) was founded in The Hague.
1823
 The Paris Chess Club (Le Cercle de Philidor) was founded.
1823 A chess club formed at the Percey Coffee House on Rathbone Place in London.
  • It disbanded in 1825.
1823 The Rotterdam Chess Club was founded.
  • 1824 the Amsterdam Chess Club defeated the Rotterdam Chess Club in a correspondence match, winning two games.
1825 The St. Martin's Chess Club on St. Martin's Street in London was founded.
  • It was disbanded in 1827.
1826 The Dundee Chess Club was founded in Dundee, Scotland.
1827 The Philadelphia Chess Club at 5th Street and Chestnut, was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The chess club formed after a visit by Maelzel and the Turk automaton. Over 100 members enrolled themselves in the chess club in the first week. The club soon disbanded.
1827
-
1828
Chess clubs in Madras and Hyderabad, India were founded. In 1828, the Madras Chess Club defeated the Hyderabad Chess Club in a correspondence match.
1828 Bernhard and Samuel Bernhard Ries, opened the Grand Cigar Divan at 101 Strand in London.
  • 1833 he gave it the name Simpson's, named after his head waiter. Simpson's was frequented regularly by all the greatest players of the time.
  • 1840 Henry Buckle won the first organized chess tournament at the Cigar Divan.
  • 1840 Mr. Ries invited La Bourdonnais to come over from Paris, and play exclusively at the Divan. La Bourdonnais came, but died next door to the Divan in December, 1840.
  • 1903 Simpson's was purchased by Westminster Council. Simpson's was reopened in 1904, but chess was not encouraged there until 1980 when the final of the English national club championship was held there.
1829 The Bristol Chess Club was founded by Elijah Williams.  The original club disbanded in 1871.
1829 The Nottingham Chess Club was founded at Bromley House in Nottingham, England.
1830 Huttman opened a coffee house on Bedford Street in Covent Garden. George Walker then suggested the formation of a chess club in the coffee house.  Soon, every cigar Mr. Huttman sold in the coffee house was wrapped in a printed chess problem.  Huttman later published a chess periodical and expanded his club (renamed the Westminster Club in 1835).  Soon, the club had 300 members.  It was this club that La Bourdonnais and McDonnell played thier chess matches in 1834.  The club dissolved in 1840.
1830 The Hamburg Chess Club (Hamburger Schachklub), the oldest chess club in Germany, was founded.
1832 The Cambridge University Chess Club was founded.
1833 The Berlin Chess Club (Berliner Schachgesellschaft) was founded.
1833 The Dublin Chess Club was formed.  It disbanded in 1867.
1834 The Leeds Chess Club was founded.
1836 The Bromley House Chess Club was founded.  It disbanded in 1845
1836 The London Chess Club played the Paris Chess Club in a correspondence match.  The Paris club won.
1836 The Munich Chess Club was founded.
1837 The Liverpool Chess Club, the Wakefield Chess Club, and the Worcester Chess Club were founded.
1838 Sam Ries purchased the furniture of the Westminster Chess Club for his chess club.
1838 The New Orleans Chess Club was founded.
1839 The Budapest Chess Club (Pesti Sakk-kor) was founded by Jozsef Szen.
1839Chess clubs were formed in New York and Washington, D.C.  The two chess clubs played a correspondence match against each other.
1840The Glasgow Chess Club was formed in Glasgow, Scotland.
1840The Halifax Chess Club in Halifax, Nova Scotia was founded.  It disbanded in 1959.
1840Huttman's Garrick Chess Divan at No. 4 Little Russell Street, Covent Garden, was founded.
1841 A chess club was formed in New Orleans.

 1841, the Westminster Chess Club moved to Charles Street in London.  Howard Staunton was elected Secretary.  It disbanded in 1843.
1843The St. George's Chess Club was located at Beatties Hotel on George Street, Cavendish Square.  It moved in 1844.
1843 The Zurich Chess Club (Schachgesellschaft) was founded.
1843Hugh Kennedy founded the Brighton Chess Club.
1844The St. George's Chess Club moved to the Polytechnic.  It remained there until 1854.
1845Purssell's restaurant in Cornhill, London founded a chess club.  The place closed down in 1891 and was demolished in 1894.
1845A chess club was formed at 33 Pemberton Square in Boston. It disbanded in 1848.
1845 A chess club was formed at West Point by Hyacinth Agnel.
1845An informal chess club was formed at Oxford University.

 1846, Howard Staunton played and won his match with Horwitz at the London Chess Club.

 1847 - 1852, the London Chess Club played a match with the Amsterdam Chess Club (Cercle des Echecs).  The London CC won the match, with two wins and one draw.

 1847, the Belfast Chess Club, the oldest in Ireland, was founded.
1847The Athenaeum Chess Club at 6th and Adelphi in Philadelphia was founded.

 1847, the Sheffield Athenaeum in Sheffield, England was founded.

 1847, the Dundee Chess Club at No. 1 South Union Street in Dundee, Scotland was founded.

 1848, the Penzance Chess Club was founded in England.

 1849, Henry Buckle won a knockout chess tournament at Ries' Divan.

 1850, the Burnely Chess Club in Lancashire, England and the Newcastle upon-Tyne Chess Club were founded.

 1851, the St. George's Club, Polytechnic Building, Cavendish Square in London, sponsored the first International Chess Tournament.

 The London Chess Club did not take part in the Tournament of 1851, but July-August, 1851. they gave a cup worth 100 guineas in a tournament for the foreign players then in London.  The cup was won by Adolf Anderssen.

 1851, the Birmingham Chess Club and the Leamington Chess Club in England were founded.

 1851 the Melbourne Chess Club at 188 Collins Street was founded in Melbourne, Australia.

 1852, the City of London Chess Club was formed.  It held its meetings at the George and Vulture Tavern, Cornhill.  It later met at Mouflet's Hotel on Newgate Street.  It merged with the National Chess Centre in 1939.  It had a membership of about 450 chess players.

 1852 the Huddlesfield Chess Club, the Shrewsbury Chess Club, and the Stourbridge Chess Club were founded in England.

 1853 the first chess club in Russia was founded in St. Petersburg.

 1853 the Aberdeen Chess Club was founded in Aberdeen, Scotland.  The Bon Accord Chess Club was also founded in 1853 in Scotland.

 1853 the Bradford Chess Club was founded in England.

 1854 the St. George's Chess Club moved to Regent Street in London.  It remained there until 1862.

 1854 the Tasmanian Chess Club in Tasmania was founded.

 1855 the Folkestone Chess Club and the Great Northern Railway Chess Club were founded.

 . The Mechanics' Institute building in San Francisco, 1861 The Mechanics' Institute building in San Francisco houses the oldest chess club in the United States.  It was organized in 1854, with its first meeting on December 11, 1854.  The Institute chess club was incorporated on April 24, 1855.It is currently located at 57 Post Street, San Francisco, 4th floor.

 In the 1850s, the Boston Young Men's Christian Union (YMCU) maintained a small room for chess.  A chess club was formally recognized in 1919, calling itself the Boylston Chess Club.

 In 1856, the Ballarat Chess Club was founded at Brun's Cigar Divan in Australia.

 In 1856, the Cambridge University Chess Club was founded.

 In 1856, the Yale Chess Club was founded in New Haven, Connecticut.  It was the first American college chess club.

 In 1857, the Croydon Chess Club in England was founded.

 In 1857, the Milwaukee Chess Club, located at the Newhall House, was founded.  It disbanded in 1883.

 In 1857, the St. George's Chess Club moved to King Street in London, and remained there until 1881.

 In 1857, the Vienna Chess Club was founded.

 In 1858, the Brooklyn Chess Club at 280 Fulton Street in Brookly, New York was founded.

 In 1858, the Dubuque Chess Club in Dubuque, Iowa was founded by Louis Paulsen.

 In 1859, the Charleston Chess Club was founded.

 In 1859, the Philadelphia Chess Club met at 13th and Chestnut in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  It was formed after a visit by Paul Morphy to Philadelphia.  It disbanded in 1866.

 In 1860, the Glasgow Central Chess Club was founded in Glasgow, Scotland.

 In 1860, the Leicester Chess Club in Leicester, England was founded.

 In 1860, the first chess club in Argentina was formed.

 In 1861, the Dudley Chess Club was founded in England.

 In 1862, the St. Petersburg Chess Club was formed, but disbanded a few months later by the Russian police.

 In 1862, the Wolverhampton Chess Club was founded in England.

 In 1863, the Napier Chess Club was founded in Dunedin, New Zealand.  It disbanded in 1870.

 In 1864, the Adelaide Chess Club was founded in Adelaide, Australia.

 In 1864, the Georgetown Chess Club was founded in British Guiana.

 In 1865, the Louisville Chess Club was founded.

 In 1865, the Ballarat Chess Club was formed at the Ballarat Mechanics Institute in Australia.

 In 1865, the Copenhagen Chess Club was founded in Copenhagen, Denmark.

 In 1865, the Rotherham Chess Club was founded in England.

 In 1866, the Melburne Chess Club was founded, the oldest chess club in Australia and the southern hemisphere.

 In 1866, the Clerkenwell Working Man's Chess Club was founded at 46 Lower Rosoman Street in Clerkenwell, England.

 In 1866, the Philadelphia Chess Club formed at 1218 Market Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  It disbanded in 1867.

 In 1866, the Westminster Chess Club formed in London.  It disbanded in 1875.

 In 1866, The Stockholm Chess Club was founded, oldest in Sweden.

 In 1867, the Bury St. Edmunds Chess Club and West Suffolk Chess Club were founded in England.

 In 1867, the Dublin Chess Club was formed in Dublin, Ireland which still exists today. It is the oldest chess club in Ireland.

 In 1867, the Press Chess Club was founded at 607 Walnut Street in Philadelphia.  It disbanded in 1874.

 In 1869, the Oxford University Chess Club was founded under the auspices of the Reverend C.E. Reanken.

 In 1869, a chess club was organized at Cornell University, but very little interest was taken, and the club existed for only one year.

 In 1870, the first chess club devoted to correspondence chess, the Caissa Correspondence Club, was founded in England.

 In 1870, the Cafe Europa was founded at 16 Division Street in New York.  It disbanded in 1872.

 In 1872, the Cafe Cosmopolitan Chess Club was founded at 1½ 2nd Avenue in New York.

 In 1872, the City of London Chess Club defeated the Vienna Chess Club in a telegraph match.

 In 1872, Mary Rudge joined the Bristol Chess Club. She was the first woman member of the club, which did not allow women to be members of the club until she joined.

 1873 chess club Augsburg

 In 1873, the Brighton public chess rook was founded in Brighton, England.  It disbanded in 1921.

 In 1873, the first Oxford University Chess Club vs. Cambridge University Chess Club match was held.  Wilhelm Steinitz was responsible for establishing the match.

 In 1874, the Harvard Chess Club was founded, the oldest chess club in the Boston area.

 In 1875, the Philidor Chess Club, Brooklyn's oldest chess organization, was formed.

 In 1877, chess players met at the Cafe Logeling, 49 Bowery St in lower Manhattan.  My Logeling was a chess enthusiast and eventually built a room in the back of his cafe for chess.  There was a decision to form a chess club, and discussion centered around the name of the club: Metropolitan, Morphy, or Manhattan.  On December 1, 1877, 37 chess players showed up for the first meeting, calling it the Manhattan Chess Club. Dues were $4 per year and $1 per person entrance fee.  In 1882, world champion William Steinitz joined the Manhattan Chess Club.  The Manhattan CC hosted some of the games of the world championship matches in 1886, 1889 amd 1894.  Women were not allowed to join the Manhattan CC until 1938.  In 1942, former world champion Jose Capablanca fell from a stroke while watching a chess game at the Manhattan CC. He died the next day.  In 1955, Bobby Fischer joined the Manhattan CC and was its youngest member.
In 1883, the Manhattan Chess Club moved to 110 East 14th Street in New York

In January 2002, the Manhattan Chess Club finally closed permanently after 124 years.  From 1877 to 2002, it was the oldest chess club in America in continuous existence.

 In 1877, the Dresden Chess Club was founded.

 In 1878, the Philidor Chess Club at 61 Montrose in Brooklyn was founded.

 In 1878, the Rockford Female Seminary (RFS) was founded in Rockville, Illinois.

 In 1879, the Seattle Chess Club was founded.

 In 1880, the New Orleans Chess, Checkers, and Whist Club was founded at 600 Gravier Street in New Orleans.  It disbanded in 1935.

 In 1880, the Accademia Scacchistica Roman was founded, the oldest chess club in Rome.

 In 1880, the Liverpool Chess Club played the Calcutta Chess Club via telegraph.  It was the first intercontinental telegraph match.

 In 1880, Chigorin organized one of the first chess clubs in Russia.

 In 1881, the Montreal Chess Club was formed, the oldest in Canada.

 In 1882, the Hastings Chess Club was founded at the Albert Temperence Hotel in Hastings.

 In 1884, the Golden Gate Chess Club was founded in San Francisco.

 In 1884, the first telephone chess match occurred between the Cardiff Chess Club and the Swansea Chess Club.

 In 1885, the Cape Town Chess Club was founded, the oldest chess club in Africa.

 In 1885, the British Chess Club was founded by Leopold Hoffer.

 In 1885, the Franklin-Mercantile Chess Club was founded in Philadelphia.

 In 1885, the Havana Chess Club was founded.

 In 1885, the Hampstead Chess Club was founded at the Stanfield House in England.  It disbanded in 1955.

 In 1886, the Brooklyn Chess Club was organized at 201 Montague Street.  It had about 150 members.

 In 1886, the first Croation Chess Club was founded.

 In 1888, the San Antonio Chess Club was founded at the historic Menger Hotel, near the Alamo.  It is the oldest chess club in Texas

 In 1890, the Staten Island Chess Club was founded by Albert Hodges at 10 Bay Street in Staten Island, New York.

 In 1890, the Steinitz Chess Club was founded at Alakea Street in Hawaii. It was the earliest chess club in Hawaii. It disbanded in 1891.

 In 1890, the New Orleans Chess, Checkers, and Whist Club burned down. Its library, valued at $15,000, was destroyed, as well as its Morphy memorabilia.

 In 1891, chess players who used to play at Purssells moved to Dr. Butler's Head, a restaurant on Mason's Avenue.

 In 1891, the Tacoma Chess Club was founded at the Theatre Building in Tacoma, Washington.

 In 1891, Lord Randolph Churchill, who was a co-founder of the Oxford University Chess Club, was the first president of the Johannesburg Chess Club in South Africa.  Lord Churchill, father of Winston Churchill, was a member of the St. George's Chess Club till the day of his death.

 In 1894, the Women's Chess Club was founded at 12 East 22nd Street in New York.  It disbanded in 1949.

 In 1895, the Ladies' Chess Club on Tottenham Court Road, London, was founded.

 In 1895, the first moves transmitted by telegraph over cable was between the British Chess Club and the Manhattan Chess Club.

 In 1896, the Memphis Chess Club was founded.

 In 1898, a club in St. Petersburg was formed.

 Other famous 19th-century chess cafes were: Roode Leeuw in Amsterdam; Bauer, Belvedere, Kaiserhof, Kerkau, and Konig in Berlin; Cafe de la Couronne in Geneva; Hanisch in Leipzig; Cafe du Levant in Madrid;
International Cafe in New York; Procope and Cafe de la Regence in Paris; Reuter in Riga; Palazzo de' Cnque in Rome; Dominink in St. Petersburg; Central and Rabel in Vienna.

 The leading London resort in the 20th century was The Gambit in Budge Row.  It was opened in 1898, and closed in 1958.  In 60 years, it was closed only once, for two days in September 1940, after damage from an air raid.  Only men were allowed in The Gambit, even though its owner for most of the time was Edith Price.

 In 1900, Daniel Willard Fiske founded the Reykjavik Chess Club in Iceland.

 In 1906, the Mechanics' Institute and Chess Club was destroyed by earthquake and fire.  It was rebuilt in 1909.

 In 1915, Frank Marshall formed the Marshall Chess Club.  In 1931, it permanently moved to 23 West 10th Street in New York. It is currently New York's oldest chess club.

Books

Chess Cafés and there Extraordinary  Visitors (Vermaarde Schaakcafés en hun Illustere Gasten) by L.C.M. Diepstraten.


A beautiful book (in dutch) with 63 chess prints giving a complete overview from the first and most famous chess cafes and there famous visitors. Visitors included  Benjamin Franklin who was author of the forgotten book Morals of chess, Napoleon Bonaparte, Wilhelm Steinitz but also the Russian tsar who were well seen regular visitors.

The book gives a lot of interesting background information about the prints and players in this book as for instance the fascinating story of the mysterious chess pieces from Napoleon who did contain inside the pieces a secret escape message.


Sources

http://www.chessville.com/BillWall/earlychessclubs.htm
http://www.victorianlondon.org/entertainment/dickens-chessclubs.htm
http://www.web-books.com/Classics/ON/B0/B701/16MB701.html
http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessplayer?pid=19077&kpage=6#reply154
http://www.schach-friedberg.de/pageID_9776965.html
http://www.viennasrestaurant.com/history_coffeehouse.html
http://www.ballaratchess.com/history.htm
http://www.victorianlondon.org/entertainment/dickens-chessclubs.htm
http://www.shropshirechess.org/History/introduction.htm

http://www.chessdryad.com/articles/hilbert/index.htm
http://www.caissa-wf.de/index.php?site=10