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Brain-based user interface

 Brain-based user interface
 (1) Real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) method for Brain Machine/Computer Interface (BMI/BCI)
 The rtfMRI method can be utilized to neurofeedback, in which the subject can self-regulate his or her own brain functions based on the visual or auditory feedback. e.g. Real-time control of "toy" robotic arm movement via the rtfMRI based neurofeedback method (Lee et al., NSL, 2009)


rtfMRI software toolbox                                                                Robotic-arm movement via the rtfMRI method

(2) rtfMRI-based neurofeedback for enhancement of funtional attention networks
Investigation of the efficacy of a rtfMRI-based neurofeedback method for the modulation of the effective connectivity of causality between attention-related neuronal activities. e.g. Real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback reinforces causality of attention networks (Lee et al., NSR, 2012)


Schematic of the experimental design                                    Causality analysis results based on the EC in the whole brain

(3) Real-time fMRI-based Neurofeedback and its application to cigarette craving modulation
Real-time fMRI neurofeedback was successfully applied to reduce cigarette craving by employing a novel functional connectivity based neurofeedback method (Kim et al., JoCN, 2015).


Overall experimental paradigm