This article was targeted for Wikipedia.org, to fill out the Paxos entry. It is a survey of Paxos results, specifically hilighting the more advanced versions of the protocol. I chose to survey Lamports work almost exclusively, but added several references to other researcher's results for further reading.
Paxos Family of Consensus Protocols [PDF]
Wikipedia.org: Paxos Algorithm
To see this algorithm set in a larger context, see The State Machine Approach.