Presentations
1.
1985.
Johnson, N. K. and C. CICERO. Richness and distribution of montane avifaunas in the White-Inyo Region, California. Presented by N. K. Johnson and C. Cicero at the University of California White Mountain Research Station Symposium, Bishop, California, 23-25 August 1985. [oral, invited]
2. 1987.
CICERO, C. Avian community structure in a large urban park: controls of local richness and diversity. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, San Francisco, California, 10-13 August 1987. [poster, student research]
3.
1990.
Johnson, N. K. and C. CICERO. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability in two species of sparrows of the genus Amphispiza. Presented by N. K. Johnson at the XX International Ornithological Congress, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2-9 Dec. 1990. [oral, invited]
4.
1991.
CICERO, C. Genic variation, population structure, and gene flow in the Plain Titmouse (Parus inornatus) complex. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Montreal, Canada, 14-17 August 1991. [oral, student research]
5. 1993.
CICERO, C. Macrogeographic differentiation in mtDNA sequences of western titmouse populations. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Fairbanks, Alaska, 8-12 June 1993. [oral, student research]
6 1994.
CICERO, C. Cryptic variation and its evolutionary significance in the Plain Titmouse (Parus inornatus) complex. Department of Integrative Biology seminar, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 31 January 1994. [oral, invited, student research]
7. 1994.
CICERO, C. Morphologic and molecular variation in titmice: cryptic patterns and their evolutionary significance. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA, 31 March 1994. [oral, invited, student research]
8. 1994.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Relationships among sapsuckers based on mtDNA sequences at the cytochrome b locus. Presented by C. Cicero at the joint meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Wilson Ornithological Society, Missoula, Montana, 21-26 June 1994. [oral]
9. 1994.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Mitochondrial DNA divergence at the cytochrome b locus in sapsuckers. Presented by C. Cicero at the XXI International Ornithological Congress, Vienna, Austria, 20-25 Aug 1994 (symposium, "Avian Molecular Systematics and Evolution"). [oral, invited]
10. 1995.
Johnson, N. K. and C. CICERO. Macrogeographic patterns of genetic variation in the Vireo solitarius complex. Presented by N. K. Johnson at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cincinnati, Ohio, 15-19 August. [oral]
11. 1995.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Relationships of species complexes of vireos: an mtDNA perspective. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cincinnati, Ohio, 15-19 August. [oral]
12. 1996.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Higher category relationships of vireos (Aves: Vireonidae) as inferred from complete mtDNA sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Boise, Idaho, 13-17 August 1996. [oral]
13. 1997.
CICERO, C. Evidence for essential reproductive isolation of Oak and Juniper titmice. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 13-16 August 1997. [oral]
14. 1997.
Johnson, N. K., J. V. Remsen, and C. CICERO. The relevance of avian systematic methodology to conservation biology: defining endangered subspecies of the Least Tern. Presented by N. K. Johnson at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 13-16 August 1997. [oral]
15. 1998.
CICERO, C. and Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks. Song structure and variation in insular populations of montane Lincoln’s Sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii alticola). Presented by C. Cicero at the North American Ornithological Conference, St. Louis, Missouri, 6-12 April 1998. [oral]
16. 1998.
Johnson, N.K., J. V. Remsen, Jr. and C. CICERO. Resolution of the debate over species concepts in ornithology: A new comprehensive biologic species concept. Presented by N. K. Johnson at the XXII International Ornithological Congress, Durban, South Africa, 16-22 August (symposium, "Species Concepts"). [oral, invited]
17. 1998.
CICERO, C. Song variation in insular populations of montane Lincoln’s Saprrows. Seminar series in Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, CA, 30 September 1998. [oral]
18. 1999.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Effects of molecular character and taxon sampling on phylogenetic resolution of higher level relationships of vireos and shrikes. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Ithaca, New York, 10-14 August 1999. [oral]
19. 1999.
CICERO, C. Species of birds in theory and practice. Rio Grande Valley Birding Festival, Harlingen, TX, 10 November 1999. [oral, invited]
20. 2000.
CICERO, C. Molecular, morphologic, and ecological correlates of a secondary contact zone in titmice. Sonoma State University Biology Colloquium, 29 February 2000. [oral, invited]
21. 2000.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Molecular phylogeny of Empidonax flycatchers and their relatives using mitochondrial DNA sequences. Presented by C. Cicero at the joint meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Society of Canadian Ornithologists, and British Ornithologists’ Union, St. John's, Newfoundland, 14-19 August 2000. [oral]
22. 2000.
CICERO, C. Molecular, morphologic, and ecological correlates of a secondary contact zone in titmice. Seminar series in Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, CA, 20 September 2000. [oral]
23. 2001.
CICERO, C. Splits, lumps and new species: what’s going on? Golden Gate Audubon Society, Berkeley, CA, 19 April 2001. [oral, invited]
24. 2001.
CICERO, C., C. Moritz, and J. Wieczorek. The MVZ tissue collection: 28 years of experience. Presented by J. Wieczorek at the annual meeting of the Association of Systematics Collections, Chicago, Illinois, 8-9 June 2001. [oral, invited]
25. 2001.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Mosaic patterns of evolution in the Sage Sparrow complex. Presented by C. Cicero at the joint meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Seattle, Washington, 15-18 August 2001. [oral]
26. 2002.
C. CICERO and N. K. Johnson. The evolution of Empidonax flycatchers: if you've seen one, you haven't seen them all. Seminar series in Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California, 23 January 2002. [oral]
27. 2002.
C. CICERO. Decision-making by the AOU Committee on Classification and Nomenclature. Mt. Diablo Audubon Society, Walnut Creek, CA, 5 September 2002. [oral, invited]
28. 2002.
CICERO, C., A. T. Peterson, and A. G. Navarro-Siguenza. Sound recordings, distributed diversity databases, and ecological niche modeling: new tools create new functionalities. Presented by C. Cicero in symposium at the third North American Ornithological Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 24-28 September 2002. [oral, invited]
29. 2002.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. The role of ecologic diversification in sibling speciation of Empidonax flycatchers: multigene evidence from mtDNA. Presented by C. Cicero at the third North American Ornithological Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 24-28 September 2002. [oral]
30. 2002.
Johnson, N. K. and C. CICERO. The over-estimation of speciation times in modern birds. Presented by N. K. Johnson at the third North American Ornithological Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 24-28 September 2002. [oral]
31. 2004.
CICERO C., A. T. Peterson, and J. Wieczorek. The ORNIS network: data and tools for the ornithological community. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Quebec City, Canada, 16-21 August 2004. [oral]
32. 2005.
CICERO, C. The legacy of Joseph Grinnell in ornithology. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Santa Barbara, California, 23-27 August 2005. [oral, invited plenary]
33. 2005.
Remsen, J. V., Jr. and C. CICERO. A tribute to the career of Ned K. Johnson: leadership by meticulous example. Presented by C. Cicero in symposium at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Santa Barbara, California, 23-27 August 2005 (co-organized symposium, “Festschrift to Ned K. Johnson: Perspectives on Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Evolution in Birds”). [oral, invited]
34. 2005.
CICERO, C. and N. K. Johnson. Geographic variation and secondary contact in the Sage Sparrow complex. Presented by C. Cicero in symposium at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Santa Barbara, California, 23-27 August 2005 (co-organized symposium, “Festschrift to Ned K. Johnson: Perspectives on Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Evolution in Birds”). [oral, iinvited]
35. 2005.
CICERO, C. and A. Steele. The Digital MVZ Project. Invited paper presented by C. Cicero and A. Steele at workshop at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Santa Barbara, California, 23-27 August 2005 (co-organized symposium, “Increasing Access to Avian Biodiversity Data”). [oral, invited]
36. 2006.
Conroy, C. and C. CICERO. The Digital Museum of Vertebrate Zoology. Presented by C. Conroy at Arctos workshop at the annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 23-27 May 2006. [oral, invited]
37. 2006.
CICERO, C., M. Koo, A. T. Peterson, and J. Wieczorek. The ORNIS network: A distributed database resource with tools for the ornithological community. Presented at the International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany, 13-19 August 2006. [poster]
38. 2006.
Peterson, A. T., and C. CICERO. ORNIS. Presentation and roundtable discussion at the International Ornithological Congress, Hamburg, Germany, 13-19 August 2006. [oral]
39. 2006.
CICERO, C., J. D. Rising, and L. Benedict. Phylogeny of Aimophila sparrows, an unnatural assemblage: Insight into morphology, ecology, and behavior. Presented by C. Cicero at the North American Ornithological Conference, Veracruz, Mexico, 2-7 October 2006. [oral]
40. 2006.
CICERO, C. ORNIS: A Network of Avian Information for the 21st Century. Zoology seminar series, Smithsonian Institution, 31 October 2006. [oral, invited]
41. 2007.
Spellman, G. M., C. CICERO, K. Winker, and J. Klicka. Clarifying the evolutionary history of a morphologically diverse species: Phylogeography of the Steller’s Jay. Presented by G. Spellman at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Laramie, Wyoming, 9-11 August 2007. [oral]
42. 2008.
C. CICERO, M. Koo, G. Spellman, K. Winker, and J. Klicka. Linking phylogeography and distributional ecology. Presented at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Portland, Oregon, 4-9 August 2008 (co-organized symposium, "New Answers from Old Specimens"). [oral, invited]
43. 2008.
C. CICERO. The significance of subspecies: A case study of Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli). Presented at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Portland, Oregon, 4-9 August 2008 (coordinated session on subspecies). [oral, invited]
44. 2008.
C. CICERO. A primer on recording field data, with an emphasis on good versus bad localities. Presented at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Portland, Oregon, 4-9 August 2008 (co-organized symposium, "A beginner's Guide to Collecting and Preparing Museum Specimens").[oral, invited]
45. 2008.
Hanna, Z., C. CICERO, and R. Bowie. Phylogeography of the Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata). Presented by Z. Hanna at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Portland, Oregon, 4-9 August 2008. [oral, student research]
46. 2008.
C. CICERO. The Grinnell Resurvey Project: A century of avifaunal change in California. Presented at the annual meeting of the Western Field Ornithologists', San Mateo, California, 11 October 2008. [oral, invited keynote address]
47. 2010.
C. CICERO, H. Constable, A. T. Peterson, and J. Wieczorek. ORNIS: Current status, research uses, and future directions. Presented at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, San Diego, California, 7-11 February 2010. [poster]
48. 2010.
C. CICERO, R. Bowie, M. Koo, Z. R Hannah, and S. Palida. Phylogeography of the Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli): microsatellite and GIS analyses. Presented at the joint annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, San Diego, California, 7-11 February 2010. [oral]
49. 2010.
C. CICERO. Molecular, morphological, and ecological divergence in the Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli). Seminar series in Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California, 21 April 2010. [oral]
50. 2010.
Smith, A., Rauri Bowie, C. CICERO, C. Conroy, P. Epanchin, J. Patton, M. Koo, T. Morelli, K. Rowe, K. Rowe, E. Rubidge, M. Tingley, and C. Moritz. Predicting the ranges of species across time spans relevant to conservation: Species distribution modeling of vertebrates observed by Joseph Grinnell and contemporary resurveys. Presented by A. Smith at the Ecological Society of America annual meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1-6 August 2010. [oral]
51. 2011.
Ickert-Bond, S., C. CICERO, J. Cook, S. Edwards, and E. Lacey. AIM-UP! A research coordinating network to increase the use of museum collections in undergraduate education. Presented by S. Ickert-Bond at the Botany 2011 conference, St. Louis,  Missouri, 9-13 Jul 2011. [poster]
52. 2011.
C. CICERO, P. van Els,, and J. Klicka. Phylogeographic variation in the Gray Jay: A widespread boreal corvid. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Jacksonville, Florida, 24-29 July 2011. [oral, student research]
53. 2011.
C. CICERO, C. Spencer, M. Koo, D. Bloom. J. Wieczorek, A. Steele, R. Guralnick, D. Vieglais, A. T. Peterson, L. Russell, H. Bart, and N. Rios. VertNet: Distributed databases with backbone. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Jacksonville, Florida, 24-29 July 2011. [poster]
54. 2011.
Spencer, C., M. Koo. D. Bloom, C. CICERO, J. Wieczorek, R.Guralnick, A. T. Peterson, L. Russell, D. Vieglais, N. Rios, and H. Bart. VertNet: Distributed databases with backbone. Presented by C. Spencer and M. Koo at the annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, San Francisco, California, 21-28 May 2011. [poster]
55. 2011.
Koo, M., C. Spencer, C. CICERO, G. Jarrell, and D. McDonald. Arctos: A Collaborative Collection Management Information System. Demonstration presented by M. Koo and C. Spencer at the annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, San Francisco, California, 21-28 May 2011. [live demo]
56. 2011.
CICERO, C., M. Koo, and C. Spencer. Arctos: A Collaborative Collection Management Information System. Demonstration presented by C. Cicero, M. Koo, and C. Spencer at Seminar Series in Evolutionary Biology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California, 7 September 2011. [live demo]
57. 2012.
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, D. Bloom, M. Koo, R. Guralnick, A. Steele, J. Wieczorek, N. Rios, H. Bart, D. Vieglais, and L. Russell. Vertebrates in the cloud: Are we there yet? Presented by C. Cicero at the North American Ornithological Conference, Vancouver, British Columbia, 14-18 August 2012. [oral]
58. 2012.
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, J. Wieczorek, N. Rios, and H. Bart. VertNet Round Table. Presentations and roundtable discussion at the North American Ornithological Conference and World Congress of Herpetology, Vancouver, British Columbia, 14 August 2012. [oral]
59. 2012.
Spencer, C., C. CICERO, M. Koo, N. Rios, D. Bloom, and J. Wieczorek. Lessons learned from HerpNET and VertNet: Collaborative georeferencing and data quality improvement in natural history collections. Presented by C. Spencer at the World Congress of Herpetology, Vancouver, British Columbia, 8-14 August 2012. [oral, invited]
60. 2012.
Karin, B., C. CICERO, and R. Bowie. Song comparison of two Amphispiza belli subspecies. Presented by C. Cicero at the North American Ornithological Conference,  Vancouver, British Columbia, 14-18 August 2012. [poster, student research]
61. 2013.
Kingston, S., T. Parchman, Z. Gompert, C. A. Buerkle, C. CICERO, J. Klicka, and M. Braun. Hybridization, introgression and differentiation on a continental scale: genome-wide sequence analysis [in Pipilo maculatus]. Presented by S. Kingston at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution, Snowbird, Utah, 21-25 June 2013. [oral, student research]
62. 2013
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, M. Koo, D. Bloom, R. Guralnick, A. Steele, J. Wieczorek, L. Russell, J. Otegui, D. Vieglais, H. Bart, and N. Rios. VertNet and Big Data; Visualizing birds in the cloud. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union and Cooper Ornithological Society, Chicago, Illinois, 12-17 August 2013 (symposium, "The Extended Specimen: Emerging Frontiers in Collections-based Ornithological Research"). [oral, invited]
63. 2013
Jimenez, R., J. Ornelas, and C. CICERO. Blue-tailed Hummingbird might be a hybrid species. Presented by R. Jimenez at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union and Cooper Ornithological Society, Chicago, Illinois, 12-17 August 2013. [oral, student research]
64. 2013
Gowen, F., J. McCormack, and C. CICERO. Genetic structure in Western Scrub-jays. Presented by F. Gowen at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union and Cooper Ornithological Society, Chicago, Illinois, 12-17 August 2013. [poster, student research]
65. 2013
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, M. Koo, D. Bloom, R. Guralnick, J. Wieczorek, and L. Russell. VertNet: Biodiversity Data in the Cloud. Presented by C. Spencer, M. Koo, and D. Bloom at the MVZ Lunch Series in Evolutionary Biology, Berkeley, California, 4 September 2013. [oral]
66. 2014
CICERO, C., C. Fidler, M. Koo, and K. Dodd. Uncovering and integrating archives for multidisciplinary research at the MVZ. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Cardiff, Wales, 22-27 June 2014. [oral, invited]
67. 2014
CICERO, C., L. Olson, J. Cook, M. Koo, D. McDonald, and G. Jarrell. Arctos: A collaborative, cost-efficient solution for managing and publishing biodiversity data in collections of all sizes. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Cardiff, Wales, 22-27 June 2014 (symposium, "Recruiting, Retaining, and Supporting Small Collections in Biodiversity Digitization Initiatives"). [oral, invited]
68. 2014
Schrage, A. and C. CICERO. Geographic and temporal variation in songs of Baeolophus inornatus and B. ridgwayiPresented by S. Walsh at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Estes Park, Colorado, 23-28 September 2014. [oral]
69. 2014
CICERO, C., L. Benedict, C. King, and B. Karin. Cultural evolution in Bell's and Sagebrush Sparrows (Artemisiospiza belli and A. nevadensis): Does song reflect phylogeny and ecology? Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Estes Park, Colorado, 23-28 September 2014. [oral]
70. 2014
Walsh, S., K. Burns, and C. CICERO. Genetic and phenotypic divergence of the Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus) on the California Channel Islands. Presented by S. E. Walsh at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, Cooper Ornithological Society, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, Estes Park, Colorado, 23-28 September 2014. [oral, student research]
71. 2015
King, C., C. CICERO, L. Benedict, and B. Karin. Cultural evolution in Bell's and Sagebrush Sparrows (Artemisiospiza belli and A. nevadensis): Does song reflect phylogeny and ecology? Presented by C. King at the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, West Palm Beach, Florida, 3-7 January 2015. [poster, student research]
72. 2015
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, D. Bloom, M. Koo, R. Guralnick, J. Wieczorek, and L. Russell. VertNet: Advances in Biodiversity Discovery and Data Quality Improvement. Presented by C. Cicero at the Strategies for Vertebrate Digitization Workshop sponsored by the Integrated Digitized Biocollections (iDigBio), Ithaca, New York, 4-7 May 2015. View Workshop Wiki[oral, invited]
73. 2015
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, D. Bloom, M. Koo, R. Guralnick, J. Wieczorek, and L. Russell. VertNet: Advances in Biodiversity Discovery and Data Quality Improvement. Presented by C. Cicero at the annual meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union and Cooper Ornithological Society, Norman, Oklahoma, 28 July-2 August 2015. [oral]
74. 2015
CICERO, C., The value of digitizing bird collections. Webinar presented as part of a series hosted by the Integrated Digitized Biocollections Vertebrate Digitization Interest Group, 29  September 2015. View webinars in this series[oral, invited]
75. 2016
Benedict, L., C. CICERO, C. King, J. McEntee, and R. Bowie. Birdsong variation in relation to genetics and morphology across a hybrid zone. Presented by L. Benedict at the Winter Animal Behavior Conference, Winter Park, Colorado, 30 January-3 February 2016. [oral]
76. 2016
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, and C. Conroy. What to transcribe and database? Fully populated vs skeletal records. Presented by C. Cicero at Vertebrate Digitization Workshop Two sponsored by the Integrated Digitized Biocollections, Berkeley, California, 4-6 April 2016. View Workshop Wiki[oral, invited]
77. 2016
McDonald, D. and C. CICERO. Data migration from Excel: A brief introduction to Arctos. Presented by D. McDonald at the Vertebrate Digitization Workshop Two sponsored by the Integrated Digitized Biocollections, Berkeley, Caliornia, 4-6 April 2016. View Workshop Wiki[oral, invited]
78. 2016
CICERO, C. The voucher nexus: Linking isotope data to museum specimens. Presented at the IsoBank Workshop, Sevilleta Field Station, New Mexico, 22-23 April 2016. [oral, invited]
79. 2016
Hiller, A., C. CICERO, M. Albe, T. Barclay, C. Spencer, M. Koo, R. Bowie, and E. Lacey. Mutualism in museums: A 10-year retrospective on the MVZ Undergraduate Program. Presented by A. Hiller at the North American Ornithological Conference, Washington, D. C., 16-20 August 2016 (co-organized symposium and roundtable discussion, "Integrating Natural History Collections into Undergraduate Education"). [oral, invited, student research]
80. 2016
CICERO, C. Arctos: A collaborative, cost-efficient solution for managing and publishing biodiversity data. Presented at the North American Ornithological Conference, Washington, D. C., 16-20 August 2016 (co-organized symposium and roundtable discussion, "Issues in Collections Management and Museum Science)[oral, invited]
81. 2016
CICERO, C., C. Spencer, D. Bloom, M. Koo, R. Guralnick, J. Wieczorek, and L. Russell. VertNet: Advances in Biodiversity Discovery and Data Quality Improvement. Presented at the North American Ornithological Conference, Washington, D. C., 16-20 August 2016 (co-organized symposium and roundtable discussion, "Issues in Collections Management and Museum Science). [oral, invited]